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FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTE M 1

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTE M 1. EXTERNAL GENTILIA The vulva refers to those parts that are outwardly visible The vulva includes: Mons pubis Labia

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Page 1: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTE M 1. EXTERNAL GENTILIA  The vulva refers to those parts that are outwardly visible  The vulva includes:  Mons pubis  Labia

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FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTE M

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EXTERNAL GENTILIA

The vulva refers to those parts that are outwardly visible The vulva includes: Mons pubis Labia majora Labia minora Clitoris Bartholin’s glands & Skene’s glands –situated within the

labia minora,function is to secrete mucus during sexual arousal

Urethral opening Vaginal opening Perineum

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FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ANATOMY

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MONS PUBIS

The triangular mound of fatty tissue that covers the pubic bone

It protects the pubic symphysis During adolescence sex hormones

trigger the growth of pubic hair on the mons pubis

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LABIA MAJORA

The Labia Majora: Are covered with hair and sebaceous

glands Become flaccid with age and after

childbirth

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LABIA MINORA

Made up of erectile, connective tissue that swells during sexual arousal

Located inside the labia majora

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8 CLITORIS Highly sensitive organ composed of

nerves, blood vessels, and erectile tissue Located under the prepuce It is made up of a shaft and a glans Becomes engorged with blood during

sexual stimulation

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PERINEUM

The muscle and tissue located between the vaginal opening and anal canal

It supports and surrounds the lower parts of the urinary and digestive tracts

The perinium contains an abundance of nerve endings that make it sensitive to touch

An episiotomy is an incision of the perinium used during childbirth for widening the vaginal opening

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PERINEUM

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Vestibule

Triangular shaped area between the labia minora.The vagina,urethral opening and ducts of the greater vestibular glands open into it

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VAGINAL OPENING

Opening partially covered by a thin sheath called the hymen

Hymen is a thin membrane of connective tissue ,covered by mucus membrane partially occluding the opening of the vagina

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INTERNAL GENITALIA

The internal genitalia consists of the: Vagina Cervix Uterus Fallopian Tubes Ovaries

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VAGINA

The vagina connects the cervix to the external genitals It is located between the bladder and rectum Lined by squamous epithelium It functions : As a passageway for the menstrual flow For uterine secretions to pass down through the

introitus As the birth canal during labor With the help of two Bartholin’s glands becomes

lubricated during SI Mucus and the low pH makes a hostile environment to

sperms

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UTERUS

A hollow muscular pear shaped organ It is made up of the endometrium, myometrium

and perimetrium The powerful muscles of the uterus expand to

accommodate a growing fetus and push it through the birth canal(important in both pregnancy and labour)

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Uterus

Endometrium-mucous membrane that lines the inner cavity of the uterus.It varies in thickness and structure during the menstrual cycle and is shed at menstruation.site of implantation

Myometrium- muscular middle layer,composed of interlacing spiral muscle fibres which allow growing and stretching and contracts during labour to accomadate the fetus

Perimetrium-peritoneal layer forming the outer layer of the uterus

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Parts

Fundus-upper part,fallopian tubes connected

Body-thick middle tapering section cervix

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CERVIX

Has an internal and an external os This acts as a safety precaution against

foreign bodies entering the uterus During childbirth, the cervix dilates to

accommodate the passage of the fetus This dilation is a sign that labor has

begun

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OVIDUCTS

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FALLOPIAN TUBES

Serve as a pathway for the ovum to the uterus

Are the site of fertilization by the male sperm

Funnel shaped tubes-10 cm long Fertilized egg takes approximately 6 to 10

days to travel through the fallopian tube to implant in the uterine lining

Lined by cilliated columnar epi, which assist the movement of the ovum towards the uterus

