Facilitating Preservice Teachers' Development of Technological ...
<ul><li><p>Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L., & Tsai, C.-C. (2010). Facilitating Preservice Teachers' Development of Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK). Educational Technology & Society, 13 (4), 6373. </p><p>63 ISSN 1436-4522 (online) and 1176-3647 (print). International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS). The authors and the forum jointly retain the copyright of the articles. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than IFETS must be honoured. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Request permissions from the editors at firstname.lastname@example.org. </p><p>Facilitating Preservice Teachers' Development of Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) </p><p> Ching Sing Chai*, Joyce Hwee Ling Koh and Chin-Chung Tsai1 </p><p>Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 1Graduate School of Technological and Vocational Education, National Taiwan University of Science and </p><p>Technology, #43, Sec.4, Keelung Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan Chingsing.email@example.com // Joyce.firstname.lastname@example.org // email@example.com </p><p>*Corresponding author ABSTRACT </p><p>Preparing preservice teachers for ICT integration in the classrooms is a key focus for many teacher education institutes. This paper examines the perceived development of preservice teachers in terms of their technological knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge and the synthesis of such knowledge, i.e., the technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK). A questionnaire adapted from Schmidt, Baran, Thompson, Mishra, Koehler, and Shin (2009) was validated using factor analyses and the preservice teachers TPACK perceptions before and after their ICT course were examined. The results reveal statistical significant gains with good effect sizes. Regression analysis further reveals that technological knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge are all significant predictors of preservice teachers TPACK, with pedagogical knowledge having the largest impact. Implications for designing the ICT instruction of preservice teachers are discussed. </p><p> Keywords </p><p>Preservice teacher education, ICT, TPACK Introduction Since the creation of personal computers and the launch of the internet, many educators and governments have advocated education reforms that take advantage of the affordances of information and communication technologies (ICT) (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 2006; Fox & Henri, 2005; Greenhow, Robelia, & Hughes, 2009; Jonassen, Howland, Marra, & Crismond, 2008; National School Boards Association, 2007). These reform efforts promote constructivist and social constructivist teaching approaches that emphasize students as active constructors of knowledge in collaborative settings. Currently, access to computers both in school and at home have improved tremendously in most developed nations (Greenhow et al., 2009; Lim, Chai, & Churchill, 2010). However, student-centered education supported by ICT is still an exception rather than a norm in classrooms. Many research studies indicate that teachers use computers to support teacher transmission of knowledge (Gao, Choy, Wang, & Wu, 2009; Lim & Chai, 2008; Selwyn, 2008). Given that preservice teacher education has good potential to influence teachers future use of ICT (Hammond et al., 2009), it is clear that teacher educators have to constantly design, evaluate and redesign preservice education for effective ICT integration (Goktas, Yildrim & Yildrim, 2009). Strong preservice education on the use of ICT is also important because it can help to counter the possibilities of transmission-oriented school practices in the assimilation of beginning teachers. This paper uses the technological, pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) framework (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) to examine the effects of a preservice teacher education ICT course. It also derived stepwise regression models to describe variables significant for TPACK formation. Other than contributing an example of TPACK-driven ICT course design, it also contributes to the burgeoning interest in measuring teachers TPACK. To date, many studies involving small samples have been conducted using the TPACK framework in the USA. Large scale surveys verifying the TPACK framework has not yet been reported in the literature. Moreover, few studies were conducted to enhance teachers TPACK in Asian countries. In the following sections, literature pertaining to preservice teachers ICT education and the concept of TPACK are reviewed. After that, the implications of the study results for planning of TPACK generating ICT courses in preservice teacher education are discussed. </p></li><li><p>64 </p><p>Literature Review Preservice teachers ICT education