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Slide 1 GRID INTERACTIVE SPV POWER GENERATION AND CONTROL USING MATLAB/SIMULINKPresented By: Vikas Deep JuyalM. Tech. Final YearID No. 47046(Dr. Sudha Arora)AdvisorProfessor and Head -EED(Dr. Ravi Saxena)MemberAssociate Professor- EED(Prof. Abhishek Yadav)MemberAssociate Professor- EED1OutlineINTRODUCTIONOBJECTIVE OF THE THESISREVIEW OF LITERATUREIDENTIFYING RESEARCH GAPSMATERIAL AND METHODSRESULT & DISCUSSION CONCLUSION FUTURE SCOPERESEARCH PAPER BASED ON THESISLITERATURE CITED210/13/2016 11:11:08 AMIntroductionIndia- improved living standards, grown population :- increased energy demand.Economical and environmental impact of fossil fuels :- investigate sustainable solutions.Hence :- Focus on green and clean renewable energy.High voltage and high power grid connected systems are more efficient in the field of power electronics.Role of Renewable EnergySolve sustainability problems occurred with traditional fuels.Relatively more clean , pollution free and non- exhaustible.Effective in reducing carbon footprints.Reliable off-grid energy solution :- useful for remote locations.10/13/2016 11:24:14 AM3Introduction (Cont..)Motivation and BackgroundIndia is ranked number one in terms of solar electricity production per watt installed, with an insolation of 1700 to 2500 kilowatt hours per kilowatt peak (kWh/KWp).Solar power in India is a fast developing industry, with a cumulative installed grid connected solar power capacity of 8,062 MW (8 GW) as of 31 July 2016.In January 2015 the Indian government significantly expanded its solar plans, targeting US$100 billion of investment and 100 GW of solar capacity (including 40 GW from rooftop solar) by 2022.10/13/2016 11:27:11 AM4Introduction (Cont..)10/13/2016 11:27:14 AM5Growth of Solar Power in India ( (Cont..)Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) SystemGenerates power from abundantly available sunlight, without any pollution.Made of PV arrays, which in turn are made up of panels which are made of PV cells.10/13/2016 11:27:57 AM6Photovoltaic effect and PV system ( (Cont..)Classification of Photo-Voltaic (PV) systemPV system can be classified mainly into two categories: Grid-connected PV system and ,Standalone PV system. Grid-connected PV systemPreferred over standalone system due to efficient operation.The power electronic devices such as DC-DC converters and DC-AC inverters are used as an interface between them.Regardless of the interface configuration, the correct flow of energy from the generator to the grid or vice-versa must be guaranteed. 10/13/2016 11:28:18 AM7Introduction (Cont..)Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)The output characteristics of solar photovoltaic power generation system, appear to be non-linear due to various external conditions like light intensity, temperature and load characteristics and their dependent parameters.'Maximum Power Point' (MPP) must be tracked.ConvertersA DC to DC conversion stage is usually used to realize the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for solar photovoltaic (SPV) applications, or bidirectional power flow control for energy storage application.The DC to AC conversion stage is used to control the power and current injected into utility grid.10/13/2016 11:29:16 AM88Introduction (Cont..)Multi-Level Inverter (MLI)Achieve high power ratings than traditional two level inverter.Advantage of enabling the inter-connection of renewable energy sources like solar/wind, and hence improve the energy utilization of the system. Provide less distorted and nearly sinusoidal voltage.Types of Multi-Level Inverter (MLI)Multi-level inverters (MLIs) may be classified into three types. 10/13/2016 11:30:44 AM99Introduction (Cont..)HarmonicsDue to wide range of semiconductor and other non-linear devices, power quality has to be deteriorated; this phenomenon is also termed as harmonic pollution. FiltersSince we know the order of characteristic harmonics, it can be eliminated using passive tuned filters, whereas for elimination of non-characteristic type, we need different filtering scheme. Active Power filters (APF)Wide applications in modern electrical distribution system now for eliminating the harmonics .Also be used to compensate the reactive power requirement of the non-linear loads. Shunt active power filters (SAPF) peruse better dynamic performance and need an accurate control algorithm so that they can provide robust performance. 