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OVARIES

The female gonads or sex glands They develop and expel an ovum each month A woman is born with approximately 500,000

immature eggs called follicles During a lifetime a woman release 400 to 500

fully matured eggs for fertilization The follicles in the ovaries produce the female

sex hormones, progesterone and estrogen These hormones prepare the uterus for

implantation of the fertilized egg

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Ovaries

Two almond shaped organs attached to the ligaments that suspend them in the pelvic cavity

Consists of connective tissue,BV,nerves and follicles with immature ova

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ovulation

After puberty,FSH from the pituitary gland stimulates immature ova to mature each month and secrete oestrogen

Ovulation is rupture of mature follicle releasing the ovum into peritoneal cavity which is swept into the fallopian tube

After ovulation the ruptured follicle changes to the corpus luteum, which begins to secrete the hormone progesterone.

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Physiology of female reproductive system

the menstrual cycle refers to a cyclic series of monthly changes that occur to the post puberty female’s ovaries and uterus – controlled by hormones.

Every month the endometrium prepares itself for implantation of the fertilized ovum. If this does not occur the prepared endometrial lining will be shed.

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Menarche is the onset of cyclical bleeding. Menstrual cycle There are three phases:

• Menstrual (lasts approximately five days) • Pre–ovulatory (proliferative) –vary in

length greatly,starts on D6 and ends 0n D 13.(in 28d cycle)

• Post–ovulatory (secretory).-from D15-28

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The menstrual cycle

The ovarian cycle is initiated by a small rise in the level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), which begins late during the preceding menstrual cycle.

This rise stimulates a group of follicles to develop, one of which matures to ovulation. The mature follicle secretes increasing amounts of oestrogen, which rises to a peak

and then falls before ovulation. This oestrogen produces recognisable changes in the vaginal cytology, in the

endometrium and in the cervix and cervical secretions. It also operates a negative feedback mechanism, which decreases FSH production,

and a positive feedback mechanism, which initiates the mid–cycle surge of luteinising hormone (LH).

This surge of LH triggers ovulation. Ovulation is accompanied by a rise in progesterone production and a second rise in oestrogen production

.Progesterone produces recognisable changes in the endometrium and in the cervical mucous and causes a rise in the basal body temperature.

Menstruation follows ovulation, after an interval of 14 days. These cyclical changes provide the markers for timing of ovulation. Variation in cycle length is due to variation in the pre–ovulatory phase and is caused

by a delay in the FSH secretion to reach a sufficiently high level to stimulate the development of a new batch of follicles.

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MENSTRUATION

Menarche, the onset of menstruation signals the bodily changes that transform a female body.Average age is 12.8

Amount of bleeding per menstruation varies from woman to woman(35-60ml)

Cycle length varies from 21-35 days

The first day of the menstruation is the first day of a new reproductive cycle

Women can experience fluid retention, cramping, mood swings, weight gain, breast tenderness, diarrhea, and constipation

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PITUITARY HORMONES

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FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT

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OVULATION

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OVARIAN HORMONES

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SEX HORMONES

Follicle stimulating hormone FHS- stimulates follicular growth

Luteinizing hormone -•Essential for ovulation – causes ovulation by stimulating the ovarian membrane to dissolve, allowing the ovum to be released.

Estrogen- produced throughout the menstrual cycle

Progesterone-produced during second half of cycle

Both FHS and LH are produced in the anterior pituitary gland

Both estrogen and progesterone are produced by the follicles in the ovaries

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estrogen

Primarily develops and maintains secondary sexual characteristics

Growth and development of the reproductive organs and the skeleton

Decreases rate of bone re absorption Reproductive functions –aids fertilization,

promotes development of the endometrial lining, aids fertilization

Changes the pH of the cervical mucus to assist in sperm survival

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Progesterone

Secreted by corpus luteum. Large amounts secreted following ovulation. Prepares endometrium for implantation of a

fertilized ovum. Stimulates mammary glands to produce

milk. Increases body temperature. Relaxes smooth muscle, uterus and blood

vessels.

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