It is obvious that preservice education plays an important role in shaping teacher use of ICT in the classroom (Gao et al., 2009; Lim et al., 2010). Literature to date has reported that preservice teachers who have acquired higher level of technological skills are more willing to use technology in classroom (Hammond et al., 2009; Paraskeva, Bouta, & Papagianna, 2008). It has also been reported that preservice teachers who received ICT training possess a stronger sense of self-efficacy with respect to computer use (Brown & Warschauer, 2006; Lee, Chai, Teo & Chen, 2008). Despite these positive reports, many gaps exist in the design and implementation of preservice ICT integration course (Haydn & Barton, 2007; Lawless & Pellegrino, 2007; Mishra, Koehler, & Kereluik, 2009). Researchers have lamented that many preservice teachers are not adequately prepared to use ICT in classrooms (Kay, 2006; Swain, 2006). Preparing preservice teachers for ICT integration is a complex job given the fast changing nature of ICT and the multiple sources of knowledge which need to be synthesized. The effectiveness of preservice education for ICT is also influenced by a host of contextual factors such as university instructors use of ICT, school readiness, mentor teachers attitude etc (Lim et al., 2010). One common problem in preparing preservice teachers for ICT integration is that many preservice teachers do not have enough exposure to pedagogical use of ICT (Brown & Warschauer, 2006; Lim et al., 2010). Many teacher education institutes (TEIs) offer only one technology course for teacher preparation (Hsu & Sharma, 2006), which may focus on ICT skills (Mishra, et al., 2009; Steketee, 2005). However, teaching ICT skills alone does not adequately prepare preservice teachers to integrate ICT (Lawless & Pellegrino, 2007; Mishra, et al., 2009). Such recognition has prompted many preservice ICT courses to be designed as integrated courses where content teaching and/or method courses are part of the curriculum (Angeli & Valanides, 2005; Lisowski, Lisowski, & Nicolia, 2006). Meaningful use of ICT in the classroom requires the teachers to integrate technological affordances with pedagogical approaches for the specific subject matter to be taught (Jonassen et al., 2008; Mishra & Khoeler, 2006). This integrated form of contextualized knowledge has been recently referred to as the TPACK (Mishra & Khoeler, 2006; Thompson & Mishra, 2007) or other similar notion such as ICT related TPACK (Angeli & Valanides, 2005; 2009). Mishra and Khoeler (2006) argue that many studies examining preservice teachers development of ICT skills lack a clearly articulated theoretical framework. Building on the notion of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK, Shulman, 1986), Mishra and Khoeler developed TPACK as a possible theoretical framework to strengthen the study of teachers use of ICT for education. The nature of TPACK Mishra and Koehler (2006) posited that TPACK was derived from three key knowledge sources i.e. technological knowledge (TK), pedagogical knowledge (PK) and content knowledge (CK). There are two viewpoints about TPACKs epistemological nature. Gess-Newsome (1999) described the transformative viewpoint as one where TPACK was a synthesis of TK, PK and CK such that the influences of each cannot be extricated. On the other extreme was the integrative viewpoint where TPACK did not exist as a unique body of knowledge; but was a simple combination of TK, PK, and CK that came about during teaching. There is preliminary support for the transformative viewpoint where TPACK exists as a unique body of knowledge (Angeli & Valanides, 2009). Many qualitative studies have also shown TPACK to be developed through design projects (e.g. Angeli & Valanides, 2009; Koehler & Mishra, 2005), microteaching activities (e.g. Cavin, 2008), and participation in communities of practice (e.g. Rodrigues, Marks, & Steel, 2003). Modeling teachers TPACK formation In recent years, the TPACK framework has been used to re-design teacher preparation programs and teacher development workshops (see Niess, 2005; Niess, 2007; Niess, Suharwoto, Lee, & Sadri, 2006; Shoffner, 2007; Burns, 2007). Special emphasis has been given to incorporating ICT design projects as avenues to help teachers develop connections between TK, PK, and CK (e.g. Niess, 2005; Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Qualitative descriptions </p></li><li><p>65 </p><p>of student learning behaviours (e.g. Niess et al., 2006) lend considerable insight about their TPACK development in specific programme contexts. However, fewer studies have measured the extent of teachers TPACK development through pre-post course evaluations; or examined the relative importance of TK, PK, and CK to teachers overall TPACK development. One impediment to robust examination of TPACK through pre-post course evaluations is that numerous TPACK surveys are currently in their early stages of development such as instrument