Exploring freshmen preservice teachers' situated knowledge in reflective reports during case-based activities

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    For effective technology integration, manhave considered preservice teacher educatioprofessional development (Kim & Hannan,Russell, Bebell, O'Dwyer, & O'Connor, 2beginning teachers are not able to effective

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    Internet and Higher Education 14 (2011) 1014

    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    Internet and HigGenerally, situated approaches in education encourage learning frompracticing teachers' and preservice teachers' teaching experiences(Putnam & Borko, 2000).

    There are numerous cases of situated learning approaches beingused in technology courses for preservice teachers in variousdepartments in Korean universities. For example, Lim (2006)proposed the situated educational model for teaching preserviceteachers about technology integration before, during, and after theirpracticum. The design principles of this model include use of

    EDUNET: http://www.edunet4u.net).Teacher educators have used web-based cases as teaching

    resources in various ways, including as case reports, case discussions,and case development. However, how can the educators identify theeffects of different ways of using web-based cases as situated learningapproaches? The literature also indicates that it is important toexplain how preservice teachers develop their situated knowledgeduring situated approaches in teacher education (Putnam & Borko,1997). The purpose of this study, therefore, was to verify the effects ofinstructional resources, analysis of teachingthe practicum, and web-based support. Someon particular teaching methods with techn

    Tel.: +82 43 230 3442; fax: +82 43 231 7193.E-mail addresses: jinnie@knue.ac.kr, hyeonjin.kim@g

    1096-7516/$ see front matter 2010 Elsevier Inc. Aldoi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.03.005h technology; it is nothelps to explain the

    vice teacher education.

    integration cases so that researchers and educators can use them asboth knowledge repositories and teaching resources (e.g., KITE:http://kite.missouri.edu; InTime: http://www.intime.uni.edu; andlimited simply to technology skills. Thatimportance of situated learning for preserintegration includes learning aboutcomputers and the culture of teachinto their teaching because they learnethan how to teach with technologyprograms (see Russell et al., 2003y educators and scholarsn to be as important as2009; Lim & Chan, 2007;003). However, manyly integrate technologyt technology itself rathertheir teacher educationning about technologyducational potential of

    with web-based video clips and digital stories created by teachers andstudents (e.g., Hur, 2009; Kang, 2007). Preservice teachers using thismodel have opportunities to practice teachingwith technology duringthe production of their video clips and digital stories.

    Case-based learning approaches have been used for effectivesituated learning in university classrooms (Putnam & Borko, 2000;Shulman, 1992), as in cases where experienced teachers deliver theirknowledge and beliefs about teaching (Kim, Hannan, & Kim, 2005).Some websites have been developed to collect exemplary technologycases, use of ICT duringother approaches focusology, such as teaching

    web-enhanced,approaches by eand use situatedthe course of a sa continuation othat teacher eduapproach in diffcountries. That ismail.com.

    l rights reserved.Exploring freshmen preservice teachers' sduring case-based activities

    Hyeonjin Kim Korea National University of Education, Department of Education, San 7 Darak-ri, Gangna

    a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o

    Keywords:Case-based activityWeb-based casesSituated knowledgePreservice education

    Many educators and scholarhave been considered to be tcases are used for situated leperspectives still need to beenhanced, case-based activitdeveloped and used situatedresults indicate that preservicin terms of conceptual case kplanning, and computer literfor learning) during case-basuated knowledge in reective reports

    yeon, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-791, South Korea

    ve emphasized situated learning approaches for teacher education, as teachersmost important factor for effective teaching with technology. While web-baseding in various ways, their effects on preservice teacher learning from situatedlored. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to verify the effects of web-s particular situated approaches by exploring how freshmenpreservice teachersowledge about teaching with technology during the course of a semester. Theachers developed and used situated knowledge about teachingwith technologyledge (i.e., understandings of content, instructional strategies, students, lesson

    ) and socially shared identities and beliefs (i.e., computer as positive and helpfulactivity (CBA) projects to some extent.

