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Evolution Chapters 15 - 17

Evolution Chapters 15 - 17. Evolution is both Factual and the basis of broader theory What does this mean? What are some factual examples of evolution?

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Text of Evolution Chapters 15 - 17. Evolution is both Factual and the basis of broader theory What does this...


EvolutionChapters 15 - 17Evolution is both Factual and the basis of broader theoryWhat does this mean?

What are some factual examples of evolution?

What are some problems we apply evolutionary theory to solve?15Charles DarwinHe wasnt the first to suggest organisms change, so what was the major contribution?

How did the work of other scientists influence him? Lamarck?Lyell?Wallace?

What were the holes in Darwins theory? Who helped fill these?15Mechanisms of EvolutionStarts with variation in the populationHow is variation established in a gene pool?

SelectionArtificial vs. Natural?What effect does this have on variation?

Gene flowHow does it affect allele frequencies in a population? 15Genetic driftDo populations always evolve for the better?

What is a population bottleneck and how does this lead to the evolution of a population?

How does the Founder effect relate to the effect of a bottleneck?

15Mechanisms of EvolutionSexual SelectionExamples?

Often explains characteristics that seem to have no adaptive value but stick in the population.

15Measuring Allele FrequenciesWhat is the significance of changing allele frequencies?

What is the relationship between allele and genotypic frequencies?

15Measuring Allele FrequenciesIf p equals the frequency of the dominant allele (A) and q equals the frequency of the recessive allele (a), then:

p + q must equal 1. P2 = frequency of homozygous dom. (AA)2pq = frequency of heterozygous (Aa)q2 = frequency of homozygous rec. (aa)

Why? Know how this is derived using probability!

15Hardy Weinberg EquilibriumPopulations only maintain genetic equilibrium under certain conditions. What are the five requirements for H-W Equilibrium?

15Modes of Selection - How do they differ?

- When might each occur in a population?

- Know examples!

15Molecular EvolutionWhy dont all changes in DNA lead to a change in protein?

How does the rate of mutation compare between silent sites, missense sites and pseudogenes? Why is this significant?

What are the conditions for positive and purifying selection? 15Heterozygote advantage maintains polymorphic lociHow does this help explain why deleterious mutations may stay in a population?

Examples: cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia

15Promoting Genomic ChangesWhat are the disadvantages of sexual reproduction?

So how did it manage to evolve?

Examples of lateral gene transfer?

What are the various outcomes of gene duplication? 15Practical applications of Evo. TheoryHow is it used for studying protein function?

In vitro evolution- how and why?

1514Practical applications of Evo. TheoryAgricultural benefits?

Assistance in studying human disease?

1515Phylogenetic Trees16

What can they tell us?

- nodes?

- lineage?

Be careful lots of similar words. Know the nuances of their meaning!!!16Evidence for evolutionary relationships16Homologous traits resulting from divergent evolution?

Are all similar traits evidence of relatedness?17Building phylogenies16What sources of data can be used to build phylogenies?

Do any have benefits over others?

Can we test the accuracy of molecular methods?18Phylogenies compare, but can they also predict?16What practical applications does constructing phylogenies have?

How does the molecular clock assist in mapping evolutionary events?19Phylogeny as the basis for classification16Remember your classification scheme!

How has the Linnaean system been changed over the years? 20