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Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies - Progress by Component or Architectural Knowledge Masahiko FUJII Marking Technology Laboratory Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. Printing for Fabrication 2017

Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

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Page 1: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies- Progress by Component or Architectural Knowledge

Masahiko FUJIIMarking Technology LaboratoryFuji Xerox Co., Ltd.

Printing for Fabrication 2017

Page 2: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

3D Printing

High Quality 3D Printer

Involvement in Ink Jet

Continuous Ink Jet

Single Drop DetectorM. Fujii, Optical Drop Sensor of Continuous Ink Jet Printer, 19th Imaging Technology Conference, 1988

Thermal Ink Jet

800dpi MEMS PrintheadM. Fujii, New Thermal Ink Jet Printheadwith Improved Energy Efficiency Using Silicon Reactive Ion Etching, The Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Vol. 43, No. 4, 1999

Applications of Ink Jet

Micro-Lens ArrayM. Fujii, Issues and Approaches Imposed on Ink Jet for The Progress of Printed Electronics, Transactions on The Japan Institute of Electronics Packaging Vol. 3, No. 1, 2010

Voxel-Based 3D Data Format ‘FAV’

3D Data Handling

T. Takahashi & M. Fujii, Unrestricted 3D Structure Modeling and Seamless Data Flow to 3D Printers Using Voxel-based Data Format FAV (Fab-able Voxel), IS&T’s NIP32, 2016

1985 2008 20171990

1

2004

Page 3: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Macro-Trend of Ink Jet Printer

Small Size

High Image Quality&

High Speed

Siphon Recorder (Kelvin)

Mingograph (Siemens)

1952

1876

1968

Videjet (A.B.Dick)

1996

2003

2011

PM-700C (EPSON)

JetPress 720 (Fuji Film)

True Press Jet 520 (Screen)

ThinkJet (HP)1984

2005

• Diluted Ink• Photo Paper• Small Drop

• Pagewide Printhead• R2R• Fast Drying Ink• Dryer

• Defect Detection & Correction• Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating• Latex Ink• Dryer

High Image Quality

High Speed

2017

2

1938

Next Year (2018) :The 50th Anniversary of TheFirst Ink Jet Printer Appearance

And The 80th Anniversary of C. F. Carlson’s Experiment for EP

Next Year (2018) :The 50th Anniversary of TheFirst Ink Jet Printer Appearance

And The 80th Anniversary of C. F. Carlson’s Experiment for EP

Page 4: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Definition of Ink Jet

Dropletize liquid including colorants or functional materials,

and

Eject drops to recording target (media) on demand from image (pattern) signal,

then

Bring colorants or functional materials to (on) recording target (media).

Dropletize liquid including colorants or functional materials,

and

Eject drops to recording target (media) on demand from image (pattern) signal,

then

Bring colorants or functional materials to (on) recording target (media).

(My) Definition of Ink Jet :

Defining technology is important to identify the invention, and to consider extensions or applications of the technology.

Ink Jet is not a technology only to realize printers.

3

M. Fujii, S. Sakai, A. Tomotake,H. Eguchi etc. (2008)

Page 5: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Marking Process of EP & Ink Jet

Charge Exposure Development Transfer Fixing CleaningPaper

Photoreceptor

Charge

+ +++++

++++

++ + + + +

+++++

++

Light Source

Latent Image+++

++++

++ + + + +

+++++

+

Toner & Developer++++

++

++

++

+

++

Electrophotography

++

Serial Printer

Ink Drops

Swath

PrintheadInk Jet

Line Printer

Swath

Pagewide Printhead

Ink DropsPaper

Simple Marking Process

4

Small SizeLow Cost

Small Power ConsumptionHigh Process Stability

Large SizeHigh Cost

Large Power ConsumptionLow Process Stability

Page 6: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Possibility & Limitation of Ink Jet

Ink Jet Marking Process is Simple.

Ink Jet Process

SimplicityInk Jet Process

Simplicity Limitation

Marking Process is Achieved Only by Interactions between Ink And Media.

Challenge

Possibility

High Applicability to Various Applications

Simplicity of process has both aspect of a possibility and a limitation.

These two aspects led me my ink jet evolution theory.

