Evolutia Turbinelor Eoliene in UE

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    UNIVERSITATEA POLITEHNICA BUCURESTIFACULTATEA INGINERIA SISTEMELOR BIOTEHNICE

    IMPM I

    EVOLUTIA TURBINELOR

    EOLIENE IN EUROPA

    2015

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    CUPRINS

    Introducere

    1 Istoricul eolienelor2 I!ort"n#" Eolienelor$ E%oluti" tur&inelor eoliene in UE' E%oluti" ener(iei eoliene in Euro!" l" s)"rsitul "nului 2*1$+ E%"lu"re" i!ort"ntei e%olutiei tur&inelor eoliene

    Intro,ucere

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    n ultimii ani cererea de energie este din ce n ce mai mare. n acest caz evolu ia situa iei n domeniul energetic presupune urmtoarele:

    epuizarea resurselor petroliere cu consecin e u or de imaginat; cre terea ntrun ritm rapid a emisiilor de gaze ce produc e!ectul de ser" merg#nd p#n la

    du$larea concentra iei de C%& n atmos!er;Una dintre solu ii o reprezint e'tinderea produc iei de energie nuclear i energie din surse

    neconven ionale. Sectorul energetic reprezint o surs de poluare important" ca urmare ae'trac iei" prelucrrii i arderii com$usti$ililor !osili. n conte'tul aderrii la Uniunea (uropean a !ost transpus n legisla ia rom#neasc )irectiva &**+,-*,(C privind Instala iile ari de /rdere care a avut ca termen de implementare 0+.+&.&**1.

    Impactul sectorului energetic asupra mediului" care reprezint o surs important de poluare"a !ost evaluat i sau o$ inut perioade de realizare a con!ormit ii la normele europene n domeniu perioade de tranzi ie pentru !iecare instala ie mare de ardere. Reducerea impactului sistemelor energetice asupra mediului i implementarea normelor prevzute n acest domeniuimpuse de reglementrile Uniunii (uropene urmeaz s se realizeze prin:

    lucrri de rea$ilitare i modernizare;

    ecologizarea 2aldelor de zgur i cenu ; monitorizarea continu a calit ii mediului n zona marilor o$iective energetice rea$ilitarea solurilor poluate i reintroducerea acestora n circuitul agricol; reducerea emisiilor de poluan i la ra!inrii i minimizarea pierderilor; re!acerea ecologic a unor zone petroli!ere prin reducerea riscului n operare.surile speci!ice care vor !i adoptate pentru protec ia mediului sunt: realizarea investi iilor din domeniul protec iei mediului; con!ormarea centralelor termoenergetice cu condi ii impuse de )irectiva &**+,-*,(C cu

    privire la limitarea emisiilor n aer ale anumitor poluan i 3S%&" No' i pul$eri4 proveni i din instala iile mari de ardere" de )irectiva 56,6+,(C privind prevenirea i controlul

    integrat al polurii i de )irectiva 55,0+,(C privind depozitarea de eurilor industriale; incadrarea centralelor termoelectrice n ceea ce prive te emisia gazelor cu e!ect de ser"

    n cotele prevzute n Planul Na ional de /locare 3P.N./.4 a certi!icatelor de emisii agazelor cu e!ect de ser pentru perioadele &**1 i &**- 7 &*+&" depa irea cotelor put#nd !i realizat doar cu ac2izi ie de certi!icate i cre terea corespunztoare a pre ului energiei electrice livrate;

    intensi!icarea utilizrii mecanismelor !le'i$ile prevzute n Protocolul de la 89oto i de)irectiva &**0,-1,C( privind comercializarea permiselor de emisii de C%&.(nergia eolian este o surs de energie regenera$il" generat de puterea v#ntului. #nturile

    sunt !ormate din cauza c soarele nu nclze te uni!orm Pm#ntul" !apt care creeaz mi cri de aer. (nergia cinetic din v#nt poate !i !olosit pentru a roti ni te tur$ine" care sunt capa$ile de a

    genera electricitate. Unele tur$ine pot produce =

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    Big. + Parc eoliana [email protected] anului &**6" capacitatea mondial a generatoarelor eoliene era de 105*>

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    Fi(-1-2- Mo"r. ,e %/nt cu !/n0e ,in 0on" etno(r")ic. o&ro(e" ,e su,surs"3 444-ciec-ro5

    Prima moar de vant cu pale pro!ilate a aprut in secolul doisprezece. C2iar dac era!oarte simpl" este [email protected] vor$a de prima cercetare aerodinamic a palelor. /cestea au !ostutilizate in principal pentru pomparea apei sau pentru mcinarea graului.

