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II Fireworks Transportation & Handling Safety TRAINING PROGRAM INTRODUCTION Fireworks are energetic materials, and release energy when they ignite. It is therefore very important that everyone involved in the transportation, handling, and storage of fireworks be aware of the rules and regulations designed to make the industry safe for employees as well as the general public. Statistics gathered by the of Transportation (DOT) show that human error is responsible for most of the transportation accidents involving hazardous materials. Training is therefore the first step in reducing the number of accidents. Safe work practices, and following aU established safety rules, is the second step in implementing an overall safety program. . This training program will cover general fireworks safety rules as well as DOT regulations dealing with the transportation of hazardous materials. Under the DOT regulations, all types of fireworks, as well as many of the chemicals used to produce them, are classed as hazardous materials. This program will cover the proper way to prepare fireworks for transportation, some of the specific regulations governing the transportation of fireworks, and emergency response information in the event of a spill or fire involving fireworks. Safety hazards associated with the fireworks handled at your company, as well as any chemicals used to manufacture fireworks or chemicals used to seal boxes, clean floors, and operate office equipment, are covered by Material Safety Data Sheets, (MSDSs). Your company should keep these on file. Employees have the right to read and study MSDSs to learn about the chemicals used by the company. Your. supervisor will tell you exactly where you can find them. Another training session will cover MSDSs and hazard awareness in more detail. This program will concentrate on transportation, handling, and storage safety. CLASSIFICATION AND APPROVAL All fireworks shipped anywhere in the United States must first be officially approved as safe to transport by DOT. As part of this approval process, each fireworks item is assigned a unique, 7-digit EX number. A key part of this approval process is a thermal stability test, which demonstrates that the fireworks will not spontaneously ignite, even under very hot storage conditions, in a warehouse, shipping container, or truck. Fireworks that have not been approved by DOT are forbidden for transportation. EX numbers for fireworks items must appear either on the shipping cartons or on the shipping papers. CATEGORIES OF FIREWORKS Under the DOT approval system, fireworks are placed in one of two categories, depending on the size of the fireworks item and the a;mount of powder it contains. Small devices intended for use by individuals in their backyards or at neighborhood displays are classified as explosives lAG and known as consumer fireworks or Fireworks UN0336. Larger fireworks used in public displays where a trained operator is in charge are classified as explosives 1.1 G or 1.3G and known as display fireworks and Fireworks UN0333 (l.IG) or Fireworks UN0335 (1.3G). MARKING ON SHIPPING CARTONS Each shipping carton (package) containing a hazardous material must be marked and labeled to indicate the type of fireworks or other hazardous material (such as a chemical) contained inside the package. This is part of the process known as Hazard Communication. Each carton of fireworks must have an orange, diamond-shaped label (approx. 4 I x4") pasted or printed on the box and read 1.1 G, 1. 3G, or l.4G. The use of the word Explosive on the label is optional. 3 /: .... -_---------------

Fireworks Transportation & Handling Safety … · II Fireworks Transportation & Handling Safety TRAINING PROGRAM INTRODUCTION Fireworks are energetic materials, and release energy

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Page 1: Fireworks Transportation & Handling Safety … · II Fireworks Transportation & Handling Safety TRAINING PROGRAM INTRODUCTION Fireworks are energetic materials, and release energy

II

Fireworks Transportation & Handling Safety

TRAINING PROGRAM

INTRODUCTIONFireworks are energetic materials, and release energy when they ignite. It is therefore very importantthat everyone involved in the transportation, handling, and storage of fireworks be aware of the rulesand regulations designed to make the industry safe for employees as well as the general public.

Statistics gathered by the U.s.;:,p~partment of Transportation (DOT) show that human error isresponsible for most of the transportation accidents involving hazardous materials. Training is thereforethe first step in reducing the number of accidents. Safe work practices, and following aU establishedsafety rules, is the second step in implementing an overall safety program. .

This training program will cover general fireworks safety rules as well as DOT regulations dealing withthe transportation of hazardous materials. Under the DOT regulations, all types of fireworks, as well asmany of the chemicals used to produce them, are classed as hazardous materials.

This program will cover the proper way to prepare fireworks for transportation, some of the specificregulations governing the transportation of fireworks, and emergency response information in the eventof a spill or fire involving fireworks.

Safety hazards associated with the fireworks handled at your company, as well as any chemicals used tomanufacture fireworks or chemicals used to seal boxes, clean floors, and operate office equipment, arecovered by Material Safety Data Sheets, (MSDSs). Your company should keep these on file. Employeeshave the right to read and study MSDSs to learn about the chemicals used by the company. Your.supervisor will tell you exactly where you can find them. Another training session will cover MSDSsand hazard awareness in more detail. This program will concentrate on transportation, handling, andstorage safety.

