Ethnography of Communication / Speaking

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Ethnography of Communication / Speaking. Mardziah Hayati Abdullah. Overview (1). Ethnomethodology Ethnography of communication/speaking Communicative / speech event Factors governing events Speech Acts Structure of conversations Conversational interchange Turn-taking. Overview (2). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ethnography of Communication / SpeakingMardziah Hayati Abdullah

Feb 20121MHA BBI32041Dr. Mardziah BBI3204Overview (1)EthnomethodologyEthnography of communication/speakingCommunicative / speech eventFactors governing eventsSpeech ActsStructure of conversationsConversational interchangeTurn-taking

Feb 20122MHA BBI3204Overview (2)PolitenessTerms of addressCooperation (Grice & Goffman) Gricean maximsFace (Grice & Goffman)

Feb 20123MHA BBI3204Phenomenological view of the worldThe world is something people must constantly keep creating and sustaining for themselves. Language plays a very significant role in that creating and sustaining process.

Feb 20124MHA BBI3204Ethnomethodology (1)Study of processes and techniques that people use to interpret the world around them and to interact with that worldcategories and systems that people use in making sense of the worldconstruction of social worldproduction and interpretation of everyday action as skilled accomplishment

Feb 20125MHA BBI3204Ethnomethodology (2)Focus oneveryday existencepractical reasoning / commonsense or tacit knowledge

Feb 20126MHA BBI3204ActivityIn the previous lesson, you discussed some utterances in terms of the contexts in which they might be used, the nature of the relationship between speaker and listener for each utterance, and the contexts in which they might be inappropriate.

How did you know the answers? Feb 20127MHA BBI3204Ethnographic research (1)

FocusedIn-depthDescriptiveFeb 20128MHA BBI3204

Ethnographic research (2):Triangulation Different sources of dataHuman respondentsEvents, settingsDocuments, archives, etc.Different forms of dataInterview dataObservation dataReports, photographs, etc. Field notes, etc. Feb 20129MHA BBI3204Ethnography of a communicative* /speech event

(*Note: communicative event has a broader application.)Feb 201210MHA BBI3204

Communicative eventDefinition: An act of communication

Examples of communicative events

Feb 201211MHA BBI3204

Ethnography of a speech eventA description of all the factors that are relevant in understanding how that particular speech event achieves its objectivesFeb 201212MHA BBI3204

Hymes ethnographic framework: Ethnography of CommunicationCommunication is more than linguistic knowledge; we must understand context Seven (7) distinct factors captured in an acronym: SPEAKINGEach associated with a different function but all closely relatedEach event governed by socially recognised rules

Feb 201213MHA BBI3204

Hymes ethnographic frameworkS Setting and Scene P Participants (Speaker Hearer)E Ends (Purposes, goals, outcomes)A Act sequence (Form & order of events)K Key (Tone, manner, spirit)I Instrumentalities (Form and style of speech)N Norms of interaction and interpretation G GenreFeb 201214MHA BBI3204Speech Acts

(*Information taken from various texts, including the website of the University of Minnesotas Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition)Feb 201215MHA BBI3204

Speech Act (1): DefinitionAn utterance that serves a function in communication. May contain just one word ("Sorry!) or several words or sentences: "Im sorry I forgot your birthday. Include real-life interactionsRequire knowledge of the language and appropriate use of that language within a given culture.

Feb 201216MHA BBI3204

Speech Act (2): ExamplesGreeting: "Hi, Eric. How are things going?"Request: "Could you pass me the mashed potatoes, please?"Complaint: "Ive already been waiting three weeks for the computer, and I was told it would be delivered within a week."Invitation: "Were having some people over Saturday evening and wanted to know if youd like to join us."Compliment: "Hey, I really like your tie!"Refusal: "Oh, Id love to see that movie with you but this Friday just isnt going to work."

