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  • Fingerprint Challenges Annotated Bibliography 2017 New York State Defenders Association

    By Ken Strutin

    July 31, 2017

    CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................1

    FEDERAL CASES .....................................................................................................................2 STATE CASES...........................................................................................................................7

    BOOKS ......................................................................................................................................9 BOOK CHAPTERS .................................................................................................................. 11

    REPORTS, GUIDES, and MANUALS ..................................................................................... 12 SCHOLARLY and PRACTICE ARTICLES ............................................................................. 16

    AMERICAN LAW REPORTS ................................................................................................. 41 BIBLIOGRAPHIES .................................................................................................................. 43

    RESOURCES ........................................................................................................................... 44 NY FEDERAL CASES ............................................................................................................. 50

    NY STATE CASES .................................................................................................................. 54 NY RESOURCES ..................................................................................................................... 59

    INTRODUCTION

    Developments in courtrooms, academia and government institutions are laying the groundwork

    for defense challenges to fingerprint matches.1 Most noteworthy are the Inspector General's

    Report in the Brandon Mayfield case;2 the Massachusetts Supreme Court decision in Patterson;3

    a flurry of expert, scholarly and judicial criticism;4 the exhortations of Strengthening Forensic

    Science5 in 2009 and the PCAST6 report in 2016 and other reports;7 and the exposition of

    1 See Simon A. Cole, Grandfathering Evidence: Fingerprint Admissibility Rulings from Jennings to Llera Plaza and

    Back Again, 41 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 1189 (2004) (discussing the problems of validating forensic methods with

    history and judicial acceptance rather than scientific inquiry); Tamara Francita Lawson, Can Fingerprints Lie?: Re-

    weighing Fingerprint Evidence in Criminal Jury Trials, 31 Am. J. Crim. L. 1 (2003) (discussing fingerprint science,

    misidentification and examiner error); Lisa J. Steele, Defense Challenge to Fingerprints, 40 Crim. L. Bull. 213

    (2004) (discussing (1) recovered evidence; (2) the expert witness; (3) the science of fingerprint identification; (4)

    methodology used in case on trial; (5) the expert's opinion; and (6) legitimate access). See generally Chp 16 Fingerprints in Scientific Evidence (Lexis-Nexis 2016). 2 See Review of the FBI's Handling of the Brandon Mayfield Case (OIG 2006). 3 See Commonwealth v. Patterson, 445 Mass. 626, 840 N.E.2d 12 (Mass. Sup. Jud. Ct. 2005). 4 See, e.g., Hon. Alex Kozinski, Preface—Criminal Law 2.0, 44 Geo. L.J. Ann. Rev. Crim. Proc. iii (2015)

    ("Fingerprint evidence is foolproof. Not so. Identifying prints that are taken by police using fingerprinting

    equipment and proper technique may be a relatively simple process, but latent prints left in the field are often

    smudged and incomplete, and the identification process becomes more art than science. When tested by rigorous

    scientific methods, fingerprint examiners turn out to have a significant error rate." Id. at iv). See generally Sue

    Russell, Why Fingerprints Aren't the Proof We Thought They Were, Pacific Std., Sept. 20, 2012. 5 See Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (NAS 2009). See also Jacqueline

    McMurtrie, Swirls and Whorls: Litigating Post-Conviction Claims of Fingerprint Misidentification After the NAS

    Report, 2010 Utah L. Rev. 267. See generally Ken Strutin, Strengthening Forensic Science: The Next Wave of Scholarship, LLRX, Nov. 23, 2009. 6 See Report on Forensic Science in Criminal Courts: Ensuring Scientific Validity of Feature-Comparison Methods

