2
P arliamentary elections were held on May 24, 2015. Not surprisingly, the Ethiopian People’s Revolu- tionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), which had ruled Ethiopia since 1991, and its allies performed very well in the elections, winning every seat. The election, as well as a generally rosy economic outlook, was clouded by a growing intolerance for dissent and a human rights record that had worsened over the years. In the run-up to the election, the government was criticized for suppress- ing the independent media and for preventing political dis- cussion. Opposition groups also complained that they were being harassed by the government. Vital statistics Birth rate per 1,000 population (2013): 38.1 (world avg. 19.5). Death rate per 1,000 population (2013): 8.9 (world avg. 8.1). Life expectancy at birth (2013): male 57.7 years; female 62.4 years. Adult population (ages 15–49) living with HIV (2014): 1.1% (world avg. 0.8%). Demography Population (2015): 89,311,000. Density (2015): persons per sq mi 217.5, persons per sq km 83.9. Sex distribution (2013): male 50.47%; female 49.53%. Population projection: (2020) 100,665,000; (2030) 124,269,000. Major cities (2013): Addis Ababa 3,103,700; Mekele 286,600; Adama (Nazret) 283,000; Dire Dawa 269,100; Gonder 265,000. Urban-rural (2014): Ethiopia Official name: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Form of government: federal republic with two legislative houses (House of the Federation [135]; House of Peoples’ Representatives [547]). Head of state: President Mulatu Teshome Wirtu. Head of government: Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn. Capital: Addis Ababa. Official language: none 1 . Official religion: none. Monetary unit: birr (Br); valuation (Sept. 1, 2015) 1 U.S.$ = Br 20.85; 1 £ = Br 31.95. Ethnic composition (2012): Age breakdown (2012): Religious affiliation (2012): Area and population area population 2015 2 Regional states Capitals sq mi sq km estimate Afar (Affar) Asayita (Asaita) 27,820 72,053 1,723,000 Amhara (Amara) Bahir Dar 59,733 154,709 20,401,000 Benishangul Gumuz Asosa (Asossa) 19,575 50,699 1,005,000 Gambella Gambella 11,499 29,783 409,000 Harari (Hareri) Harar (Harer) 129 334 232,000 Oromia (Oromiya) Addis Ababa 109,861 284,538 33,692,000 Somali (Sumale) Jijiga 107,820 3 279,252 3 5,453,000 Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ (SNNP) Hawassa (Awasa) 40,725 105,476 18,276,000 Tigray Mekele 32,711 84,722 5,056,000 Cities Addis Ababa 203 527 3,273,000 Dire Dawa 602 1,559 440,000 TOTAL 410,678 1,063,652 90,078,000 4 © 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. World Data ENCYCLOPÆDIA Britannica

Ethiopia - Encyclopedia Britannica arliamentary elections were held on May 24, 2015. Not surprisingly, the Ethiopian People’s Revolu-tionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), which had ruled

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Parliamentary elections were held on May 24, 2015.Not surprisingly, the Ethiopian People’s Revolu-tionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), which had

ruled Ethiopia since 1991, and its allies performed verywell in the elections, winning every seat. The election, aswell as a generally rosy economic outlook, was clouded bya growing intolerance for dissent and a human rightsrecord that had worsened over the years. In the run-up tothe election, the government was criticized for suppress-ing the independent media and for preventing political dis-cussion. Opposition groups also complained that theywere being harassed by the government.

Vital statisticsBirth rate per 1,000 population (2013): 38.1 (world avg. 19.5).Death rate per 1,000 population (2013): 8.9 (world avg. 8.1).Life expectancy at birth (2013): male 57.7 years; female 62.4 years.Adult population (ages 15–49) living with HIV (2014): 1.1% (world avg. 0.8%).

DemographyPopulation (2015): 89,311,000.Density (2015): persons per sq mi217.5, persons per sq km 83.9.

Sex distribution (2013): male50.47%; female 49.53%.