Feb 201217MHA BBI3204

Speech Act (3): InterpretationL2 learners must know idiomatic expressions or cultural norms in the L2; they must recognize what is transferable to other languages. Example of misinterpretation:

Sarah (native English speaker): "I couldnt agree with you more. " Cheng: "Hmmm." (Thinking: She couldnt agree with me? I thought she liked my idea!)

Feb 201218MHA BBI3204

Speech Act (4): : Levels Searle (1969)Locutionary act: the performance of an utteranceIllocutionary act : expresses the speakers intent; has illocutionary force Perlocutionary act : an illocution that causes listeners to do things its actual effect, such as persuading, convincing, scaring, inspiring, or otherwise getting someone to do or realise something

Feb 201219MHA BBI3204

Speech Act (5): Locutions and illocutionary forceSpeakers can use different locutions to achieve the same illocutionary force:Could you switch off the air-con please? Im freezing!one locution to achieve different purposes: e.g., Its cold in here, isnt it?A question (to verify)A request (to switch off the air-con)A conversation openerFeb 201220MHA BBI3204

Speech Act (6): PerformativesAustin (1975)Performative utterance: saying and doing something, e.g., I do (while participating in a marriage ceremony); I name this ship Liberty Bell: I sentence you to 5 months jail. (Less explicit: I promise, I apologise, I warn you) Felicity conditions must be met for performatives to be successful: A conventional procedure must exist.All participants must execute the procedure properly to completion. Necessary thoughts, feelings, intentions must be present in all parties.

Feb 201221MHA BBI3204ActivityWhy might each of the following be said to fail as a performative?

I sentence you to five years of misery.I congratulate you on your failure to win the Cup.I order you to resume breathing.(Small boy to dog): I order you to stop!

Feb 201222MHA BBI3204

Speech Act (7): Phatic speechMalinowski (1923)Phatic communion / communication: a type of speech in which ties of union are createdWords may not have meaning; principal aim: to fulfill a social functionNice day!How do you do?Feb 201223MHA BBI3204The Structure of Conversations

Feb 201224MHA BBI3204

Conversational interchangeExamples: telephone call, service encounters, bargainingStructured has distinct partsRule-governed; rules and conventions vary across contexts (e.g., answering the telephone see Wardhaugh, 2002, p. 299) Turn-taking and interruptions

Feb 201225MHA BBI3204ActivityIf you are involved in a conversation with two or more people involved, how do you know when to jump into the conversation? When is it appropriate to do so? How do speakers signal when they wish to speak?

Feb 201226MHA BBI3204

PolitenessRecognition of a persons right in a situationTerms of address: vary across culturesImportant principle used in conversation: adjacency pair utterances that co-occurgreetingquestion and answerapologycomplimentcomplaint

Feb 201227MHA BBI3204Cooperation, Maxims& Face in conversation

(refer Wardhaugh, 1998, p. 286 291)

Feb 201228MHA BBI3204

Cooperation in conversation (1)Over-riding principle in conversation is the cooperative principle (Grice, 1975): We act in conversation in accord with a general principle that speakers and listeners are engaged in an activity that is of benefit to all.

Feb 201229MHA BBI3204

Cooperation in conversation (2)Gricean maxims (rules) of conversation: QuantityQualityRelationManner

Feb 201230MHA BBI3204Conversation depends on speakers and listeners sharing a set of assumptions about what is happening.We make use of a common-sense knowledge and employ principles of practical reasoning; we cooperate to deal with the world in much the same way.

Feb 201231MHA BBI3204

Cooperation in conversation (3)ActivityIf you said each of the following completely out of the blue, what might happen and why?

Your husband/wife is still faithful. The sun did rise this morning,Your shoes are clean today.Tomorrows Friday.

Feb 201232MHA BBI3204

Cooperation in Conversation (4): Face & Face-workIn conversation, speakers and listeners tend to accept each other for what they claim to be: they accept the face that the other offers.Face-work (Goffman, 1955): the work of presenting faces to each other, protecting our own face and protecting the others face.~ All the world's a stage,And all the men and women merely players. ~ (Shakespeare, As You Like It)

Feb 201233MHA BBI3204