5

Page 7: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Drop VolumeDrop Volume Firing FrequencyFiring Frequency

Nozzle ResolutionNozzle Resolution

DirectionalityDirectionality

Ink LatitudeInk Latitude

Nozzle NumberNozzle Number

PenetrabilityPenetrabilityPenetrabilityPenetrability

Multi-ColorMulti-Color

Color ReproductionColor Reproduction

RobustnessRobustness

AbsorbabilityAbsorbability

CircularityCircularity

Gloss ControlGloss Control

Absorption SpeedAbsorption Speed

Concentrating Functions Progress (CFP)

Key Components(Technologies)

Paper(Media)

Printhead

Ink(Functional Liquid)

Image ProcessingDot Placement

System

Maintenance

Ink Supply

CircumjacentTechnologies

Simple Process

6

Progress of system performance has brought by progress of each key components performance

Concentrating Functions Progress (CFP)Concentrating Functions Progress (CFP)

Keeping merits come from process simplicity of Ink Jet

Image Quality Print Speed

Printer’s Prime Performances

Page 8: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Drop Volume & Image Quality

7

Year

94

Minimum Ink Drop Volume (pl)

10-3

10-2

10-1

100

101

102

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

27

13

6

3

1

201510-4 0.3

DropDiameter (µm)90

( )

( )

Electrostatic Pull Ink Jet (AIST)

Commercialized Home Printer

(Image Quality Quantified from Visual Aspect)

Sensory Evaluation Score for Image Quality

Ink Jet(Ink Jet Paper)

1995 2000 2005 20101990 2015

Year

Ink Jet(Plain Paper)

Dry EP(Plain Paper)

Page 9: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Drop Volume & Image Quality

7

Year

90 94

Minimum Ink Drop Volume (pl)

10-3

10-2

10-1

100

101

102

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

27

13

6

3

1

201510-4 0.3

DropDiameter (µm)

( )

( )

Electrostatic Pull Ink Jet (AIST)

Commercialized Home Printer

19961997

20002002

2003 20042005

2006

4

8

12

16Number of Ink Color

Year

4

6

78

9

12

0

Ink Jet(Ink Jet Paper)

1995 2000 2005 20101990 2015

Year

Ink Jet(Plain Paper)

Dry EP(Plain Paper)

(Image Quality Quantified from Visual Aspect)

Sensory Evaluation Score for Image Quality

Page 10: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Speed Factor =Frequency * Nozzle Number

Multi-Path * Print Resolution * Print Direction- Maintenance - Others

Speed Factor (Print Speed)

Frequency

8

Firing Frequency (kHz)

80

0

20

60

40

1995 2000 2005 20101990 2015

Year

Piezo

Thermal

( )

1995 2000 2005 20101990 2015

Year

Nozzle Number Swath (inch)

212

28

22

20

24

26

210

Nozzle Number

Swath

2-4

2-2

20

22

Nozzle NumberSwath

Page 11: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Speed Factor (Print Speed)

8

Speed Factor =Multi-Path * Resolution * Print Direction

- Maintenance - Others

1995 2000 2005 20101990 2015

Year

215

220

225

230

Firing Drop Number ( /sec)

Tilt : 20.5 = Moore’s Low

Until 2005

≈ Print Speed

≈ Printing Speed

Frequency * Nozzle Number

Page 12: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

End of CFP in Consumer Products

9

Increase of key components performance has almost saturated,and progress of printer performances (image quality, print speed) have ticked over since 2005.

I don’t mean that all ink jet technology developments should be stopped.

Volume of Ink Jet printer Shipment in Japan

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

SFPMFP

20051998 2010 2016Year

Shipment (M)

2000

876543210 If additional technology developments

focusing on consumer market stop, no consumer will feel inconvenient.

Page 13: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

New Progress Type

New type of technology progress has been necessary for new printer market with new hard issues.

One of new markets is commercial printing, and new progress type is Sharing Functions Progress (SFP).

10

Technologies progress of ink jet stop? NO!

Concentrating Functions Progress (CFP) is still required in other market with different performance axis (required performance) [DF] NOT consumer’s.

100Resolution (µm)

10 1

10

1

0.1

Layer Thickness (µm)

Ink Jet

Screen

Gravure Offset

Reverse Offset

Flexography

Slot Die Coater

High Viscosity

Small Drop Size

S. Tokito, The 4th Workshop on Flexible Organic Electronics (2017)

CFP is only approaches in ink jet ?