    In perioada [email protected]" inventatori cele$rii ca eonardo da inci sau interesat !oarteintens de morile de vant" ceea ce a condus la numeroase inovaDii. )e atunci" morile sau inmulDitin (uropa. RevoluDia industrial a o!erit un nou inceput pentru morile de vant" prin apariDia denoi materiale. in consecinD" utilizarea metalului a permis modi!icare !ormei turnului @i [email protected]$il a [email protected] pe care le numim pe scurt FeolieneF.

    Fi(-1-$- Eoli"n" o,ern"3sursa 2ttp:,,GGG.$a$ilim.co.u=,4

    1-2 I!ort"n#" Eolienelor(nergia de origine eolian !ace parte din energiile regenera$ile" aceasta este o surs de

    energie reinnoi$il generat din puterea vantului. (nergia eolian este atractiv atat din punct devedere ecologic nu produce emisii in atmos!er" nu !ormeaz [email protected] radioactive" cat @i din

    punct de vedere economic ca surs energetic primar vantul nu cost nimic. Noile cerinDe indomeniul dezvoltrii dura$ile au determinat statele lumii s [email protected] pun pro$lema metodelor de

    producere a energiei @i s creasc cota de energie produs pe $aza energiilor regenera$ile.Protocolul de la 89oto angaAeaz statele semnatare s reduc emisiile de gaze cu e!ect de

    ser. /cest acord a determinat adoptarea unor politici naDionale de dezvoltare a eolienelor @i aaltor surse ce nu degaA $io'id de car$on.

    Hrei !actori au determinat ca soluDia eolienelor s devin mai competitiv: noile [email protected] @i dezvoltarea electronicii de putere; ameliorarea per!ormanDelor aerodinamice in conceperea tur$inelor

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    eoliene; !inanDarea naDional pentru implantarea de noi eoliene.

    1-$- E%oluti" tur&inelor eoliene in UEBiliera eolian este destul de dezvoltat in (uropa" deDinand poziDia de lider in topul

    energiilor regenera$ile. /cest tip de energie regenera$il asigur necesarul de energie electric

    pentru +* milioane de locuitori. )ealt!el" 5* ? din productorii de eoliene de medie @i mareputere" se a!l in (uropa.

    In ermania" energia eolian este in plin ascensiune @i pe campurile din polderul de la. Hur$ina eoliana de mare capacitate in ermania

    In %landa proiectul unei ast!el de centrale a !ost !oarte $ine primit de pu$lic deoarece a!ost amplasat pe ap. Scopul acestui proiect a !ost $ine ales @i sa dovedit un mare succes.Centrala eolian are > tur$ine cu & pale @i produce o cantitate anual de 0. 4 in IAsselmer la &"6 =m nord de [email protected]$li=. Hur$ine au !ost construite de !irma Ned avand o inlDimede >* de metri dispuse la o distanD de &** de metri unul de cellalt.