    2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    her Educationcase-based activities (CBA) as particular situatedxploring how freshmen preservice teachers developknowledge about teaching with technology during

    emester. This was an iterative research study done asf studies conducted in the United States of 2005 incators need to verify the potential of the CBA situatederent contexts, teacher education institutes in Asian, the previous studies need renements in the design

  • skills before case-based activities. That is, none of the students hadeither previous method courses or teaching experiences. Also, mostparticipants were not familiar with the software programs introducedin the course (e.g., web editor, Movie Maker).The researcher had therole of instructor for the class and introduced this research studyduring the rst class of the semester.

    2.2. Research setting: A case-based activity

    The course in this studywas an introductory course in teachingwithtechnology called Developing Instructional Materials Using Technologythatwas offered to preservice teachers at a Korean university during thespring of 2008. The coursewas designedwith CBAs as part of its situatedapproach during 10 weeks of the 15-week course. In the CBA portion of

    11H. Kim / Internet and Higher Education 14 (2011) 1014of CBA and research ndings based on the conceptual framework ofsituated knowledge. The differences include location (i.e., Republic ofKorea vs. U.S.), participants (i.e., freshmen vs. non-freshmen), andactivity (i.e., printed CBA reports vs. web-based CBA reports). Theresults from the previous studies about the constructive processes ofpreservice teachers' situated knowledge inform this current study.

    1. Conceptual framework for situated knowledge

    From situated perspectives (e.g., situated cognition, situated learn-ing), knowledge is situated in the culture of a particular community andconsists of socially sharedknowledge, skills, andbeliefs (Brown, Collins, &Duguid, 1989; Lave &Wenger, 1991). Knowledge continuously developsthrough interactions during an activity or experience. From a situatedperspective, teacher knowledge is also constructed through repeatedteaching experiences (Carter, 1990) and consists of knowledge, skills,and beliefs. Accordingly, some researchers have proposed conceptualframeworks of teacher knowledge based on situated perspectives (e.g.,Calderhead, 1988, 1996; Carter, 1990; Kim & Hannan, 2008; Leinhardt,1988; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman, 1986).

    In particular, Kim and Hannan (2008) have proposed a situatedcase-based knowledge framework for preservice teachers' learning,which is divided into conceptual case knowledge, strategic caseknowledge, and socially shared identities and beliefs. Conceptual caseknowledge is dened as context-dependent (Brown et al., 1989,p.32) concepts and facts. From a situated perspective, experts'conceptual case knowledge is often represented in the form of stories,including conceptual situations (Lave & Wenger, 1991), which areindexed and interwoven into various situations. Teachers' conceptualcase knowledge generally includes the conceptual situations ofstudents, curriculum, content, and pedagogy (Leinhardt & Greeno,1986; Shulman, 1986). For teaching with technology, experiencedteachers have conceptual case knowledge of basic technology skills,technology integration within the curriculum, and instructionalstrategies (Fisher, 1997). Socially shared identity and beliefs generallyresult from enculturation in the social practices of a community(Brown et al., 1989; Lave & Wenger, 1991). For teaching withtechnology, exemplary teachers often share constructivist-inspired,student-centered pedagogical beliefs and methods for teaching withtechnology and consider the educational roles of computers to beimportant to student learning (Becker, 1994; Becker & Ravitz, 1999;Ertmer, Ross, & Gopalakrishnan, 2000).

    Kim and Hannan's (2008) framework presents a holistic approachto explaining and understanding preservice teachers' learning fromsituated perspectives during teacher education. In this study, twoknowledge categories, conceptual case knowledge and socially sharedidentities and beliefswere adopted; strategic case knowledgewasnot ableto be easily observed through written CBA reports, because it is relatedto tacit knowledge of knowing how during performing tasks.

    2. Methods

    2.1. Research design and participant selection

    A multiple case study was adopted for this study, and a case wasdened as each preservice teacher's understanding of and perspectiveon teaching with technology in a case-based activity (CBA) course,which is a phenomenon in a bounded context (Miles & Huberman,1994). Participants for this study were 20 college students in aparticular class, all of whom were freshmen preservice teachers fromvarious departments, including elementary education, mathematicseducation, and other education elds. Selecting freshmen as partici-pants minimized individual differences (e.g., prior knowledge forteaching and lesson planning) because it was the rst semester intheir program. This fact was veried through the initial student