Page 14: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Image QualityImage Quality

Photo FinishingPhoto Finishing

Commercial PrintingCommercial Printing

Print SpeedPrint Speed

TransactionalTransactional

HomeHome

Serial Printhead

: Technical Difficulties to Overcome Boundary

Pagewide Printhead

Plane View of Ink Jet Market

Sharing Functions ProgressSharing Functions Progress

Concentrating Functions ProgressConcentrating Functions Progress

Digital FabricationDigital Fabrication

Light ProductionLight ProductionLow / Mid.

High

OfficeOffice

11

Concentrating Functions ProgressConcentrating Functions Progress

Page 15: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Serious Issues in Commercial Printing Market

Line Printer : One Pass Process

No Multi-Pass

Compatibility of High Speed & High Image Quality

Image FormingOn Non-Permeable Media

New Type of Technology ProgressNot Saddle Printhead or Ink

New Type of Technology ProgressNot Saddle Printhead or Ink

Sharing Functions ProgressSharing Functions Progress

Challenge

Permeable Media

Dot

Ink Jet Media

Existing Market(Consumer, Office, Photo)

Non-Permeable Media(Coated Paper for Offset)

Dot

Commercial Printing Market

Offset Coated Paper

Page 16: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Image FormingOn Non-Permeable MediaOne Pass Image Quality

for Commercial Printing

High Speed Printing with Cut Paper

Sharing Functions Progress (SFP)

BeforeCompensation

AfterCompensation

• Under-Coating• Drying System• Latex Ink

• Defect Detection• Defect Compensation• Impression Cylinder

No Under-Coating Under-Coating

• Drying System• Anti-Curl Agent• Impression Cylinder• Air Conditioner• Pagewide Printhead

Sharing Functions ProgressSharing Functions Progress

13

Many ink jet Merits (small size, low cost, low energy Consumption) are lost.

Printhead and Ink ProgressedAdopt or combine another surrounding technologies.

Page 17: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Direction of Technology Progress

2005

Concentrating Functions Progress

(CFP)

Concentrating Functions Progress

(CFP)

• Drop Volume• Firing Frequency• Resolution• Multi-Color• Penetrability• Color Reproduction

Imaging Process is Achieved Only by Interactions between Ink And Media.

Sharing Functions Progress

(SFP)

Sharing Functions Progress

(SFP)

Commercial Printing• Transfer• Drying, Cooling• Defect Detecting & Correction• Under-Coating• Pagewide Printhead

14

?

Concentrating Functions Progress

(CFP)

Concentrating Functions Progress

(CFP)

Digital Fabrication• Functional Ink• Printhead Firing High Viscosity• Media (Substrate) Reformulation

Digital Fabrication• Hydrophobic / Hydrophilic Control

Page 18: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

IncrementalInnovation

RadicalInnovation

Innovation Portfolio by Henderson & Clark

15

CFPArchitecture

Linkage between Core Concepts and Components

Reinforced Overturned

Changed

Unchanged

Core Component(Core Concept)

ModularInnovation

ArchitecturalInnovation

Architectural Knowledge

Component Knowledge

R. Henderson & K. Clark, Architectural Innovation: The ReconfigurationExisting Product Technologies and the Failure of Established Firm (1990)

≈SFP

Page 19: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Technology Progress of Ink Jet

Charged DeflectionHertz TypeElectrostatic Pull

PIJ,TIJ,AIP,ERFElectrostatic Pull Ink JetElectrostatic Actuator

1980

ArchitecturalKnowledge

ComponentKnowledge

Try And Error of Combinations

2005~

Improvement of Components

PIJ, TIJ

Captive CIJ

Dominant Design

Continuous Ink Jet

On Demand Ink Jet

Stream, Ultra-Stream

16

Concentrating Functions Progress

Architectural Knowledge Again?!

Try New CombinationsChange Architecture

Sharing Functions Progress

Break Off

Drop VolumeFiring FrequencyNozzle Number

Ink Penetrability

Charged Deflection (Binary)

Vista JETJetRix

LILO

Page 20: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Commercial Printing Market

Approaches & Dominant Design

Various ink jet approaches to commercial printing exist, but the dominant design has NOT been established yet.

