Click here to load reader

Faculty of allied medical sciences

  • View
    42

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Faculty of allied medical sciences. Environmental Health (NREH-101). Pollution. SUPERVISION Prof. Dr. Mervat Salah. Outcomes :. 1-To know the meaning and classification of pollution 2-To understand biological pollution 3-To know water related diseases - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Faculty of allied medical sciences

Faculty of allied medical sciences

Faculty of allied medical sciencesEnvironmental Health(NREH-101)PollutionSUPERVISIONProf. Dr. Mervat SalahOutcomes:1-To know the meaning and classification of pollution2-To understand biological pollution3-To know water related diseases4-To study control and prevention of pollution Pollution DefinitionAny undesirable change in physical , chemical or biological characteristics of air , land , water Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms.

Pollution can be classified according to source:-Water PollutionAir PollutionSoil PollutionSolid Waste (domestic waste- medical waste- industrial waste- construction waste- Agricultural waste )Pollution is divided into global pollution and local pollution .Water pollutionWater resourcesSurface water (rivers) Ground water (wells)Rain water

Polluted water & contaminated water: Polluted water: water contain physical and chemical pollutantsContaminated water: water contain biological pollutantsSources of water pollutionPoint and Non-point Source pollution

Point Sources include sewers, industrial discharges, street drains combined sewer outfalls

Non-point Sources include agricultural runoff, road runoff, landfill drainage, erosion & sedimentation processes, dead aquatic life and boats& shipsTypes of Water Pollution

Physical: temp, pH, color, turbidity, taste &odor

Chemical:Inorganic: Ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, hardness, chloride, solids, fluoride, heavy metalsOrganics: pesticide, phenol, oil & grease , biodegradable organic matter and non-biodegradable matter .

Biological: Bactria, virus, parasites, protozoa Physical pollutionTo identify any problem; it must follow 3 steps: Sources Effect control measures

Temp S: cooling water, power station waste discharge

E: Raising water temp and affect on aquatic life in the stream and uses of stream

C: Apply waste minimization rule (4 R) and environmental laws that control discharge of wastewater on receiving streams

pH, turbidity, color, taste & odor

S : natural source (aquatic life, erosion , runoff water) and man-made source( industrial waste, sewage)

E : affecting on quality of water and its uses as recreational area (bathing) and navigation, affecting on aquatic life living in the stream, and on uses of water in industrial purposes (corrosion problem)

C : Apply waste minimization rule (4R: reduction; recycle ; reuse; recovery) before discharge, and environmental laws that control discharge of wastewater on receiving streams

chemical pollutionHardness(calcium and magnesium salt), chloride, Sulphate

S: desalting units discharge, industrial waste

E: increase dissolved salt content affecting on water uses as drinking water, domestic uses or industrial uses and needs to softening process.C: Apply waste minimization rule (4R: reduction; recycle ; reuse; recovery) before discharge, and environmental laws that control discharge of wastewater on receiving streams.

Amonia,Nitrates

S: fertilizer industrial waste, agricultural run off

E: in drinking water , it causes blue babies for infants less than 2 yearsIn surface water: cause eutrification problem (over growth of algae forming algae bloom) affecting on water treatment plant and uses of water in industrial purposes

C : Apply waste minimization rule (4R: reduction; recycle ; reuse; recovery) before discharge, and environmental laws that control discharge of wastewater on receiving streams

Phosphate: as mentioned before except blue babies fluorideS : natural sourcesE : if water contain more than 1.5 ppm causes dental fluorosis . If 0.5 ppm causes dental caries C: follow up and monitoring of fluoride concentration in water supply and adjust it

Heavy metals

(lead, mercury, arsenic, copper, iron & manganese

S: industrial waste

E: Toxicity effect on aquatic life as lead, mercury, arsenic poising. While iron & manganese from ground water cause rusty taste and red color in water

C: : Apply waste minimization rule (4R: reduction; recycle ; reuse; recovery) before discharge, and environmental laws that control discharge of wastewater on receiving streams

Biological pollutionBacteriaProtozoaParasitesVirus

BacteriaCampylobacterCholeraE. ColiTyphoidSalmonellaColiform bacteria , Streptococcus, Enterococcus that are used as indicator for contamination with pathogenic microorganism

ProtozoaAmoeba----ambiosis------sewage or untreated waterGiardia lamblia----Giardiasis---- poor disinection, crossconection due to pipeline break Cryptosporidia----cryptosporidiosis---poor disinfectionParasiteAscarias is an infection of the small intestine caused by water contaminated with eggs Ascarias

ViruseEnteritis, diarrhea, and dysenteryRotavirusParalysisPolioLiver damageTwo of the viruses that cause hepatitis (hepatitis A and E) can be transmitted through contaminated water and food;

Diseases Related to WaterWater-borne DiseasesWater-washed DiseasesWater-based DiseasesWater-related DiseasesQuiz 1Complete the following:

Pollution can be classified into: ----,-----,----,-----,--------Global environmental problems are---,-----,------Types of water pollution are:-----,------,-------Any Environmental problem can be solved through ---------, --------,----------Sources of water pollution and its impacts------,-------Physical pollution as-----,----,-----, -------Effect of temp. on receiving stream-------,------Effect of turbidity on receiving stream-------,------Effect of pH on receiving stream-------,------Effect of color on receiving stream-------,------Effect of odor on receiving stream-------,------

Recommended text bookBasic Environmental Health

Search related