Film Narrative. Elements of Narrative Story and Plot: - Story: (1) Explicitly presented (diegetic) events (2) Implied events - Plot: (1) Explicitly presented

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  • Film Narrative

  • Elements of NarrativeStory and Plot:- Story:(1) Explicitly presented (diegetic) events(2) Implied events- Plot:(1) Explicitly presented (diegetic) events in certain order(2) Non-diegetic material

  • DiegesisDiegesis: The total world of the story Diegetic elements: the events, characters, objects, settings, and soundsNondiegetic elements: things that we see and hear on the screen but that come from outside the world of the story (e.g. background music, titles and credits, voiceover comment from an omniscient narrator)

  • Explicitly presented (diegetic)eventsImplied eventsNon-diegetic materialStoryPlot

  • Order & EventsOrder of Plot events:ChronologicalNon-chronologicalEvents: Hubs and SatellitesHubs: Major events or branching points in the plot structure that force characters to choose b/w or among alternate pathsSatellites: Minor plot events that add texture and complexity to characters and elements but are not essential elements

  • DurationDefinition: length of timeStory duration: amount of time that the implied story takes to occurPlot duration: elapsed time of those events within the story that the film explicitly presents Screen duration: movies running time onscreen

  • Relationships:

    Story and Plot duration: usually stable (plot event duration = story event it implies)Story and Screen durationSummary relationship: screen duration < story durationReal time relationship: screen duration = story durationStretch relationship: screen duration > story durationCinematic time usually Real time

  • Suspense vs SurpriseSurprise: taking unawaresSuspense: anxiety brought on by a partial uncertainty - the end is certain, but the means is uncertain (or sometimes both the results and means known)

  • FrequencyDefinition: Number of times with which a story element recurs in plot Purpose: Symbols and Metaphors?Memory: Flash-backs and slow-motionStream-of-consciousness

  • CharactersTreatment: Beings who like real people have discernible traits, habits, and dispositionsFormal elements that help develop the narrative (stock characters)

  • Types of CharactersComplexity:Flat Characters:one-dimensional one or very few discernible traitspredictable behaviorRound characters: three-dimensionalthree-dimensionalSeveral traits, sometimes contradictoryUnpredictable behavior

  • Types of CharactersRolesMajor characters:ProtagonistAntagonistMinor charactersMarginal characters

  • Determining CharacterTraits, motivations (social, economic, ethnic, racial, religious, emotional, or psychological), actionsDescription by narrator or other charactersStyle by which actors interpretNatural vs. Probable

  • SettingDefinition: time and space in which the story takes place. Not only date, city, or country, but also provides the characters social, education, and cultural backgrounds and other identifying factors vital for understanding them such as what they eat and drinkProvides implicit explanation for actions or traits normally considered eccentric by providing cultural context

  • Point of ViewPhysical point of view: the position or angle from which the camera or a particular narrator or character observes an event or a sceneMental point of view: the perspective taken by a particular narrator or character in a story in seeing and hearing an even or scene, reflecting on an idea, creating a relationship between two or more things, or remembering events or dreamsBeyond camera or the characters

  • Omniscient POVDefinition: camera has complete or unlimited perception of what the cinematographer chooses for it to see (most common), however, it does not mean it has to show everything, editing always leaves out aspects of the story and plot

  • Subjective or Restricted POVDefinition: perceptual, subjective point of view of an individual character.Direct POV: character is in the frame and we see what he or she seesIndirect POV: like Direct POV, but is a result at least two consecutive shots achieved by such editing techniques as eyeline-match cut.Interior Monologue

  • ScopeDefinition: related to duration, setting and POV, it is the overall range, in time and place of the movies story




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