ED 274 449
PS 016 073
Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asiaand the Pacific: Country Studies--India.United Nations Educational, Scientific, and CulturalOrganization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office forEducation in Asia and the Pacific.84166p.; In: "Towards Universalization of PrimaryEducation in Asia and the Pacific: Country Studies";see PS 016 069.UNIPUB, 10033/F, Martin Luther King Jr. Highway,Lanham, MD 20706-4391 (Complete volume $52.50 in U.S.funds).Reports - Descriptive (141)
MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education;Educational Finance; *Educational History;*Educational Planning; *Elementary Education; *EqualEducation; Foreign Countries; Mass Media; *NonformalEducation; Program Descriptions; *SchoolAdministration; Teacher Education*India
ABSTRACTThe five chapters of this publication describe
primary education in India. Chapter 1 reviews the historical .background and structure of elementary education. Major topicsinclude constitutional and legal provisions, the structure ofeducation at school, non-formal education, school administration,planning, curriculum development, teacher training, and communityinvolvement. Chapter. 2 reports on progress and present status relatedto universalization of elementary education. Discussion focuses onuniversalization, progress achieved, primary and middle schoolenrollment, qualitative improvement, curriculum development andrenewal, and expenditure on elementary education. Chapter 3 describesstrategies for universalization of elementary education. Enrollmenttargets are described, measures envisaged and undertaken arereported, and future strategies are discussed. Chapter 4 reportssignificant new developments and programs. Topics addressed includethe non-formal system of learning, development activities incommunity education and participation, comprehensive access toprimary education, action research on universal primary education,education of special groups, primary curriculum renewal, earlychildhood education, utilization of mass media for school education,a rapport-based program of school improvement, and a program forenhancing the competence of teachers. Chapter 5 summarizes gains madeand goals to be achieved. Tables of related data are appended.(RH)
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Points of view or opinions stated in this docu-ment do not necesaarily represent officialOERI position or policy,
Asian Programme of .Educaiional Innovation for Development
-4-4 Towards Universafizationof Primary Education
"PERMISSION TO PEPRODUCE THISMATERIAL IN MICROFICHE ONLYHAS BEEN GRANTED BY
TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCESINFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)."
UNESCO REGIONAL OFFICEFOR EDUCATION IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
This volume is one of a series of National studies of the progressbeing made towards the universalization of primary education under-taken by the following Member States:
Bangladesh Papua New GuineaChina PhilippinesIndia Republic of KoreaIndonesia Socialist Republic of Viet NamNepal Sri LankaPaldstan Thailand
Towards universalization of primary education in Asia and thePacific; country studies India [compiled by] the AsianProgramme of Educational Innovation for Development,Bangkok, Unesco, 1984.
154 p. (Asian Programme of Educational Innovation forDevelopment)
1. EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT INDIA. 2. PRIMARYEDUCATION INDIA. 3. UNIVERSAL EDUCATION PRO-GRAMMES INDIA. 4. EDUCATIONAL INNOVATIONSINDIA. I. Unesco. Regional Office for Education in Asia and thePacific, Bangkok. II. Title. M. Series.
Published by theUnesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific
P.O. Box 1425, General Post OfficeBangkok 10500, Thailand
Printed in Thailand
The designations employed and the presentation of material throughoutthe publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever onthe part of Unesco concerning the legal status of any country, territory, cityor area or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries.
Universalization of primary education (UPE) is ond of the majorpriority goals of countries in the region of Asia and the Pacific. Thedeveloping countries in particular, are now vigorously engaged in theformulation and implementation of policies, plans and programmesaimed at making adequate and suitable opportunities for primaryeducation available as soon as possible for all children and youngpeople.
In 1983, as part of a major project under the Asian Programmeof Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) on the Univer-salization of Education, 12 countries in the region undertook na-tional studies. The national studies were conducted to analyse thestage reached by the countries in UPE, and the problems encoun-tered by them in providing educational opportunities to all childrenat the primary level; to review significant new and current develop-ments in programmes and projects which the countries have under-taken in order to expand and improve primary education; and tocontribute to achieving the target of primary education for all chil-dren. The studies were conducted by national institutes and profes-sional groups under the guidance of high level committees of theMinistries of Education in the respective countries.
On completion of the national studies, a Regional Review Meet-ing was held in November 1983 which undertook an in-depth analy-sis of the methodologies of the national studies and examined theirfindings. The meeting also made suggestions for improving and up-dating the national studies tabled for review.
Following the recommendations of the review meeting, studyteams in the participating countries have revised and updated thenational studies. The present publication is an outcome of the colla-borative and co-operative efforts of the member countries in under-standing the progress made in the universalization of primaryeducation, the nature and extent of problems and issues and theirimplications for achieving UPE in the region before the end of thiscentury.
This series which provides a comparative view of the position ofand progress made in UPE has been published with the view that thecountries in the region, in their bid to step up measures for UPE,will find the information, experiences and conclusions useful inpursuing the goal of 'education for all' with a new vigor by drawingon the experiences of other countries with the same goals andobjectives.
I am In Class I; but I fully understand I and 1 makes 2
CraftworkEarn while you learn
A field tripsuch outdoor educational activities are of immense valuein enriching the children's experiences
Photographs supplied by courtesy ofthe National Council of Educational Research and Training
Chapter One: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ANDSTRUCTURE OF ELEMENTARY EDUCA-TION 1
Intro duction 1
Constitutional and legal provision 4
Structure of school education 8
Organizational set-up for administration ofschool education 9
Non-government administrative machinery 1 7
Organizational set-up for non-formal educa-tion programme 1 7
Planning of elementary education 1 9
Machinery for curriculum development . 2 0
Institutional provision for training of OP-mentary school teachers 23
Community participation in promoting ele-mentary education 26
Chapter Two: PROGRESS ACHIEVED AND PRESENTSTATUS 2 7
Universalization of elementary educatibn. 2 7
Progress achieved in respect of major com-ponents 2 9
Enrolment at the primary and middle stage 46
Universal retention 5 7
Qualitative improvement ....... .t.-
Development and renewal of cutriculi.un....` ,
Expenditure on elementary education . ..83
Chapter Three: STRATEGIES FOR UNIVERSALIZATIONOF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION 87
Strategies envisaged and adopted for univer-salization of elementary education 87
Enrolment targets 89
Measures envisaged and undertaken . 93Future strategy 104
Chapter Four: SIGNIFICANT NEW DEVELOPMENTSAND P ROGRAMME S 106
Non-formal system of learning 106
Development activities in community educa-tion and participation 110Comprehensive access to primary education 112Action-research project on universal primaryeducation 117Education of special groups 119Primary education curriculum renewal ... 122Early childhood education programme .. 126Utilization of mass media for school educa-tion 129Rapport-based programme of school im-provement 134Programme for enhancing the competence ofteachers 136
Chapter Five: RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT 140Retrospect 140Task ahead 141Development of new designs 142
Appendix: Tables 144