10/13/2016 11:32:13 AM10Objective of the ThesisThe objective of thesis can be distributed in following parts:To simulate a comparatively real and practical solar photo voltaic module using specified values provided by manufacturer and by calculating several parameters modified on ideal PV.To simulate MPPT algorithms along with boost converter & controller.To make simulation models of multi-level inverters including Diode-clamped and Cascaded H-bridge voltage source inverter (VSI) and their control mechanism.Design of a three phase non-linear load.Design of 3 phase-3 wire shunt active power filter using the principle of instantaneous active and reactive power (p-q) theory.Analysis of harmonics at point of common coupling.1110/13/2016 11:33:54 AMLiterature Review(Sahoo 2016):- has conferred about the trends of increasing demand which is supposed to boost further worldwide following the present scenario. The paper reveals the detailed information about the capacity of solar energy in India, opportunity and challenges towards solar energy. Development in a specific program cant be done without government support which is generous towards solar energy. The paper also discussed the recent trends which have been followed in solar PV progress in India.(Dawn et al. 2016):- have presented a research paper on current advances of solar energy in India with a thorough study. The paper further discussed the global power scenario as well as of India including the solar resources that are present in India. The paper incorporated the government targets and detailed status of grid connected solar power projects, proposed solar parks, renewable energy certificate (REC) mechanism, energy prices with different energy sources, land requirement for solar power generation, season-wise direct normal irradiance (DNI), capacity utilization factor (CUF) of solar power plant, status of solar module manufacturing companies, energy storage for solar power in India. 1210/13/2016 11:36:18 AMLiterature Review (Cont..)(Eltawil and Zhao 2010):- have stated that intermitted sources like solar PV have created an increment in demand variability and hence present new aspects and challenges to extend the power system flexibility. He mainly focused and investigated on the importance, advantages of grid connected solar photovoltaic (SPV) and characterization of SPV generation. A brief introduction of grid-connected inverters and its controller with harmonic performance is also given.(Sawin et al. 2011):- have presented the Global Status Report 2011 in which he reported that traditional energy resources cause harmful pollution and also fossil fuels stores are decreasing with very fast rate which led towards increment in fuel cost; while renewable energy is abundant, permanent and free of cost. In past decades, there are several serious steps taken for conservation of fossil fuel and renewable energy. He also stated several advantages and adverse effect caused by solar photovoltaic. 10/13/2016 11:36:38 AM13Literature Review (Cont..)(Obi and Bass 2016):-have presented a literature review of the trends and recent developments related to grid connected solar photovoltaic system (GCSPV). He also stated that grid connected solar photovoltaic system help to control greenhouse gas emission by balancing the power since grid-connected SPV has characteristics of bi-directional power flow. Since there are many topologies and configurations have been developed for Grid connected SPV systems, they must fulfill some standards which are required for safe operation and further proliferation of GCSPV. Advantages and challenges caused by GCSPV systems are also been described in detail. Solar PV has inherent nature depending on environmental factors therefore it is necessary to use some controllers like MPP tracker to extract maximum power from the solar PV and hence increase the system efficiency.10/13/2016 11:37:19 AM14Literature Review (Cont..)(Aggarwal, Kapoor, and Tripathi 1997):- have described about the interconnection of arrays in series or in parallel according to requirement of power. Series arrays are used to increase voltage where as parallel connections are used to increase the current ratings for identical power ratings. Practically it can be seen that solar photovoltaic arrays are never identical in nature due to several parameters of materials used (series and shunt resistance) for manufacturing the solar panel. Hence operation of PV may become complicated under different environmental conditions. The nature of dependence of photo-current on shunt/series resistance is different for each array arrangement.(Villalva, Gazoli, & Filho, 2009):- have described the modeling of small commercial PV besides of ideal PV first in Brazilian journal and after modifications , in IEEE journal. Arrays are made up of various solar panels arranged in several configurations. Paper also described the way of combining different panels and resulted modifications in basic equations of solar PV power generation.10/13/2016 11:37:33 AM15Literature Review (Cont..)