17

(Liquid EP)

Direct IJ

AqueousUV

Transfer IJ

(Dry EP)Under-Coating

No Under-Coating

Page 21: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Contradiction of Progress in Commercial Printing Market

18

Binary Deflection

Thermal Ink Jet, Piezo Ink Jet

Concentrating FunctionsProgress (CFP)

Architectural Knowledge Component Knowledge

1980 2005 Present

Captive CIJ

On Demand

Continuous

ConsumerConsumerOfficeOffice IndustryIndustry

Digital Fabrication

Digital Fabrication

Architectural Knowledge

Sharing Functions Progress (SFP)

Commercial Printing Big NameBig Name

Venture or start-ups assumes architectural progress essentially.

Development Organization Development Organization or Resource Allocation

Based on Dominant Design

Do

min

an

t D

esig

n

Stream, Ultra-Stream

Page 22: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Contradiction of Progress in Commercial Printing Market

Architectural Innovation should be brought by venture companies or start-ups essentially.

On the other hand, Big companies have stored ink jet technologies and know-how required for commercial printing market.

Here, we have contradiction of progress.

No one can stop digitalization of commercial printing, what this contradiction brings?

19

Page 23: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Contrivances to Activate Ink Jet Technologies Progress

+

For both SFP (Architectural Innovation) and CFP, (Incremental Innovation)

Full-Blown ink jet technologies owned by ink jet company should be transfer or licensed to new challengers. (Don’t enclose for the already stop-glowing market.)

Ink Jet Technical Networking (Community) in Japanhttp://www.isj-imaging.org/inkjet-sig/

Engineers and Researchers network (Community) will help to share common information and create new applications and make innovations.

20

Page 24: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Architectural progress in Additive Manufacturing

Material Jetting

1989

J. Sakai

Binder Jetting

1989

E. M. Sachs

Vat Photo-polymerization

1980

H. Kodama

Powder BedFusion

1986

C. R. DeckardMaterial

Extrusion

1989

S. S. Crump

Sheet Lamination

1987

M. Feygin

Directed Energy Deposition

1995

G. K. Lewis

Additive Manufacturing Is Categorized into 7 Methods.

These 7 Methods were Invented in 1980’s or 1990’s.

About 30 years pasts, then...

Additive Manufacturing Is Categorized into 7 Methods.

These 7 Methods were Invented in 1980’s or 1990’s.

About 30 years pasts, then...

21

Page 25: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Vat Photo-polymerization

1980

Powder BedFusion

1986

Sheet Lamination

1987

Material Extrusion

1989

Binder Jetting

1989 Material Jetting

1989

Directed Energy Deposition

1995

J. Sakai

E. M. Sachs

H. Kodama C. R. DeckardS. S. Crump

M. Feygin

G. K. Lewis

21

Shift

• Material Latitude• Productivity• Cost

Rapid Prototyping

Indirect Manufacturing

3D Production

Custom Manufacturing

Complex Manufacturing

- Target Shift of Additive Manufacturing

Architectural progress in Additive Manufacturing

Page 26: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Architectural progress in Additive Manufacturing

Vat Photo-polymerization

1980

Powder BedFusion

1986

Sheet Lamination

1987

Material Extrusion

1989

Binder Jetting

1989 Material Jetting

1989

Directed Energy Deposition

1995

J. Sakai

E. M. Sachs

H. Kodama C. R. DeckardS. S. Crump

M. Feygin

G. K. Lewis

21

HPMulti Jet Fusion

Xaar & Loughborough UniversityHigh Speed Sintering

2017

XYZ Printingda Vinci Color 3D printer

2017

CarbonCLIP

2016

Page 27: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High

Conclusion & Suggestion

2005 was one of important turning years for ink jet technology progress.

22

Full-blown ink jet technologies owned by ink jet companies should be transferred or licensed to new challengers to activate both CFP and SFP.

Two type of ink jet technology progress exist. Concentrating Functions Progress (CFP) Sharing Functions Progress (SFP)

CFP is still required for digital fabrication, SFP is necessary for commercial printing.

In commercial printing market, a contradiction of progress has occurred, and dominant design has NOT been established yet.

CFP generates Incremental Innovation, SFP brings Architectural Innovation.

Page 28: Evolution Theory of Ink Jet Technologies · • Fast Drying Ink • Dryer • Defect Detection & Correction • Impression Cylinder • Under-Coating • Latex Ink • Dryer High