Population projection: (2020)100,665,000; (2030) 124,269,000.

Major cities (2013): Addis Ababa3,103,700; Mekele 286,600; Adama(Nazret) 283,000; Dire Dawa269,100; Gonder 265,000.

Urban-rural (2014):

Ethiopia

Official name: Federal DemocraticRepublic of Ethiopia.

Form of government: federal republicwith two legislative houses (House ofthe Federation [135]; House ofPeoples’ Representatives [547]).

Head of state: President MulatuTeshome Wirtu.

Head of government: Prime MinisterHailemariam Desalegn.

Capital: Addis Ababa.Official language: none1.Official religion: none.Monetary unit: birr (Br); valuation(Sept. 1, 2015) 1 U.S.$ = Br 20.85; 1 £ = Br 31.95.

Ethnic composition (2012):

Age breakdown (2012):

Religious affiliation (2012):

Area and population area population

20152

Regional states Capitals sq mi sq km estimate

Afar (Affar) Asayita (Asaita) 27,820 72,053 1,723,000Amhara (Amara) Bahir Dar 59,733 154,709 20,401,000BenishangulGumuz Asosa (Asossa) 19,575 50,699 1,005,000

Gambella Gambella 11,499 29,783 409,000Harari (Hareri) Harar (Harer) 129 334 232,000Oromia (Oromiya) Addis Ababa 109,861 284,538 33,692,000Somali (Sumale) Jijiga 107,8203 279,2523 5,453,000Southern Nations,Nationalitiesand Peoples’ (SNNP) Hawassa (Awasa) 40,725 105,476 18,276,000

Tigray Mekele 32,711 84,722 5,056,000

CitiesAddis Ababa — 203 527 3,273,000Dire Dawa — 602 1,559 440,000TOTAL 410,678 1,063,652 90,078,0004

© 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

World DataE N C Y C L O P Æ D I A

Britannica

National economyBudget (2010–11). Revenue: Br 85,579,000,000 (tax revenue 68.9%, of

which import duties 27.7%, income and profits tax22.8%, sales tax 11.4%; grants 19.3%; nontax revenue11.8%). Expenditures: Br 95,746,000,000 (capital expen-diture 55.7%, of which economic development 36.9%;current expenditure 44.3%, of which education 12.9%,defense 5.0%).

Public debt (external, outstanding; 2013):U.S.$11,886,000,000.

Gross national income (GNI; 2014): U.S.$53,189,000,000(U.S.$550 per capita); purchasing power parity GNI(U.S.$1,500 per capita).

Production (metric tons except as noted). Agriculture,forestry, fishing (2012): corn (maize) 6,158,318, sorghum

3,604,262, wheat 3,434,706, sugarcane 2,700,000, barley 1,781,652,sweet potatoes 1,118,050, yams 1,117,733, dry broad beans 943,964,potatoes 863,348, millet 742,297, dry beans 463,009, chickpeas 409,733,cabbages and other brassicas 394,220; leading producer of beeswax,honey, cut flowers, and khat; livestock (number of live animals)54,000,000 cattle, 26,500,000 sheep, 25,000,000 goats, 925,000 camels,5,250,000 beehives; roundwood (2013) 108,280,917 cu m, of whichfuelwood 97%; fisheries production 28,990 (from aquaculture, negligi-ble). Mining and quarrying (2012): rock salt 440,000; tantalum 90,000kg; niobium 14,000 kg; gold 4,200 kg. Manufacturing (value added inU.S.$’000,000; 2009): beverages 240; food products 163; bricks,cement, and ceramics 142; textiles and wearing apparel 82; chemicalsand chemical products 78. Energy production (consumption): electrici-ty (kW-hr; 2011) 5,161,000,000 (5,161,000,000), by source (2012): fossilfuels 0.6%; renewable energy 99.4%, of which hydroelectric 98.7%,wind energy 0.4%, geothermal 0.3%; petroleum products (metric tons;2011) n.a. (1,810,000).