    Centrala eolian a !ost pus in !uncDiune in anul +55> @i proiectat s produc 0. G2pe an. in anul +556 au !ost o$DinuDi 0.5 *?. )in punct de vedere economic investiDia a costat+* milioane de guldeni din care tur$inele au costat -** ***" iar preDul unui =iloGat este de *.+guldeni. )urata de !uncDionare a centralei este prevzut a !i de +5 ani. Centrala eolian de la

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    i=na este construit pe o colin a unei insule la 6 grade latitudinea nordic. Hurnul centraleiare inlDimea de +** de metri !aD de nivelul rii Norvegiei intro zon in care $ate permanent.Centrala are tur$ine cu pas regla$il produse de !irma danez estas !iecare tur$in avand o

    putere de &.&

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    Big.+.. Puterea eoliana la nivel glo$al in &**6" O+0.RepartiDia in (uropa a energiei electrice produse pe $aza eolienelor" arat di!erenDe intre

    state. ermania este liderul pe piaDa european" in ciuda unei incetiniri in &**0 a instalrilor.Spania" pe poziDia a doua" continu s instaleze intensiv parcuri eoliene. )anemarca este pe a

    treia poziDie" avand dezvoltate eoliene o!!s2ore @i trecand la modernizarea eolienelor maivec2i de +* ani. Costurile @i e!icienDa unui proiect eolian tre$uie s Din seama atat de preDuleolienei" cat de cele ale instalrii @i intreDinerii acesteia" precum @i de cel al vanzrii energiei. %eolian este scump. Hre$uiesc realizate inc progrese economice pentru a se putea asiguraresursele dezvoltrii eolienelor. Se estimeaz c instalarea unui =< eolian" cost apro'imativ

    +*** euro. Progresele te2nologice @i producDia in [email protected] de eoliene din ultimii ani

    permit reducerea constant a preDului estimat PreDul unui =

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    1-'- E%oluti" ener(iei eoliene in Euro!" l" s)"rsitul "nului 2*1$

    n decem$rie &*+>" c"!"cit"te" ,e ener(ie eoli"n.instalat6n Uniune" Euro!e"n.autotalizat +&-"1+ megaGa i 3" un total de ++15+ < de energie eoliana !ostinstalat" reprezent#nd 0&? din toate noi capacit i de putere. ntrun an de v#nt normal a

    capacit ii de energie eolian instalat la nceputul anului &*+> ar produce &1 H* +1? din energia electric a U(" evit#nd 000****** de tone deC%& pe an i de economisire (uropa &- de miliarde Q pe an costuri de com$usti$il evitate.

    Cercetarea dintro varietate de surse din di!erite ri europene arat c spriAinul pentruenergia eolian este n mod constant apro'imativ -* la suta in randul pu$licului larg.

    Ener(i" eoli"n. 6n Ger"ni"

    Big.+.6. Berm eoliannNeuen=irc2en

    a nceputul anului &*+>" capacitatea instalat de energie eolian n Germaniaa !ost de00"&& megaGa i 3

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    Ener(i" eoli"n. 6n S!"ni"

    Big.+.1. edere aerian a unuiparc eoliann Spania

    Spania este lider generatorul de energie eolian din (uropa i a doua ar 3dup

    ermania4" n capacitate instalat ncep#nd din &*++" cu &&1- < de capacitate instalat n&*+&. (nergia eolian singur acoperit +6"6? din cererea total de energie electric n Spania n&*+* 3n con!ormitate cu Red electrica de (spaa" operatorul de sistem spaniol4 i continu caal treilea te2nologia n sistem" dup energia nuclear i cicluri com$inate. Capacitate instalat(nergia eolian ar putea satis!ace nevoile de energie electric a dou treimi din gospodriispaniole. n &*+*" sectorul energiei electrice a redus emisiile de C%& cu &6? datorit energieieoliene. FSpania de ine aceste pozi ii" ca urmare a sta$ilirii unui cadru de reglementare sta$il" mai $un n elegere a resursei" i te2nologie m$unt it care au condus la reducerea considera$il a costurilor n termeni de investi ii ini iale" ntre inere i e'ploatare F.