validation. Existing TPACK surveys have generally been examined for internal reliability (e.g. Schmidt et al., 2009; Lee & Tsai, 2010). But, construct validation of several surveys are still in progress (e.g. Archambault & Crippen, 2009; Schmidt et al., 2009), which could be a factor limiting their use for pre-post course evaluation. One of the few studies implemented found significant improvement of teachers TPACK after undergoing a professional development programme (Graham et al., 2009). However, the study was limited to a pilot group of 15 teachers. With the increasing use of TPACK to undergird ICT programme development, it is necessary to understand the relationship between TPACK, TK, PK, and CK. Yet, there is a dearth of such studies as much of extant research has been centered on the relevance of technology skills instruction. While some schools of education have proposed that computer skills training be removed from teacher education programs (e.g. Brinkerhoff, Ku, Glazewski, & Brush, 2001), Wang and Chen (2006) argued that some level of proficiency in technological skills was needed for teachers to integrate technology effectively. On the other hand, many studies have also found that teachers with high levels of confidence in their computer skills tend to use more technology in the classroom (Zhao, Pugh, Sheldon & Byers, 2002; Littrell, Zagumny & Zagumny, 2005). A high level of TK may be important for developing TPACK. But, the relative influences of PK and CK have not been studied. The relative contribution of TK, PK, and CK to teachers TPACK development can be statistically modelled and predicted with techniques such as multiple regression. The derivation of these statistical models can inform the design and evaluation of ICT programs. Nevertheless, the small sample size in existing TPACK survey studies (e.g. Schmidt et al., 2009; Graham et al., 2009) has limited the application of inferential statistics to the data. Therefore, these relationships have not yet been thoroughly examined. In addition, studies of TPACK surveys have generally been reported for US teachers (e.g. Schmidt et al., 2009; Archambault & Crippen, 2009; Graham et al., 2009). The effectiveness of TPACK-driven ICT programmes have not yet been widely reported in an Asian context. Objectives of study This study therefore aims to address the gaps by: 1. Examining the effectiveness of an ICT programme designed to enhance Singapore preservice teachers TPACK 2. Predict how TK, PK, and CK contribute to Singapore teachers TPACK with stepwise regression Method The TPACK framework and the ICT for Meaningful Learning course Using the postulations of the TPACK framework, a course entitled ICT for Meaningful Learning was designed to prepare Singapore preservice teachers for technology integration. The course comprises of 12 two-hour sessions, and its components provided preservice teachers with three TPACK knowledge sources: PK. The first five sessions were targeted at building their theoretical understanding of pedagogical approaches involved in meaningful learning with ICT (see Jonassen et al., 2008). These sessions engaged the preservice teachers in experiential learning of various student-centered pedagogical approaches with ICT. For example, they take on collaborative research to understand different pedagogical approaches, which include problem-based learning, project-based learning and inquiry-based learning, and undertake reciprocal teaching for their peers. They also learned about classroom management of ICT lessons through case-based instruction and e-learning. </p></li><li><p>66 </p><p>TK. The six other sessions were designed to develop their TK with respect to different technology tools. These were organized as technology enhanced lessons (TELs). In each TEL, they learn about a technology tool; its affordances and limitation; and its pedagogical uses (example WIKI, Spreadsheet, modelling). The preservice teachers are organized into tutorial groups by their teaching subjects. Each tutorial group chose two to three TELs most relevant to their teaching subject through joint negotiation with their instructor. Each TEL provided preservice teachers with resources for skill-based practice, and scaffolded them with design activities to generate lesson ideas applicable to the students they expected to teach. For example, in the TEL of concept mapping, Cmap was introduced as one possible technological tool (for details, see http://cmap.ihmc.us/). The preservice teachers are required to explore Cmap by building a concept map of a personally relevant topic of their choice. They then discuss the affordances and limitations of Cmap and brainstorm some lesson ideas on how the tool can be used meaningfully for students learning. TPACK. These lesson ideas, if they are selected by the preservice teachers, were then further developed consolidated into a technology-integrated lesson unit, which constituted their Final Pr...</p></li></ul>