Land use as % of total land area (2009): in temporary crops 11.9%,left fallow 0.6%, in permanent crops 1.0%, in pasture 21.4%, forestarea 12.4%.

Population economically active (2013)10: total 45,163,000; participationrates: age 10 and over, male 85.0%, female 74.6%; unemployed 4.5%,of which youth (ages 15–24) 7.3%.

Average household size (2004): 5.3.

MilitaryTotal active duty personnel (November 2014): 138,000

(army 97.8%, air force 2.2%); mandate for the UNpeacekeeping force along the Ethiopian-Eritreanborder was terminated in July 2008. Military expen-diture as percentage of GDP (2014): 0.8%; per capi-ta expenditure U.S.$4.

Foreign trade9

Imports (2013): U.S.$10,955,400,000 (machinery andapparatus 22.2%, chemicals and chemical products12.2%, metals and articles thereof 11.9%, mineralproducts 11.6%, transport equipment 11.3%). Major import sources:

Exports (2013): U.S.$2,591,000,000 (coffee 23.4%,vegetables 20.8%, oil seeds 18.4%, live animalsand meat 10.0%, pearls and gemstones 6.4%). Major export destinations:

Transport and communicationsTransport. Railroads (2009–10): route length485 mi, 781 km; passenger-km 5,000,00011;metric ton-km cargo 600,00011. Roads(2010–11): total length 32,337mi, 52,042 km (paved [2007–08]14%); passenger-km (2006–07)9,968,000,000; metric ton-kmcargo, n.a. Vehicles (2007): pas-senger cars 70,893; trucks andbuses 166,095.

Education and healthLiteracy (2015): total population age 15 and over lit-erate 35.9%; males literate 57.2%; females literate41.1%.

Health (2010–11): physicians 1,427 (1 per 56,607 per-sons); hospital beds 23,311 (1 per 3,465 persons);infant mortality rate (2008) 82.6; undernourishedpopulation (2006–08) 32,600,000 (41% of total pop-ulation based on the consumption of a minimumdaily requirement of 1,750 calories).

1Amharic is the “working” language. 2July; official projections. 3Estimate. 4Includesspecial enumeration areas having a population of 118,000. 5For age 10 and up. 6Taxeson products less imputed bank service charges. 7Includes 1,653,700 unemployed.8Detail does not add to total given because of rounding. 9Imports c.i.f.; exports f.o.b.10Projections of the International Labour Organization. 11Includes Djibouti part ofAddis Ababa–Djibouti railroad. 12Subscribers.

Internet resources for further information:• Central Statistical Agency www.csa.gov.et• National Bank of Ethiopia www.nbe.gov.et

Structure of gross domestic product and labour force2010–11 20055

in value % of total labour % of labourBr ’000,000 value force force

Agriculture, forestry, fishing 220,088 43.1 25,208,200 76.2Mining and quarrying 7,852 1.5 82,100 0.3Manufacturing 16,869 3.3 1,529,400 4.6Construction 20,051 3.9 445,600 1.3Public utilities 5,233 1.0 32,900 0.1Transp. and commun. 24,739 4.8 146,400 0.4Trade, hotels 86,634 17.0 2,406,200 7.3Finance, real estate 59,437 11.6 90,200 0.3Pub. admin., defense 15,890 3.1 367,900 1.1Services 21,366 4.2 1,116,000 3.4Other 33,0006 6.56 1,664,0007 5.07

TOTAL 511,1578 100.0 33,088,8008 100.0

Communications units unitsnumber per 1,000 number per 1,000

Medium date in ’000s persons Medium date in ’000s persons

TelephonesCellular 2014 30,49012 31612

Landline 2014 820 8.5

Internet users 2009 445 5.4Broadband 2014 47112 4.912

© 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

World DataE N C Y C L O P Æ D I A

Britannica