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The easy way to type phonetic symbols, too, in MS Word  by John W el ls, University College London  Y ou’ve read the article Eureka The easy way to type foreign alphabets and accented letters in MS Word , by my friends Dermod Quirke and Brian Holser.  The good news is that you can apply these same principles to typing ! " symbols# too. $f course# you%ll need a font that includes phonetic symbols. &an you see the words in phonetic transcription at the top of this page' f so# you%ve already got a handful of phonetic symbols in addition to the standard a(). $pen a *ord document# click nsert + ,ymbol and scroll though the table of symbols. Y ou%ll -nd in line /# 0 and 1 in line 2# 3 and 4 in line 56# and 7 and 8 in line 52. But ’m being disingenuous here. These are not e9clusively phonetic symbols: they’re also used in the standard spelling of certain ;uropean languages <Danish=>orwegian# celandic# Danish=>orwegian# ,?mi# @ rench and Areek respectively# since you ask.  That’s why they’re included in the Catin(alphabet nicode <*AC/ fonts that come with the current versions of *indows. Where can I find a phonetic font? But what about the maEority of !" symbols# those that are not used in standard orthographies' @or these# you’ll need a font that e9plicitly includes !" symbols. ;9plore the list of fonts already available to you. *ith a new *or d document open# scroll down the font bo9# the one that reads FTimes >ew GomanF <unless you have changed it. Have you got a font called Lucida Sans Unicode' You may well have it’s automatically included in many recent versions of *indows. f so# select it. f not# download it from http:==www .phon.ucl.ac.uk=home=wells=lsansuni.ttf and install it. $pen a new *or d document and select it. This article is intended to be read in the Lucida Sans Unicode font . Unless  you have it installed on your sys tem (and have if necessa ry activated Multilanguage Support) you will not be able to read the remaining text properly . 'ædIŋ 'aI pi: 'eI

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The easy way to type phonetic symbols, too,

in MS Word 

 by John Wells, University College London

 You’ve read the article Eureka – The easy way to type foreign alphabets and accented letters in MS Word , by my friends Dermod Quirke and Brian Holser. The good news is that you can apply these same principles to typing !" symbols#too.

$f course# you%ll need a font that includes phonetic symbols. &an you see thewords in phonetic transcription at the top of this page' f so# you%ve already got ahandful of phonetic symbols in addition to the standard a(). $pen a *orddocument# click nsert + ,ymbol and scroll though the table of symbols. You%ll -nd

in line /# 0 and 1 in line 2# 3 and 4 in line 56# and 7 and 8 in line 52. But ’mbeing disingenuous here. These are not e9clusively phonetic symbols: they’re alsoused in the standard spelling of certain ;uropean languages <Danish=>orwegian#celandic# Danish=>orwegian# ,?mi# @rench and Areek respectively# since you ask. That’s why they’re included in the Catin(alphabet nicode <*AC/ fonts that comewith the current versions of *indows.

Where can I find a phonetic font?

But what about the maEority of !" symbols# those that are not used in standardorthographies' @or these# you’ll need a font that e9plicitly includes !" symbols.

;9plore the list of fonts already available to you. *ith a new *ord documentopen# scroll down the font bo9# the one that reads FTimes >ew GomanF <unlessyou have changed it. Have you got a font called Lucida Sans Unicode' You maywell have it’s automatically included in many recent versions of *indows.

• f so# select it.

• f not# download it from http:==www.phon.ucl.ac.uk=home=wells=lsansuni.ttfand install it. $pen a new *ord document and select it.

This article is intended to be read in the Lucida Sans Unicode font . Unless you have it installed on your system (and have if necessary activatedMultilanguage Support) you will not be able to read the remaining text properly.

'ædIŋ 'aI pi: 'eI

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>ow# with

Cucida ,ans nicode showing in the font bo9# do nsert + ,ymbol again. <You stillwant ,ymbols# not ,pecial &haracters. ,croll down to line 5I# where you will -ndthe start of the IPA Extensions subset. Here are all the oJcial !" vowel andconsonant symbols <and a few non(!" ones# in a Kuasi(alphabetic order: L M N O P RS. They are followed by Spacing Modifer Letters: diacritics and so on thatoccupy their own hori)ontal space# such as U V W X# and also the stress mark andlength mark Z. Then come the Combining Diacritical Mars that go over# under#or through another symbol# such as the tilde over P  [ and the dental diacritic undern\.

