Final Thesis

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Chapter I


Nurses are somewhat described as angels for their clean and white attire from top to toe. Also with those innocent looks, you really cant help but like and trust them so much. But being a nurse is not just about the looks. A true nurse is being measured through his/her knowledge, skills, and attitude. These aspects are very important in order to give the proper care and service to the patients. Nurses are expected to be versatile because they are well trained and exposed to different areas wherein it could only be within the clinical field or outside areas. As of now, we as student nurses are well exposed and trained to different areas, but not only, at the clinical area but also in our own homes, school, and community. However, we must admit that not all nurses or even student nurses are the same. We have different qualities which made us unique. These personalities have particular corresponding behavior which it would respond properly. One personality would never relate to all personalities. For instance, a jock would never hang-out with a nerd because they think nerds are weird. The example implies that human beings with most likely blend with those who have the same traits. But what would happen if you are placed in an area wherein you have to communicate and to understand every individual in the room? Just like nurses, not all have the same characteristics but still theyre able to handle all

these patients. So what really is the appropriate personality of a student nurse must observe in order to have better relationship with patients, as future nurses of our country? This study would most likely to know what personality should a student nurse have in order to build up a relationship with others. The researchers would like to know if the personality of the student nurse could affect their performance. Personality is essential to all human beings; therefore, this is vital in our line of profession for we would handle not only one patient for the rest of our vocation but there would be numerous of them in the future years.

Review of Literature

This chapter deals with literatures and studies that will help the researchers gain insights about the research problem. Various theories and different insights from the books are presented which are essential to the study.

Personality Theories

Chaplin and Krawiec grouped representative theories; the psychoanalytic by Sigmund Freud, Freuds structure of personality center centers on the id, ego and super ego; the factorial by Raymond Cattel, defines personality as that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation. He believed that the trait approach is the most fruitful in describing personality. He

defined traits as characterological or relatively permanent features of personality; the individuality by Gordon Allport, defines personality as the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems (refers to habits, attitudes, and traits) that determine the individual of those behavior and thought. Allport recognized that both bodily and mental factors must be considered in the description and study of personality; the personalistic by Henry Murray, defines personality as the governing organ of the body, an institution, which from birth to death, is ceaselessly engaged in transformative functional operations. He emphasizes an physiological ground of personality (no brain, no personality); the self or ego-integrated as represented by Carl Rogers, the self, person-centered or ego-integrated theory which consist of positive selfregard which refers to attitudes of warmth, respect, liking and acceptance on the part of others toward the self and similar attitudes with regards to ones own experience independent of social transactions with others; and the behavioristic by Burrhus F. Skinner, proposed his theory by describing rules or principles that govern the relationship between stimuli, responses and reinforcements (Fehr, 1983). He assumes that behavior is orderly and that our primary purpose is to control it. (Chaplin and Krawiec, 1979).

Type A and Type B Personalities

A couple of studies were made concerning Personality Type A and Type B. One of these researches were from two American cardiologist, Friedman and Rosenman, according to them Type A individuals will perceive and experience

more stress than Type B individuals. Type A individuals are those who are in a constant and urgent struggle to get a number of things done in the least amount of time, and tend to suffer from coronary heart disease and strokes. Type B individuals, on the other hand, have no driving urge or desire to succeed. Another research made by these two cardiologist was that they described Type A behavior as an action-emotion complex that can be observed in any person who is aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time. In the present analysis, the prevalence and consequences of Type A behavior among nurses working in 8 hospitals in the greater Montreal area of Canada were examined. The prevalence of Type A behavior in a number of subgroups based on sociodemographic variables were examined. Age was the only sociodemographic variable significantly associated with Type A behavior. In terms of consequences, Type A nurses experienced significantly greater job stress, role ambiguity, conflict, overload, and turnover cognition than Type B nurses. Type A nurses showed significantly higher job involvement, effort at job and attendance than Type B nurses. Type A and Type B nurses did not differ significantly on organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and promotion expectations. (Ho, 1995)

Several studies investigating the effects of occupational stress on Type A and Type B personalities have relied on subjective measures of role overload. In an attempt to measure objectively the effects of role overload and underload, students were classified as Type A or B and given assignments with workload

conditions that were underloaded, baseline and overloaded. The results indicated that: 1. contrary to previous research, Type As did not perceive role underload or overload as more stressful than Type Bs, and 2. Type As were less likely than type Bs to feel that their workload was excessive. These findings may indicate that Type As gravitate toward jobs that put them in more stressful situations, and that, rather than being less able to handle stress than Type Bs, they actually seek out more overloaded job situations. (Froggatt, 1987)

Feelings-Nothing More than Feelings

All the emotions have some influence on the way you think, explains Mara Julius, Sc.D., a research scientist at the University of Michigan School of Public Health and a leading researcher on the physical and mental effects of anger. Some-particularly negative emotions like anxiety, anger, or fear- can actually slow your abilities to rationalize, solve problems, and make decisions. Thats because its hard to concentrate when youre feeling of rage or hostility, it overwhelms you. In some people, feeling rage will slow down some aspects of the thinking process. In others, it will completely stop it. You cannot separate your anger from thinking. Not all emotions, however, are destined to rain on your parade. There are a number of studies that suggest that when youre feeling positive, you think more broadly, more creatively, says Margaret S. Clark, Ph.D., a psychologist and researcher at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. You can see more connections than you might normally see and make decisions

more quickly. Why? Nobody has all the answers. It could be because youre feeling more confident in yourself and therefore your abilities, says Dr. Clark. Or it could be that you dont want to spend as much time making decisions because you dont want to ruin the good mood youre in. Not that it takes much to induce these positive feelings. In her tests, people reportedly felt happy after they were given a small bag of candy or a free sample of an item or were shown a short comedy film. As a result, they gave more creative answers to word-association tests or other tasks, she says. Everyone, in some way, has experienced both the positive and negative impact of mood over mind. Think for a moment (no emotion, please) about a time when some no-good blankety-blank cut in front of you in line, stole your parking space, or did some other dirty deed that got under your ski- and into your mind. You were mad. So mad, in fact, that you couldnt even discuss what to make for dinner, let alone do your income tax return-which, of course, you didnt. (And its a good thing, too, because youd probably be in the auditors office right now.) Now think about a time when things were doing great. You were feeling on top of the world-strong, vital, and especially smart. And you acted that way. You felt smart, so you thought smart. Ideas seemed to follow more readily. Decisions were made faster, problems solved more easily. Lifes a little, or even bog, hassles rolled off you like water over a dam. (Julius, 1991)

Statement of the Problem

We conducted this study in order to investigate or differentiate different personality types of BSN 2 students during their clinical performance. Since BSN 2 students are first timers to be exposed in the clinical area and set up, we chose them as subject for this research. The personality type of each student varies on how they manage their task during their first exposure in the clinical area. Their knowledge, skills, and attitudes, as important aspects in the clinical area would also be tested and studied. Specifically, we seek to answer the following questions:

1. What personality would most likely affect the clinical performance of a student nurse? 2. To what extent does