(Sera, Teodorescu, and Rodriguez 2007): -have presented the single diode model of PV cell with influence of series and parallel resistances with alternative formula for dark saturation current. All basic equations of solar PV model were modeled at standard temperature and conditions (STC) and modified for different temperature and radiation levels. On the basis of these models, actual behavior of the solar PV can be predicted. (Pranith and Bhatti 2015):- had done a detailed study for modeling and extraction of solar module parameters and published a review paper. He described the solar PV modules as a clean and pollution free energy source to fulfill the increasing power demand worldwide. SPV power systems are made up of solar PV arrays, which in turn consists modules and PV cells further. Strong points for need of maximum power tracking and modeling of solar PV panels. Single diode model with methods of parameter extraction is discussed. Merits and demerits of different parameter obtaining technique and ease of their extraction, curve fitting are discussed also.10/13/2016 11:37:47 AM16Literature Review (Cont..)(Hussein 1995):-have studied the dependency of power which could be seen from the I-V curve and the P-V curve. Maximum power point can be seen from the curves or characteristics. There are several techniques in order to maximize the PV output depending on several atmospheric, load conditions and array configurations. Procedure to obtain maximum power point using incremental conductance (InC) and perturb & observe (P&O) algorithm of MPPT was also included in the study.(Qin and Lu 2012):-have discussed InC algorithm and P&O but with variable step size. Thus it makes the algorithm adaptive P&O algorithm. It has been seen that later algorithm was better than the first one. 10/13/2016 11:37:57 AM17Literature Review (Cont..)(Tan, Kirschen, and Jenkins 2004):- have presented a detailed study of a model suitable for SPV power generation. He selected P&O algorithm for MPPT considering the cost factor and simplicity. But he did not emphasize on the grid integration method or any of inverter controlling signal. (Verma, Singh, and Shahani 2012):-have described the MPPT based on fuzzy-logic control which is relatively fast and stable. Boost converter and inverter are used with three phase star-delta transformer for power quality improvement. Icos-control algorithm was used for generating the compensating current of the inverter. In this control method, grid and load currents were sensed and fed back to the controller. Finally the problems related to power factor improvement and neutral current were compensated successfully with low level of harmonics.10/13/2016 11:38:06 AM18Literature Review (Cont..)(Singh, Shahani, and Verma 2015):-have created an algorithm which is modified to generate the compensating signals to control many features of the system. Main feature is to mitigate the current harmonics at the point of common coupling (PCC). A DC to DC boost converter and two-level voltage source converter (VSC) are used for load applied at PCC. Load may be linear or non-linear depending on the system but due to increment in power electronics devices, non linear loads are also increased with exponential rate. Pulse width modulation (PWM) is employed to generate gate signals of voltage source converter (VSC). He stated that poor power quality (PQ) is main problem in grid integration whether by single phase or three phase system. There were many literatures which didnt consider PQ problems but revealing the present scenario, it is necessary to take those into consideration and modify our control algorithm according to our requirement, which is mainly to extract a pure sinusoidal current waveform at PCC. 10/13/2016 11:38:41 AM19Literature Review (Cont..)(Subjak and McQuilkin 1990):- gave a detailed study on harmonics and its causes. Use of drives was increased as the power electronics equipments grew up in the market at industrial level. Static devices were used for DC inversion named rectifier where as for AC inversion inverters. Several effects of harmonics including communication interference, heating and several semiconductor devices malfunctioning effects were also discussed in detail. (Singh, Al-Haddad, and Chandra 1999):-discussed active power filters (APF) in detail. Several limitations of passive filters and increasing harmonic pollution of systems have made APFs; a matured technology. Active power filter (APF) injects harmonic current in the system which would be 1800 phase shifted with load current harmonics and thus compensate the current harmonics. He also presented a detailed view of harmonics in different power system i.e. single phase (two-wire), three-phase (three-wire, four-wire). Different configurations with active series, active shunt filters or combinations has been raised in the market now a days, named active power conditioners (APCs)/(APFs). Various control strategies of different domain with their extraction methods are also discussed which was very helpful for my thesis work. Different control algorithm for generating gating pulses for APF are also discussed which include hysteresis band control technique also.10/13/2016 11:38:42 AM20Literature Review (Cont..)