    Ener(i" eoli"n. 6n "ne"rc"

    Big.+.-. Hur$ine eoliene o!!s2ore in apropiere de Copen2aga

    (nergia eolian n )anemarca o!er circa 05 la sut de energie electric intern danez i

    )anemarca este un lider energia eolianna iune din lume. )anezii au !ost pionieri n dezvoltareaenergiei eoliene comerciale n +51* i de azi aproape Aumtate din tur$inele eolienedin ntreagalume sunt produse de ctre productori daneze" cum ar !iestas i Siemens

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    de opera ionale !erme eoliene i >+- tur$ine eolienedin Rom#nia. area ritanie este cotat caproductor al optulea cel mai mare din lume deenergie eolian. +.- < de noi capacit i deenergie eolian a !ost adus online n cursul anului &*+&" o cre tere de 0*? din totalul arearitanie capacitate instalat. &*+& a !ost un an important pentru industria eolian o!!s2orecu >!erme eoliene de mari dimensiuni n e'ploatare cu peste +"+ < de capacitate generatoarevenind pe !lu'.

    Prin ReneGa$les o$liga ia " $ritanici !urnizorii de energie electricsunt acum cerute delege pentru a o!eri o parte din v#nzrile lor din surse regenera$ile" cum ar !i energia eolian saus plteasc o ta' de penalizare. Burnizorul prime te apoi un %$liga ia certi!icatReneGa$les3R%C4 pentru !iecare < 2 de energie electric care leau ac2izi ionat. n RegatulUnit" energia eolian este a doua cea mai mare surs de energie regenera$il dup$iomas.

    (nergia eolian este de a teptat s continue n cre tere n area ritanie pentru viitorul previzi$il ReneGa$leU8 . estimat n &*+* c mai mult de &.*** < de capacitate ar !ides! urat pe an pentru urmtorii cinci ani. P#n n &*&*" Regatul Unit este de a teptat s au mai mult de &-.*** de < de capacitate eoliana.

    Ener(i" eoli"n. 6n Re!u&lic" Irl"n,"Irlandaeste cea mai $una locatie din (uropa pentru energia eolian" deoarece este situat

    la marginea de vest a (uropei i este e'pus la vanturilor puternice din %ceanul /tlantic i areaIrlandei. capacitatea instalat de energie eolian n Rom#nia a !ostde &+++ 66. < n valoare de proiecte sunt n curs de ela$orare i trei proiecteo!!s2ore" mari" cu o capacitate totala de +>5* < sunt plani!icate. (stonia" ca o ar" care estelarg desc2is la mare i are un teritoriu plat" are un poten ial !oarte mare pentru dezvoltarea energiei eoliene.

    Con!orm unui studiu e!ectuat de inisterul estonian al ediului" 5? dintre responden iau considerat energia eolian ca cel mai ecologic mod de a produce energie.

    Litu"ni"uvernul lituanianeste de plani!icare pe mimarea altice vecin )anemarca" care

    genereaz &* la sut din energie cu tur$ine eoliene. uvern lituanian au planuri de a construi &**de megaGa i de energie din surse regenera$ile p#n n &*+*" n tur$ine eoliene.

    n Premier (nergie (olian (veniment !e$ruarie &*+0 de v#nt din (uropa a !ost evaluatde ctre Ro$ert Clover de la /8( Consulting ca cea mai ie!tin te2nologie de energieelectric" dup nt#lnirea &*&* *? din cererea de electricitate din (uropa p#n n &**. ncon!ormitate cuBati2 irol" economistse! la (nergie International /gen ia " !r eliminareatreptat a su$ven iilor pentru com$usti$ilii !osili" U( nu va atinge o$iectivele climatice. Celesu$ven iilor pentru com$usti$ilii !osili erau Aumtate de trilion de dolari n &*++. Cele mai mari

    provocri ale energiei eoliene este lipsa de predicti$ilitate a politicilor guvernamentale" i nu

    lipsa de predicti$ilitate a energiei eoliene" potrivit irol. Sc2im$ri de politic retroactive ausu$minat" de asemenea" investi iile n proiecte de energie regenera$il. Industria eolian(uropean are nevoie de !or de munc cali!icat. capacit ii de energie eolian a U( n la