    (PCAST 2016). See generally Ken Strutin, President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Casts Doubt

    on Criminal Forensics, LLRX, Mar. 19, 2017. 7 See, e.g., Fingerprint Inquiry Report (Scotland 2011) (Discussing limits on conclusions offered by fingerprint

    examiners in court: 38.13. "The ability of any examiner to ‘individualise’ without the potential for any error at the

    https://oig.justice.gov/special/s0601/final.pdf https://oig.justice.gov/special/s0601/final.pdf http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?q=Commonwealth+v.+Patterson,+445+Mass.+626&hl=en&as_sdt=6,33&case=3290560637726127308&scilh=0 https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/228091.pdf https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/228091.pdf https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/PCAST/pcast_forensic_science_report_final.pdf https://litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&doctype=cite&docid=41+Am.+Crim.+L.+Rev.+1189&key=0d700c4d42eea71b51300448e1dae731 https://litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&doctype=cite&docid=41+Am.+Crim.+L.+Rev.+1189&key=0d700c4d42eea71b51300448e1dae731 https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1427959 https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1427959 http://www.rmdiai.org/pdf/Library/DefenseChallengeToFingerprints.pdf https://oig.justice.gov/special/s0601/final.pdf http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?q=Commonwealth+v.+Patterson,+445+Mass.+626&hl=en&as_sdt=6,33&case=3290560637726127308&scilh=0 https://georgetownlawjournal.org/assets/kozinski-arcp-preface-9a990f08f3f006558eaa03ccc440d3078f5899b3426ec47aaedb89c606caeae7.pdf https://psmag.com/news/why-fingerprints-arent-proof-47079 https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/228091.pdf https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2405096 https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2405096 https://www.llrx.com/2009/11/strengthening-forensic-science-the-next-wave-of-scholarship/ https://www.llrx.com/2009/11/strengthening-forensic-science-the-next-wave-of-scholarship/ https://www.obamawhitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ostp/pcast/docsreports https://www.llrx.com/2017/03/report-presidents-council-of-advisors-on-science-and-technology-casts-doubt-on-criminal-forensics/ https://www.llrx.com/2017/03/report-presidents-council-of-advisors-on-science-and-technology-casts-doubt-on-criminal-forensics/ https://www.webarchive.org.uk/wayback/archive/20150428160012/http:/www.thefingerprintinquiryscotland.org.uk/inquiry/21.html

  • Fingerprint Challenges Annotated Bibliography 2017

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    July 31, 2017

    fingerprint exonerations.8 This collection of materials highlights key opinions,9 significant

    articles and online resources concerning accuracy, reliability, and validity10 as well as

    authenticity of fingerprint evidence.11 It also includes information on scientific and technological

    developments pushing the frontiers of biometric analysis.12

    FEDERAL CASES

    Canen v. Chapman, 847 F.3d 407, 408-409 (7th Cir. 2017)13

    "Lana Canen was convicted of felony murder on August 10, 2005 in Indiana state court. Over

    claimed level of one person in the whole of human history is not scientifically validated. Fingerprint examiners do

    not presently base their conclusions on validated statistics of the incidence of variation in friction ridge details in the

    population. Their opinions on ‘sufficiency’ are derived from personal assessments founded in training and personal experience. The second proposition is, accordingly, one that cannot be substantiated." Id. at 683 (footnote omitted)). 8 See Simon A. Cole, Prevalence and Potential Causes of Wrongful Conviction by Fingerprint Evidence, 37 Golden

    Gate U. L. Rev. 39 (2006); Simon A. Cole, More Than Zero: Accounting for Error in Latent Fingerprint

    Identification, 95 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 985 (2005). See also Cases May Be Jeopardized After Orange County

    Fingerprint Analyst Accused of Mishandling Evidence, WFTV, Feb. 8, 2017 ("An Orange County [Florida] Sheriff's

    Office fingerprint analyst is off the job and under investigation after being accused of mishandling evidence, clerical

    errors, failure to identify prints and mislabeling of print cards. Because of the accusations, thousands of criminal

    cases are under the microscope. Defense attorneys will have to review more than 2,600 cases with ties to the

    analyst."); Rene Stutzman, Public Defender Reviewing 1,675 Cases Amid Fingerprint Investigation, Orlando

    Sentinel, Feb. 8, 2017. 9 See generally "Court of Appeals Decisions; District Court Decisions; State Court Decisions" in 2-16 Scientific

    Evidence § 16.10 n. 361 (Lexis-Nexis 2016) (collection of cases); Reviewing Challenge to the Admissibility of Expert Fingerprint Testimony, Fed. Evid

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