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JOELLE AGUILAR, ADRIANA COLINA, NICOLE BAQUERO, MARIA DE LOS ANGELES DUEÑAS, SEBASTIAN CARRERA, SAMANTA BATALLAS. EUBACTERIA

Eubacteria

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Page 1: Eubacteria

JOELLE AGUILAR, ADRIANA COLINA, NICOLE BAQUERO, MARIA DE LOS ANGELES DUEÑAS, SEBASTIAN CARRERA,

SAMANTA BATALLAS.

EUBACTERIA

Page 2: Eubacteria

ANATOMY OF THE GROUP

Prokaryotic Cell Structure

-Capsule 

-Cell Wall 

-Cytoplasm

-Cell Membrane or Plasma Membrane 

-Pili 

-Flagella

-Ribosomes 

-Plasmids 

-Nucleiod Region 

adri

Page 3: Eubacteria

The cell wall is the tough, usually flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells. It is located outside the cell membrane and provides these cells with structural support and protection, in addition to acting as a filtering mechanism. A major function of the cell wall is to act as a pressure vessel, preventing over-expansion when water enters the cell. Cell walls are found in plants, bacteria, fungi, algae, and some archaea. Animals and protozoa do not have cell walls.

adri

Page 4: Eubacteria

Shape and Structure Eubacteria are unicellular organisms. They can also be classified

according to their shape and are found in three different shapes. Following are the shapes and examples of some of the eubacteria.

1) Round or Spherical or Oval Shaped: Micrococcus, Streptococcus and Sarcina.

2)Rod Shaped: Lactobacillus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas.

3)Spiral or Comma Shaped: Vibrio, Camphilovextor and Triponema.

adri

Page 5: Eubacteria

CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION

Proteobacteria: The Proteobacteria are a major group of bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, and many other notable genera. 

SubgroupAlpha Proteobacteria: Alphaproteobacteria is a class of Proteobacteria. Like all Proteobacteria, they are Gram-negative.Beta Proteobacteria: The Betaproteobacteria consist of several groups of aerobic or facultative bacteria that are often highly versatile in their degradation capacities.Gamma Proteobacteria: Gammaproteobacteria is a class of several medically, ecologically and scientifically important groups of bacteria, such as the Enterobacteriaceae Vibrionaceae and Pseudomonadaceae.Delta Proteobacteria: Deltaproteobacteria is a class of Proteobacteria. All species of this group are, like all Proteobacteria, gram-negative.Epsilon Proteobacteria: Epsilonproteobacteria is a class of Proteobacteria.All species of this class are, like all Proteobacteria, gram-negative.

joelly

Page 6: Eubacteria

Chlamydias: Chlamydia is a genus of gram negative bacteria in the family Chlamydiaceae, den Chlamydiales, phylum Chlamydiae.

Spirochetes: Spirochaetes belong to a phylum of distinctive diderm bacteria, most of which have long, helicallycoiled cells.

Gram-Positive Bacteria: Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining. This is in contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, which cannot retain the crystal violet stain, instead taking up the counterstain and appearing red or pink.

joelly

Page 7: Eubacteria

PHISIOLOGY

Rapid reproduction, mutation, and genetic recombination promote genetic diversity in prokaryotes: the diverse adaptation exhibited by prokaryotes suggest that their population must have considerable genetic variation.

For example, a ribosomal RNA gene can differ more between two strains of E coli than it goes between a human and a platypus.

nicole

Page 8: Eubacteria

Rapid reproduction: in sexually reproducing species, the generation of a novel allele by a new mutation is rare for any particular gene.

Instead, most of the genetic variation in sexual populations results from the way existing alleles are arrange in new combinations during meiosis and fertilization.

Prokaryotes do not reproduce sexually, so at first glance their extensive genetic variation may seem puzzling.

nicole

Page 9: Eubacteria

The role of oxygen in metabolism: prokaryotic metabolism also varies with respect to oxygen O2.

Obligate anaerobes must use O2 for cellular respiration and cannot grow without it.

Obligate anaerobes, on the other hand, are poisoned by O2, some obligate anaerobes live exclusively by fermentation; others extract chemical energy by anaerobic respiration, in which substances other than O2.nicole

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Matabolic Cooperation: prokaryotic cells allows them to use environmental resources they could not use as individual cells. In some cases, this cooperation takes place between specialized cells of a filament.

For instance, the cyanobacterium Anabaena has genes that encode proteins for photosynthesis and for nitrogen fixation, but a single cell cannot carry out both processes at the same time.

nicole

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MOVILITY

Flagella are used for swimming through water, bacteria gliding and twitching motility move bacteria across surfaces, and changes of buoyancy allow vertical motion.

mari

Page 12: Eubacteria

DIVERSITY

Three main shapes:Spheres (cocci)Rods (bacilli)Helices (spirilla)

Varieties of shape•Chain (strepto)•Cluster (staphylo•Pair (diplo)

Aggregation

•Vibrio fischeri emit light when in large groups, but not alone.•Exist in light organs of squid.•Bacteria senses high density based upon amt. of signal present called quorum

Variety of cell wall •Gram +

•Stain purple

•Gram -•Stain pink

mari

Page 13: Eubacteria

DISTRIBUTION

HETEROTROPHS: This bacteria lives about anywhere, including in your body in the form of a parasite. Saprobes feed off of non -living organisms and recycles the nutrients back into the environment where it can be used to create new life. This bacteria lives about anywhere, including in your body in the form of a parasite. Saprobes feed off of non -living organisms and recycles the nutrients back into the environment where it can be used to create new life. AUTOTROPHS: Obtain energy through photosynthesis. Most are a blue-green color and are often called blue-green bacteria. They get this color from chlorophyll, which is also found in plants. They live in chains in ponds, lakes, and moist regions.CHEMOTROPHS: Produce energy by converting inoganic matter into organic matter. They break down dead stuff.This bacteria lives about anywhere, including in your body in the form of a parasite. Saprobes feed off of non -living organisms and recycles the nutrients back into the environment where it can be used to create new life.

sami

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PROS

in humans, we have bacteria that help us digest food. That food would otherwise we useless to us because it would simply pass through. Termites are the most fascinating example of this. The bacteria in the termite's gut eat and break down the wood and flourish. The termites digest the baceria and their byproducts. Bacteria are very commonly symbiotic. They live in a honest that protects them from the outside world and provides them food and in return the bacteria provide some kind of benefitcial fuction for the host.Bacteria are natural enemies of fugus. Fungi like ringworm have difficultly culturing on human skin because of the bacteria that fight it.

sebas

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CONS

Obviously bacteria, if left unchecked, can erupt into lethal levels. Bad bacteria can cause infections and break down skin and organs. Infections can lead to death. Bacteria also cause an immune response. When foreign bacteria get into the human body, your immune response reacts, causing all kinds of unpleasant side affects. Your body temperature raises, making the environment unstable for the bacteria. Macrophages destroy some of the bacteria in your throat, but also destroy the surrounding cells, which cause sore throats.

sebas