Facilitating MEA Implementation with Cleaner Production: Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

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  • Facilitating MEA Implementation with Cleaner Production: Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
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  • 2 Stockholm Convention on POPs Global treaty aiming to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) international cooperation in the reduction of POPs emissions and, if possible, in their elimination Adopted in May 2001, Entry into force on 17 May 2004 POPs are chemicals that remain intact in the environment for long periods become widely distributed geographically accumulate in the fatty tissues of living organisms toxic to humans and wildlife
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  • 3 Stockholm Convention: Key Provisions Focuses initially on twelve chemicals that can be grouped into three categories pesticides: aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene (industrial chemical and by-product), mirex and toxaphene industrial chemicals: PCBs (also by-product) unintended by-products: dioxins and furans Parties are obligated to take measures to reduce or eliminate releases of POPs covered by the Convention
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  • 4 Stockholm Convention: Key Provisions (contd) Eliminate the production and use of POPs aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, mirex and toxaphene Restrict to certain acceptable purposes the production and use of POPs DDT for disease vector control Restrict export of POPs Identify, manage, dispose of POP stockpiles in environmentally sound manner Sound environmental management of PCBs and remove from use by 2025 Identify sources and reduce releases of POPs by- products
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  • 5 Stockholm Convention: Funding & Implementation Principal entity for interim financial arrangements: GEF fulfill this function through operational measures related specifically to POPs financial mechanism to be defined by the COP Implementation mechanisms requires to: develop and implement a national plan report implemented measures/their effectiveness exchange information promote public awareness and education monitor POP release
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  • 6 Implementation Actors The Conference of Parties (Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee during the interim period prior to COP1) The Secretariat National Focal Points Information Centers Regional and Sub-regional Centres for capacity building and technology transfer
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  • 7 Interim Activities Stockholm Convention does not enter into force until 50 countries have ratified Stockholm Conference adopted resolutions covering interim period including continued meetings of the INC, voluntary implementation of the Convention, establishment of a capacity assistance network, operation of interim financial mechanism, & COP 1 preparations
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  • 8 First Step: Implementation Plans Development of national implementation plans can begin immediately Financial resources are available through through GEF and World Bank UNEP as a implementing agency of the GEF and partner with the World Bank on POPs is ready to assist countries in obtaining assistance to develop these plans
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  • 9 CP in the Stockholm Convention Cleaner Production is relevant as a strategy for practical implementation of the precautionary approach Precaution and prevention are operationalised throughout the text, and mentioned in: preamble and objective provisions on the listing of new POPs control provisions on intentionally produced POPs control provisions on unintentionally produced POPs text on determination of the BAT the provisions on implementation.
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  • 10 Priority Focus for CP: Unintentionally Produced POPs Bans are not effective: Dioxin/Furans are by-products of many industrial processes End-of-pipe solutions are: Expensive to install equipment Expensive to monitor releases and compliance with command-and-control regulation Cannot tackle all sources (esp. SMEs) Merely transfer pollution to other media => There is need for Cleaner Production!
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  • 11 Examples of CP Approaches to Address POP Sources Process control, adequate operation and maintenance Establishing closed production cycles Eliminating chlorine-based materials via product and process re-design Choice of alternative processes/products Change of input materials
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  • 12 Convention Implementation Requisites for implementation Technical knowledge and financial assistance to develop the National Implementation Plan, build capacity and implement solutions CP practitioners carry out activities that can facilitate implementation: Participate in enabling activities creation of the National Implementation Plan Assist in capacity building Explore opportunities Consult the information sources Draft action plans
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  • 13 Convention Implementation: Enabling Activities Development of National Implementation Plans: Determine coordinating mechanisms and organize the process of developing the NIP Inventory of POPs sources Assessment of national infrastructure and capacity to manage POPs Priority setting and determination of objectives adopted to local conditions Assessment of the needs and formulation a NIP Endorsement of the NIP by the stakeholders
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  • 14 Enabling Activities: Role of CPCs Assist in development of national implementation plans 1) Coordinating mechanisms and organising the NIP development process: Offer a forum for the stakeholders dialogue on the basis of CP partnerships Help to involve industry in the process by providing positive motivations 2) Inventory of POPs sources: Use knowledge and experience of working with local industries to help create POP release inventories (e.g. from pulp and paper, metal foundry, textile industry) Offer services in creating inventories based on emission factors estimations
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  • 15 3) Assessment of national infrastructure and capacity to manage POPs: Use knowledge of the local industry and assess potential for POPs elimination while reaching economic benefits Analyze results of previous Cleaner Production assessments and initiatives Focus on search for Cleaner Production solutions that give positive incentives for industry to minimise dioxin/furan emissions 4) Priority setting and determination of objectives Elaborating BAT and BEP adopted to local conditions Enabling Activities: Role of CPCs
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  • 16 5) Assessment of the needs and formulation of a NIP Assist national implementation actors organize dialogue and cooperation with industry in assessing needs and setting priorities/objectives by emphasising, where possible, economic benefits of dioxin/furan emissions minimization Promote multi-benefit CP solutions for minimising POPs releases Use experience of formulating National Cleaner Production Action Plans, policies and regulations available via the NCPC network (e.g. Czech Republic, China) Analyse existing BAT and BEP and suggest your contribution to developing BAT and BEP for sources of dioxin/furans in your region Offer assistance in determining BAT and BEP to the national authorities 6) Endorsement of the NIP by the stakeholders Assist in conducting the stakeholder dialogue Enabling Activities: Role of CPCs
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  • 17 National Implementation Plans and strategies include the following main activities: develop and strengthen capacity building of developing countries to address threats posed by POPs promote/effect transition to sustainable alternatives facilitate the environmentally sound disposal of stockpiles of obsolete POP facilitate the identification an remediation of sites affected by POPs Convention Implementation: Capacity Building
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  • 18 Assist with: delivering effective training, creating information exchange and distribution channels, facilitating transfer of cleaner technology, awareness raising via demonstration projects Adapt existing Cleaner Production manuals and databases promote measures for preventing dioxin/furan emissions or develop new manuals/guidelines Design and implement projects on dioxin/furan minimization training, and/or technology transfer, demonstration projects, etc. Capacity Building: Role of CPCs
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  • 19 CP and Stockholm Convention Collaborate in enabling activities (such as the NIP) Cooperate in assessments of national infrastructure and capacity to manage POPs With national focal point (NFP), submit projects to GEF Cooperate in inventorying POPs sources and monitoring POPs release Awareness raising through training and demonstration projects


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