CLASSIFICATION AND APPROVALAll fireworks shipped anywhere in the United States must first be officially approved as safe to transportby DOT. As part of this approval process, each fireworks item is assigned a unique, 7-digit EX number.A key part of this approval process is a thermal stability test, which demonstrates that the fireworks willnot spontaneously ignite, even under very hot storage conditions, in a warehouse, shipping container, ortruck.

Fireworks that have not been approved by DOT are forbidden for transportation. EX numbers forfireworks items must appear either on the shipping cartons or on the shipping papers.

CATEGORIES OF FIREWORKSUnder the DOT approval system, fireworks are placed in one of two categories, depending on the size ofthe fireworks item and the a;mount of powder it contains. Small devices intended for use by individualsin their backyards or at neighborhood displays are classified as explosives lAG and known as consumerfireworks or Fireworks UN0336. Larger fireworks used in public displays where a trained operator is incharge are classified as explosives 1.1 G or 1.3G and known as display fireworks and Fireworks UN0333(l.IG) or Fireworks UN0335 (1.3G).

MARKING ON SHIPPING CARTONSEach shipping carton (package) containing a hazardous material must be marked and labeled to indicatethe type of fireworks or other hazardous material (such as a chemical) contained inside the package.This is part of the process known as Hazard Communication.

Each carton of fireworks must have an orange, diamond-shaped label (approx. 4 I x4") pasted or printedon the box and read 1.1 G, 1. 3G, or l.4G. The use of the word Explosive on the label is optional.

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Required Labels:

Consumer FireworksWordslNumbers: 104 GWord "Explosive" is optionalNo burst graphic at top of label

Display FireworksWordslNumbers: l.l G or 1.3 GWord "Explosive" is optionalBurst graphic at top oflilbeJ

* -.

1 /:The "*" must be replacedwith the appropriatecompatibiiity group.

The "**"must be replaced with theappropriate division number andcompatibility group.

The fireworks cartons must also be marked with the proper shipping name of the contents, and thismust appear near the label (on the same panel of the box, if space permits).

Required Marking:

Consumer Fireworks (lAG)

Fireworks UN0336Handle CarefullyKeep Fire Away

Display Fireworks (1.IG)

Fireworks UN0333Handle CarefullyKeep Fire Away

Display Fireworks (I.3G)

Fireworks UN0335Handle CarefullyKeep Fire Away

Note: Use of the terms Handle Carefully & Keep Fire Away on shipping cartons is optional under theDOT system.

VEHICLE AND CONTAINER PLACARDSIn addition to small 4" x 4" labels on the individual shipping cartons, vehicles and shipping containerstransporting fireworks normally require placards on both sides and both ends of the exterior of thevehicle or carton (Total = 4 placards per vehicle). For fireworks, placards are required for:

• Consumer or 1. 4G fireworksPlacards must be on ahy vehicle transporting more than 1,000 pounds (gross weight) of fireworks.Placards are not required on vehicles transporting less than 1,000 pounds of lAG fireworks.

• Display or 1.lG/13G fireworksAny commercial vehicle in commerce transporting ill})': quantity of 1.1 G or 1.3G fireworks, evenone display shell, must be placarded. (You must use the higher classification placard whenshipping multiple classifications.) The highest being 1.1 G, then I.3G, and finally lAG.

The DOT placards required to meet United Nations (UN) specifications as follows:

Consumer FireworksWordslNumbers: lAG, Explosive is optionalColor: OrangeNo burst graphic at top of placard

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Display FireworksWordslNumbers: 1.1 G or I.3G, Explosive is optionalColor: OrangeBurst graphic at top of placard

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The shipper of the fireworks must supply placards for all fireworks shipments on commercial vehicles..

Consumer Fireworks Display fireworks

The ".. shall bereplaced, whenrequired, with theappropn'atecompatibility groupletter.

The ".. shall be replacedwith the appropriatedivision number and,when required,compatibility group letter.

Note: Fireworks sold at retail, for noncommercial use, are not subject to either the carton labelor vehicle placard requirements.

CONSTRUCTION OF SHIPPING CARTONSCartons used for the transportation of fireworks in commerce (meaning any shipment other than a retailpickup by the individual consumer) must be tested and certified to comply with DOT requirements thatinsure that the box is strong enough to contain the fireworks, even under rough conditions. Only boxesspecificalIy ordered, and tested, for use in shipping fireworks may be used. These cartons can beidentified by a special UN mark on each box.

There will be a maximum authorized gross weight marked on the box, as part of the first line of thecertification mark. The box must not contain more than this tested gross weight. The marked weight is aweight in kilograms; multiply by 2.2 to get the maximum authorized gross weight in pounds. Forexample, 30 kg x 2.2 = 66 pounds.