    information survey, which examined students' prior knowledge andthe class, preservice teachers started by viewing cases of expertteachers' stories and ended with writing their own cases in the formof stories based on their experiences. The CBA units focused onpreservice teachers' development of lesson plans and instructionalmaterials for teaching with technology as authentic tasks. Preserviceteachers developed lesson materials focusing on their subject matter.Three tasks were provided throughout the course as part of the case-based activities, such as creating a PowerPoint game, digital image andmovie materials, and Web-based project instruction materials (i.e.,WebQuests). The last project, WebQuest (Dodge, 1995) is a kind ofinquiry learning model and consists of ve steps such as Introduction,Tasks, Process, Resource, and Conclusion. It allows students to researchwithweb resources so that they can learnwith computers inmeaningfulways. Each task lasted three to four weeks.

    Fig. 1 illustrates the complete CBA process. This cycle includedintroducing the new case as a task scenario (scenario work); accessinganalogous, web-based cases of teachers (case analysis); planningtasks by analyzing new cases and proposing preliminary solutions(planning); adapting and applying the solutions (doing); andreecting on the new case knowledge by writing their own storiesand writing to Mr. Park, a virtual beginning teacher who wroterelevant inquiries to the preservice teachers (reecting). Also, theinstructor's ongoing coaching, peers' feedback, and web resourceswere provided throughout the CBA process.

    During the CBA process, the reection activity was used to facilitatepreservice teachers' reection-in-action (Schn, 1983). Teachers wereasked towrite CBA reports from a template that posed several questionsduring each phase of the authentic projects. Table 1 presents the detailsof the CBA report. These reports were also the major resource forunderstanding how freshmen preservice teachers learned and devel-oped their situated knowledge during each project.

    2.3. Data sources and collection

    The major data sources in this study included 20 freshmenpreservice teachers' CBA reports, which were completed in eachtask phase in the format of templates. Their assignment artifacts, suchFig. 1. The structure of a web-enhanced, case-based activity and CBA report.

  • students, lesson planning and development, and computer literacy,which were comparable to those of exemplary teachers. Particularly,they used and developed the concepts of instructional strategies andstudents in various ways. They, however, started to use and developthe concepts of content and lesson planning in limited ways duringCBAs.

    At the beginning of the course, participants typically addressedone or two initial concepts, such as computer literacy, students, orinstructional strategies, when they were asked about the mostimportant factors of teaching with technology: I think teachers'abilities of using computers and motivating students are bothimportant (Freshman 8's information sheet). Only two freshmenaddressed the importance of design and development, noting theneed for attention-getting content and clear and sophisticatedcontent. None of the freshmen addressed the importance of

    12 H. Kim / Internet and Higher Education 14 (2011) 1014as lesson plans, instructional materials, and eld notes from classobservations, were also collected for triangulation purposes. To betterunderstand their initial perceptions and general information beforethe CBAs, students were asked to write an essay at the beginning ofthe course about why they wanted to become a teacher, who theirbest teacher was, and what their K-12 experiences were like. Studentswere also asked to ll out a student information survey.

    2.4. Data analysis

    Data were primarily analyzed based on the conceptual frameworkof the current study, situated case-based knowledge in combinationwith the constant comparative method (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).Although the current study followed the procedure of analysis,including open coding, constantly comparing emerging themes, and

    Table 1Reective questions in CBA report.

    1. What's the story (case analysis)1.1 Story summary (teacher, grade, subject matter, time and place, strategy,and media)1.2 Why did the teacher use technology (instructional media and materials)and how?1.3 What are educational values and characteristics of technology (instructionalmedia and materials)?1.4 Free critique (weak and strong points, implications for my project, etc.)

    2. Planning my project2.1 Why did I select the lesson scenario for my project?2.2 What do you apply or adjust from the teacher's case for my project?2.3 Why do you use technology (instructional media and materials) formy project? What obstacles would happen during implementation?

    3. Doing3.1 What do you modify (i.e., add, delete, or change) during your projectand why?3.2 Share whatever you want during your project

    4. Telling your story4.1 Briey describe your production process4.2 What difculties did you encounter? If you have the same project later, whatwill you make better?4.3 Write to Mr. Park, a beginn...

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