"s well as Cucida ,ans nicode# there are one or two other nicode fonts availablethat include the !" symbols. f you happen to have a ]apanese version of*indows# you will probably -nd that you have a font called MS Minc!o. "s wellas thousands of ^anEi <&hinese characters# this _.II`B font also has most of the!" characters# though some are not very well drawn. However# there are only ahandful of ,pacing `odi-er Cetters and no &ombining Diacritical `arks at all. Therest of us can download this font free as part of the $Jce ! Tool: ]apaneseCanguage !ack available at http:==oJce.microsoft.com=downloads= .

 The largest nicode font is Arial Unicode MS. t runs to .6 `B and includes25#5_6 dierent characters the entire nicode .6. t naturally includes the fullset of !" characters and diacritics. f you want to mi9 &hinese# "rabic# Hindi andietnamese characters with phonetic symbols# all without changing fonts# this isthe one to go for. But because this font is so vast# there is a risk that it will slowyour computer down when you use it. f you’d still like to have it# you candownload it free from `icrosoft athttp:==oJce.microsoft.com=downloads=666=aruniupd.asp9 .

,o the best nicode phonetic font seems to be Cucida ,ans nicode. t haseverything the ordinary practising phonetician needs in the way of symbols# yetremains conveniently compact. You may -nd it ugly when displayed or printed inlarger si)es: if so# stick to si)e 56# as do.

What about the phonetic font I already use?

Before nicode <multibyte fonts became available# many of us used specialcustomi)ed single(byte phonetic fonts. You may be familiar with proprietary fontssuch as the pa(sam fonts available from niversity &ollege Condon# or the free ,C;ncore fonts from the ,ummer nstitute of Cinguistics. They will still work incurrent versions of *indows and *ord# but you can’t e9ploit "uto&orrect withthem in the way Quirke and Holser discuss# and shan%t mention them further. They will probably gradually disappear over the ne9t few years# as more and morenicode fonts become available.

 AutoCorrect codes for phonetic symbols

&an you read these symbols' M P j  You should be able to see cardinal vowels # 2# I# and 5I#

followed by a schwa and the symbols for a voiced velar fricative#a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative# a voiced palatal nasal# and

voiceless and voiced postalveolar <palatoalveolar fricatives.

"#$s $% s&m '&"net$li tr(n"sra$bd "$)gl$* 

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 You can create "uto&orrect codes for !" symbols in e9actly the same way asQuirke and Holser describe for accented letters of the ordinary alphabet. "gain#it’s up to you to decide what codes you choose to use.

!ersonally# for the starting and ending character of my phonetic symbol codes use +# the vertical line. $n a ^ keyboard# it’s conveniently located on the same

key as the backslash# but reKuires you to press the shift key. This is handy#because like to use ,"`!" for my "uto&orrect codes# and most of the ,"`!"symbols are uppercase.

<f you’re not familiar with ,"`!"# it’s an ",&i)ation of !" widely used by speechtechnologists. Gead about it athttp:==www.phon.ucl.ac.uk=home=sampa=home.htm .

,o suggest the following pattern for phonetic codes:<5 ,tarting character +< ,"`!" code such as " <for M or <for q< ;nding character +

 Thus the code for M is +"+# and the code for q is ++.

@ollow the instructions given in Quirke and Holser’s article to create an"uto&orrect code for each phonetic symbol you want to use. Here’s a table of thebasic ,"`!" set.