(Akagi, Kanazawa, and Nabae 1984):- have provided a new approach for power factor correction named p-q theory, by providing harmonic reactive power compensation without energy storage elements like Land C, which was not considered before. Thus several harmonics can be eliminated using the modified theory and a unity power factor operation can be obtained, which is one of the fundamental requirement of grid-connected SPV system. Transformations are used in p-q theory to find instantaneous active and reactive power which makes the calculation easier and accurate.(Zeng et al. 2004):- have suggested hysteresis control over ramp comparison algorithm and several advantages like its simplicity, fast response and very good accuracy which are main features of hysteresis current controller (HCC); make it superior for any researcher. Different theories are discussed related to HCC which makes easier to integrate with APF.10/13/2016 11:39:29 AM21Literature Review (Cont..)(Rodrguez, Lai, and Peng 2002):- have presented a detailed survey on multilevel inverter including its types, need, advantages, various control algorithms or modulation methods and their applications. Multilevel inverters mainly use several DC sources to make stepped output waveform from a constant DC. This mechanism of using low rated voltage sources instead of a large voltage source reduces the stress on switches relatively by traditional two-level inverter. Systematic representation is done by the authors to guide for designing APF and its applications in distribution power network including techniques used in various renewable energy applications.(Rech et al. 2002):-have shown that several topologies of multilevel inverters had been developed and matured for medium and high power applications, due to their ability to operate at higher voltage and power levels with limited device ratings and also because the output waveforms presented a reduced harmonic content if compared with the two-level inverter topologies.10/13/2016 11:39:52 AM22Literature Review (Cont..)(Rodrguez et al. 2007):- gave a detailed classification of high power drives and also of multilevel inverters. A thorough comparison between traditional two-level inverter and multi-level inverters (MLIs) is also shown with several advantages and advanced applications of MLI with modern trend of renewable energy. Topologies and modulation methods of all three basic MLI are described in schematic way.(Rasheed et al. 2013):-have selected two types of multilevel inverters named cascaded H-bridge MLI and diode-clamped MLI in his study. These MLIs are mostly used for harmonic reduction on high power applications or in any electrical distribution systems. The study was focused on the performance and analysis of a three phase multilevel inverters including cascaded H-bridge and diode clamp based on SPWM approaches. GTO modules were used to build-up inverter modules.(Panda and Patnaik 2015):-have presented level-wise study of current harmonics is done on cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverters (CHBMLI). Several advantages of higher level MLI are discussed over traditional two-level inverter and lower level MLI are discussed. 10/13/2016 11:40:36 AM23IDENTIFYING RESEARCH GAPS10/13/2016 11:40:40 AM24IDENTIFYING RESEARCH GAPSThe basic problems associated with the grid interfaced SPV power generating system is poor power quality (PQ) in the present day distribution systems because of voltage uctuations, waveform distortion, and poor power factor caused by other connected linear and non-linear loads at point of common coupling (PCC). Modeling of photovoltaic power must be as much close to as of real physical world instead of an ideal solar cell, such that the results of the simulation model and in the real implementation are approximately same.Harmonic distortion depends also upon the type of VSC used. Conventional VSC has greater harmonic distortion than multi-level converters hence multi-level inverters must be used for grid integration. 10/13/2016 11:40:46 AM25Material and Methods (SPV)Characteristics of PV- CellAn ideal solar cell can be equivalently represented by a current source connected in parallel with a diode, as shown in the circuit10/13/2016 11:41:39 AM26Material and Methods (SPV)IV curve for Ideal Solar CellThe equation for the IV curve in the first quadrant is:I=IPV I0 [exp (qV/nkT) 1]Which can also written asI=IPV I0 [exp (qV/nkT)]10/13/2016 11:42:25 AM27Material and Methods (SPV)Inclusion of Parasitic Resistances-10/13/2016 11:42:53 AM2828PV-ModelingThe basic equation of PV modeling is shown below:Where is the thermal voltage which is constant,a- diode ideality factor.At short circuited condition;I=ISC,VOC=0By differentiating the equation with respect to V and rearranging we can write;10/13/2016 11:43:07 AM29Material and Methods (SPV)Material and Methods (SPV)But since RS (0.2)


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