LOADING AND UNLOADING OF VEIDCLES AND CONTAINERSThere are a number of requirements associated with loading and unloading a shipment of fireworks.These include:

• No smoking or open flame may be present while loading or unloading. Smoking materials,matches, and lighters are forbidden in a fireworks factory or warehouse, except in designatedbreak areas.

• The vehicle handbrake must be set while loading and unloading,• Containers (cartons) must be braced or secured in the truck or container to prevent motion while

in transit.• The engine must not be running during loading and unloading.• No bale hooks or other metal tools shall be used to load/unload explosives.• Boxes may not be thrown or dropped. Be especially careful whenever packages contain

fireworks with attached igniters.• Vehicles must not contain any sharp projections in the cargo area that could damage packages of

explosives.• Vehicles transporting 1.1G or 1.3G explosives (display fireworks) must have tight floors, and that

portion of the cargo area in contact with the load must be lined with non-metal or non-ferrousmetal.

• No other part of the load shall be likely to damage the fireworks.

TESTING OF FIREWORKSTesting of fireworks is necessary to assure quality control, but it shall only be performed in an areaspecifically set aside for that purpose, and shall only be performed by designated personnel. Fireworksmust never be ignited near any stored fireworks.

RULES FOR STORAGE AND MANUFACTURING BUILDINGSExitsAll buildings used for the storage, assembly, or manufacturing of fireworks must have exits that openoutward, are readily available to persons inside the building, and are clearly marked EXIT. Routes tothese exits from inside the building shall not be obstructed. No exposed flames are permitted in anybuilding or area where fireworks, fireworks components, or flammable liquids are present.

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Building Occupancy Limits 'C-o

Buildings used for the manufacture and assembly of any fireworks must have a sign indicating themaximum numbers of occupants permitted in the building at any time. This limit shall be strictlyadhered to.

HousekeepingAll buildings containing tireworksor fireworks components shali' be. kept clean, orderly., and free of

. significant accumulations of rubbish, flammable material, and pyrotechnic dust. Any 'spills shaH beimmediately cleaned up. All fireworks waste must be disposed of in accordance with company policyand not placed with other trash and garbage. Work clothing shall be washed frequently to prevent theaccumulation of fireworks powders that could be a safety hazard. Contaminated clothing shall not beworn into any designated smoking area and shall not be worn outside the fireworks facility.Repairs to Buildings

If repairs need to be made to any building used for the storage, assembly, or manufacturing of fireworks,and if there is any possibility that the repair could lead to a flame, spark, or fire that could ignitematerial inside the building~ all fireworks must be rem.oved to a safe ,location before the repair workbegins,Cleanup of Fireworks Spills

If fireworks are dropped or spilled on the grouild, perhaps by someone dropping a carton that was notyet sealed, but they do not break open and no loose powder is present, it is geneiallysafe to cautiouslypick up the spilled fireworks and place them in a DOT fiberboard carton. They can then be removed toan appropriate storage area or the carton can be sealed and the fireworks placed onattuck and removedto a safe area.

There shall be no smoking in the vicinity of any spi lIed fireworks. If. the spill occurs on a highway or ina public area, ask the responding police to keep all unauthorized persons away from the scene.

Loose Fireworks Powder & Fireworks WasteHeat, flame, impact, friction, or static electricity can readily ignite many types of loose fireworkspowder. Strict safety precautions must be followed any time that loose powder is present. No sparkingmetal should be present near loose powder. 100% Cotton clothing should be worn to minimize the riskof static sparks being produced (nylon and synthetic fiber clothing is particularly hazardous).

Any spilled powder, or any fireworks powder that becomes exposed from damaged fireworks, should becarefully cleaned up using a soft, natural fiber brush and dustpan. A special waste container (markedFireworks Waste) should be used for all spilled powder, contaminated paper, and damaged items. Yoursupervisor will provide information on the proper disposal of this waste material.

EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND ACTIONA fire or explosion can have serious consequences at a fireworks manufacturing plant or warehouse, orif a vehicle transporting fireworks is involved in an accident. Therefore, knowledge of the appropriateemergency action to be immediately taken by all employees in the event of an incident is very important.

In the event of fire or explosion at a fireworks manufacturing plant, employees are instructed toimmediately evacuate the site. Never attempt to fight a fire that has reached buildings used formanufacturing.

Consumer fireworks contain limited amounts of powder per item, and a fire involving sealed shippingcartons of consumer fireworks will burn for an extended time, as the fire spreads through the unburnedcartons. Individual items will ignite and burn, and the fire may get quite intense, but large-scale testingby the government and fireworks industry has shown that there should not be a mass explosion.