Vowels

Code etter 

!escription

+"+ M script a# open back unrounded# &ardinal 2# ;ng. start ++ ae ligature# raised open front unrounded# ;ng. trap+I+ L turned a# open(mid schwa# Aerman besser +Q+ N turned script a# open back rounded# ;ng. lot 

+;+ epsilon# cardinal # open(mid front unrounded# @r. m"me++ q turned e# schwa# ;ng. banana++ reversed epsilon# open(mid central# ;ng. nurse++ small cap i# la9 close front unrounded# ;ng. #it +$+ P turned c# cardinal I# open(mid back rounded# ;ng. thought ++ 1 slashed o# cardinal 56# close(mid front rounded# @r. deux ++ 4 oe ligature# cardinal 55# open(mid front rounded# @r. neuf ++ small cap oe ligature# cardinal 5# open front rounded++ x upsilon# la9 close back rounded# ;ng. foot ++ z barred u# cardinal 5_# close central rounded# ,wedish s$u++ { turned v# cardinal 5/# open(mid back unrounded# ;ng. strut +Y+ | small cap y# la9 close front rounded# Aerman h%bsch

ConsonantsCode ette

r !escription

+B+ 7 beta# voiced bilabial fricative# ,panish cabo+&+ } c(cedilla# voiceless palatal fricative# Aerman ich+D+ 0 eth# voiced dental fricative# ;ng. then+A+ gamma# voiced velar fricative# ,panish fuego+]+ left(tailed n# palatal nasal# ,panish a&o+C+ ~ turned y# palatal lateral# talian famiglia+>+ 3 eng# velar nasal# ;ng. thing+G+ • inverted s.c. r# voiced uvular fricative# @rench roi+,+ esh# voiceless postalveolar <palatoalveolar fricative# ;ng. ship

+T+ 8 theta# voiceless dental fricative# ;ng. thin+H+ € turned h# labial(palatal appro9imant# @rench huit 

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++ e)h <yogh# voiced postalveolar <palatoal. fricative# ;ng.measure

+'+ ‚ dotless '# glottal stop# Aerman 'erein

Lengt!+ stress and tone mars

Code Symbol !escription+:+ Z triangular colon# length mark+F+ vertical stroke# primary stress mark+ƒ+ „ low vertical stroke# secondary stress mark

Diacritics

Code Symbol !escription+…+ †# e.g. n† combining vertical line below# syllabicity mark# ;ng. garden+‡+ [# e.g. M[ combining tilde# nasali)ed# @rench bon

>ote that you have to type a diacritic after  the base symbol it goes with. ,o for M[

you type +"++‡+. n the symbol bo9# by the way# the syllabicity mark is locateddirectly above the Areek capital pi <ˆ# but two lines higher. The combining tilde isdirectly above the Areek upper(case )eta <‰# but three lines up. "s you maynotice# the Cucida ,ans nicode diacritics are not always easy to read on(screen. They don%t all print out very well# either.

 These may be all the symbols you need. They are suJcient for you to makephonemic transcriptions of ;nglish G!# @rench# Aerman# ,panish and talian.

f you need more symbols# create an "uto&orrect code for them in the same way. There may not be a ,"`!" code for them# but with the help of the (,"`!"proposals <www.phon.ucl.ac.uk=home=sampa=9(sampa.htm you can code all theremaining !" symbols unambiguously. <But remember that you can instead use

any other code you -nd convenient. Here is a selection of (,"`!" codes:

Code Symbol !escription+5+ (g.*) Š barred i# cardinal 5# close central unrounded+t‹+ Œ long(tailed t# voiceless retroe9 plosive+n‹+ Ž long(tailed n# retroe9 nasal+G+ small cap r# uvular trill+/+ ‘ turned s.c. E# alveolar tap+h+ hooked h# voiced glottal fricative+^+ belted l# voiceless alveolar lateral fricative+2+ “ dark l# velari)ed alveolar lateral+`+ ” velar appro9imant

+–+ W (e.g. pW modi-er apostrophe# eEective+6+ (g. +)  — (e.g. n— combining ring below# voiceless=devoiced+d+  (e.g. n combining bridge below# dental

 The eEective diacritic is located immediately below ™ <small cap b. Thevoicelessness diacritic is located in the same column as the Areek upper(case mu<š# but two lines higher up. The dental diacritic is in the same column as theAreek upper(case rho <›# but two lines up.

f you like to use ligatures for the aricate symbols# then obvious codes would be +t,+ for œ and +d+ for . But you could use something else if you prefer. "s Quirkeand Holser say# remember: they’re your  codes# so you choose the ones that suit your  needs.

PZl 0q best

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 ohn -ells uly /++*

 E.wells "T ucl.ac.uk

 This document available on the web as

http:==www.phon.ucl.ac.uk=home=wells=eureka(ipa.doc