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power_in_Luxembourg%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&usg=ALkJrhgKjtMVXMwKutpqlkAtWE63zKKUawhttp://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&prev=search&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=en&u=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DWind_power_in_Luxembourg%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&usg=ALkJrhgKjtMVXMwKutpqlkAtWE63zKKUawhttp://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&prev=search&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=en&u=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DWind_power_in_Slovakia%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&usg=ALkJrhjFhjgMw7j7T8Avx1mOoAszjJgqeghttp://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&prev=search&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=en&u=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DWind_power_in_Slovakia%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&usg=ALkJrhjFhjgMw7j7T8Avx1mOoAszjJgqeghttp://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&prev=search&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=en&u=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DWind_power_in_Slovenia%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&usg=ALkJrhg-ADvNNLnnaHjhdh2KphMMOmaWeQhttp://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&prev=search&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=en&u=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DWind_power_in_Slovenia%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&usg=ALkJrhg-ADvNNLnnaHjhdh2KphMMOmaWeQhttp://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&prev=search&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=en&u=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power_in_Malta&usg=ALkJrhgPxgA-4bNI5buW-cH8kN8YnTlNXghttp://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&prev=search&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=en&u=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power_in_Turkey&usg=ALkJrhgl44PCxvxMdXyuYTEcnzsfa7Q3jAhttp://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&prev=search&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=en&u=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DWind_power_in_Norway%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&usg=ALkJrhhW_pIco_IyAoUvR6KPX7mXYtgPFwhttp://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&prev=search&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=en&u=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DWind_power_in_Norway%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&usg=ALkJrhhW_pIco_IyAoUvR6KPX7mXYtgPFwhttp://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&prev=search&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=en&u=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DWind_power_in_Ukraine%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&usg=ALkJrhg9L4JdEdFyTta6IPjb9xTWrGXBcghttp://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&prev=search&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=en&u=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DWind_power_in_Ukraine%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&usg=ALkJrhg9L4JdEdFyTta6IPjb9xTWrGXBcghttp://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&prev=search&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=en&u=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DWind_power_in_Switzerland%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&usg=ALkJrhiPGrQwk2c4r_pHHr0-veOUpxhHhAhttp://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&prev=search&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=en&u=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DWind_power_in_Macedonia%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&usg=ALkJrhgBbB_6_hDT985PaKRMsvzJefRCUghttp://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&prev=search&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=en&u=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php%3Ftitle%3DWind_power_in_Macedonia%26action%3Dedit%26redlink%3D1&usg=ALkJrhgBbB_6_hDT985PaKRMsvzJefRCUg
  • 7/21/2019 Evolutia Turbinelor Eoliene in UE

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  • 7/21/2019 Evolutia Turbinelor Eoliene in UE

    19/25

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    Rom#nia *.* * + + +5" >"5 5*"5

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    Branta 3G , o de peste mri4 +5**

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    aduce la reducerea emisiilor de gaze cu e!ect de ser. n calitate de resurs curat @i regenera$il"energia eolian Aoac deAa 7 @i va continua s Aoace 7 un rol important n atenuarea sc2im$rilorclimatice" aduc#nd" n [email protected] timp" avantaAe n ceea ce [email protected] reducerea emisiilor de poluanDiatmos!erici @i consumul de ap de rcire asociat cu numeroase te2nologii de producere a energieiconvenDionale.

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    Big. +.5. Parcuri eoliene in (uropa" in &**0" O+>.

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    (nergia eolian este considerat ca una din opDiunile cele mai dura$ile dintre varianteleviitorului" resursele v#ntului !iind imense. Se estimeaz c energia eolian recupera$il la nivelmondial se situeaz la apro'imativ 0 *** H

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    BIBLIOGRAFIE

    +4 lad Ilie"Energia vantului"+5-&&4 Nestor upei, Zestrea energetica a lumii" (dit./l$atros" +5-604 (uropean CommisionT Wind Energy - the facts !ol " #$he EnvironmentT"+555.>4 (uropean tt!3==444-scritu&-co=te>nic"@ec"nic"[email protected]@Ene82$99-!>!

    http://www.scribd.com/doc/77632322/Proiect-Licenta-Centrale-Eoliene#scribdhttp://www.scribd.com/doc/77632322/Proiect-Licenta-Centrale-Eoliene#scribd