In the event of a fire, all employees must retreat to a safe distance, and the fire service should be called.Efforts should be directed primarily at preventing the spread of the fire, although a fire involving onlyconsumer fireworks can normaJly be extinguished by water deluge, if necessary for safety. Peopleshould avoid breathing the smoke from a fireworks fire, just as they should avoid breathing @V smoke,but the smoke should not pose any unusual health hazard. All unnecessary people must be kept awayfrom the fire area.

A fire involving display fireworks is very serious and poses a risk of a mass explosion. The area must be

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immediately evacuated. Do not attempt to fight the fire, or wait to see what happens. Employees will beinstructed as to what the emergency signal is. If that signal sounds,evacuate immediately and go to thedesignated meeting area outside the plant/warehouse area. Once safely away, dial 911 if fire and rescuepersonnel are not already responding to the incident.

. . -.

Refer to the enclosed Emergency Response sheets for additional details.

SPECIFIC DRIVER REQUIREMENTS• Each driver of a placarded vehicle must have a CDL plus a Hazardous Materials Endorsement to go

with the license.• Drivers must be at least 21 years of age, read and speak English,and be physically qualified to

drive. Alcohol and drug testing of all drivers is required.• The driver must be satisfied that the vehicle and necessary parts and accessories are in good

working order. This includes .the brakes, hom, steering, hand brake, lights, tires, windshield wipers,rear-view mirrors, and reflectors.

• Placarded vehicles containing fireworks must stop and look at all railroad crossings, unless aflagman, police officer, or green traffic light indicates that it is safe to proceed without stopping.

• There are a number of additional, specific rules regarding stopping on highways, parking andguarding placarded vehicles, and the number of hours that drivers may work in a given time period.All employees who drive placarded vehicles must refer to the manual containing specific driver'srules for these additional requirements.

SECURITY TRAININGAs part of hazmat training, all employees are made aware of the company's security program, and allemployees are trained in the procedures and practices used by the company to maintain a secure facility.Obviously, the type and level of security that is necessary will depend on the type of activities and thetype of materials handled by a given company. Manufactures and companies that handle 1.1 G and 1.3Gproducts will require a greater level of security than companies that merely import or distribute lAGconsumer fireworks.

A security assessment must be conducted by each company. This should address such things as access tothe facility (are locking gates used), and is access to storage buildings controlled (are they normallylocked). Employees should be thoroughly trained to be on the lookout for any unauthorized persons on .company premises. Companies should have some type of sign-in procedures for visitors, and all visitorsshould be escorted while on company grounds.

DOT Security Training for employees must include the following topics:

I. Company security objectives2. Specific security procedures3. Employee responsibilities4. Actions to take in the event of a breach of security5. Company security structure

SUMMARYSafety must be the foremost concern of everyone working in the fireworks industry. By knowing thehazards associated with fireworks, and by being aware of the safetY precautions and rules necessary tocreate the safest possible work environment, we can continue to light up America's sk.ies with fireworksfor many years to come.

ADDITIONAL RULES FOR THE COMPANY DOT SPECIALISTGeneral Hazmat InformationIn general, you use the Hazardous Materials Table, found in Title 49 CFR, § In.l01, to obtain generalinformation on the shipping requirements for a given hazardous material such as fireworks. In this table,you find the proper shipping name, UN number, label to use, packing group needed to determine therequirements for the shipping carton, and any restrictions for air or water shipment. While you willnormally be shipping one commodity, fireworks, it is good to know that this table can be found in49CFR if you ever need to ship fireworks chemicals, solvents, or other hazardous materials.

Shipping Papers (49 CFR, § 172 .200-204 and 177.817)A shipping paper must accompany the shipment of all fireworks, and the shipping paper must contain

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specified information. Hazardous materials must be .listed £Irst, printed in a cOlltr3$ting color fromlistings ofnon-hazardous materials, or marked with an X in a column with the -headingHM forhazardous material. Entries on shipping papers must belegible~ printed in English (either by manual ormechanical means). Abbreviations of the shipping description may not be used.

The shipping paper must be accessible in the motor vehicle. Entries of fireworks on the shipping paper. must give the proper shipping name, the hazard class, and the total quimtityin the vehicie (bYweight or

by volume, such as the number of pounds or kilograms). Shipping papers must also use the UN Systemto describe the fireworks being transported. Under the UN System, the UN Number and the packinggroup (PG) for the material must be given on the shipping paper. Here, the shipping paper descriptionsshould be:

Fireworks, lAG, UN0336, PG II, X pounds (or kilograms)

Fireworks, 1.lG, UN0333, PG II, Xpounds (or kilograms)

Fireworks, 1.3G, UN0335, PO II, X pounds (of kilograms)

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