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design and visual culture ISSUE 24 SUMMER 2011 GB £25 DE E28 IT E24 ISSN 1767-4751 PRINTED IN FRANCE

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design & visual culture

Text of étapes: international #24

  • design and visual culture

    Summer

    201

    1

    24

    scan

    dinavia gra

    phic des

    igner

    por

    tfol

    ios sa

    ndr

    ine pe

    lletier visu

    al waves

    issue 24 summer 2011GB 25

    de E28 it E24

    issn 1767-4751

    Printed in France

    EI24_couv_223x275mm.indd 1 08/06/11 11:35

  • 8 :

    n 24IMAGES & QUICK HITS

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    LUDOVICA GIOSCA

    MATT SHLIAN

    CLEMENS BEHR

    P12 EKTA

    P22

    GUERRA DE LA PAZ

    BROGEN AVERILL

    PRACTICE + THEORY

    CAMPING DESIGN

    MARIAN BANTJES

    ED AWARDS 2011

    EDUARDO DEL FRAILE & ALEXIS ROM ESTUDIO

    EDHOLM ULLENIUS AND HAOSHI DESIGN

    FILIP DUJARDIN

    GAT LYRIQUE

    SCANDINAVIANDESIGN LAB

    Cover by Geoff McfetridgeGirl, 30 x 40 cm, 2010. 2010. Geoff Mcfetridge, The Westest Show, The Half Gallery, NewYork.Fonts: Boton by Albert Boton,Oranda by Gerard Unger, Kievit by Michael Abbink.

    P40

    P70 BY YOLANDA ZAPPATERRAYolanda Zappaterra is a writer and designer.

    P78 BYCLARE MCNALLYFormer advertising copywriter at TBWA, Clare McNally works as a journalist and editor.

    WINK, WORK LABS ANDIVANNA SHASHKINA

    ALVVINO ANDCONTAINER

    PORTFOLIOS THE GRAPHIC DESIGNERSMIRROR

    BYCAROLINE BOUIGE

    BYCAROLINE BOUIGE

    MARIMEKKO

    CLARATERNE

    P42

    SACMAGIQUE

    P46 BY CAROLINE BOUIGE

    MATTIHAGELBERG

    STOCKHOLM

    DESIGN

    LAB

    P50 BY ISABELLE MOISY

    P58 BY CAROLINE BOUIGE

    YOKOLAND

    P64 BY ISABELLE MOISY

    KOKORO& MOI

    SCANDINAVIAN PORTFOLIOS

    A CLOSER LOOK

    Summer

    201

    1

    24

    scan

    dinavian por

    tfol

    ios san

    drine pe

    lletier visua

    l waves

    dra

    eger

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    meister

    issue 24 summer 2011GB 25

    de E28 it E24

    issn 1767-4751

    Printed in France

    design and visual culture

    EI24_sommairep.indd 8 30/05/11 11:27

  • : 9

    P88 BYVANINA PINTERVanina Pinter teaches history of graphic design in Orlans and Le Havre.

    P104 BYJOL VACHERONWeb editor now resident in London, Jol Vacheron teaches visual culture at the ECAL in Lausanne.

    BY SILVIA SFLIGIOTTIP124

    OPINION

    WWW.ETAPES.COM/ENGLISH

    P140 BOOKS

    P132 BYRAQUEL PELTADesign historian, teacher and author of a book about the design profession.

    P137 BY ANNE BEYAERT-GESLINHead of CeRes, she teaches the semiotics of images, the media and objects at Limoges University.

    A composer and musician who also teaches at the ENM (cole Nationale de Musique) in Villeurbanne, France..

    Pierre Ponant is a teacher at the cole des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux.

    BY GRALD VENTURI

    BY PIERRE PONANT

    Designer and professor at the Free University of Bozen and the SPD (Scuola Politecnica di Design), Milan..

    P98P114

    CAPERSANDGOINGAGAINSTTHE GRAIN

    THE DOUBLE

    LIFEOF GRAPHIC DESIGNERS

    DRAEGERTHE VOICE OF

    INK

    P129Chantal Prodhom is director of MUDAC (Muse de Design et dArts appliqus contemporains) in Lausanne.

    BY CHANTAL PRODHOM

    GOODBYEPOSTERS?

    STEFAN

    SAGMEISTER

    THE LABELTHE BOTTLEAND THE CONTRADICTION

    OF TIME

    VISUAL WAVES

    MUSICNOTATION

    WAVESOF ALTERNATION

    P112 BY ISABELLE MOISY

    FRANCIS BAUDEVIN

    Isabelle Moisy is editorial coordinator of tapes: magazine.

    EI24_sommairep.indd 9 30/05/11 11:27

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    ei24_ektap.indd 12 30/05/11 11:29

  • :13

    Through the Looking-GlassIn his compositions Ekta strikes a balance between abstract and figurative art. Human morphology is not immediately apparent in his portraits. A dash of caricature and a splash of paint is all it takes to turn passers-by in the street into fairytale characters. With particular care given to the palette of colours, the aerosol ends up plunging the image into a semi-reality, a vaporous world provided with a solid base and resonance through the insertion of highly concrete objects and details. Swedish-born Ekta now works in London and adds his personal touch to decorations on T-shirts, skateboards and concert posters. CBwww.ekta.nu

    ei24_ektap.indd 13 30/05/11 11:29

  • Eco Tin CanThe American population gets through 106,000 tin cans every 30 seconds.Designed by the Haoshi and PLA studios, the new environmentally-friendly Tin Can range, produced in a limited run, invites consumers to rethink their behaviour with regard to food packaging in the throwaway age. The Tin Cans are in PLA (Poly-Lactic Acid), a material that is biodegradable in 180 days. In this eco-minded effort, the packaging has no illustrations and no paper. Each can is reusable: it has a double insulation capsule and can withstand temperatures from 20 C to + 110 C. Tea, coffee or fruit juice: just unscrew the top cover and choose your days beverage! A-SCwww.haoshi.com.tw

    haoshi Design Taiwan

    PackagingOverweight. Designing packaging is becoming a real challenge. The accumulation of graphic elements is no longer a seller. Nor is the slogan in fluorescent lettering. With the superposition of colourful banners, grotesque, simplistic illustrations or other information about the products qualities, the identity of the contents and container disappear, buried under a horde of logos illustrating multiple buyouts of a brand name by multinationals. But how do we still manage to find the desired brand or product on a shelf, and worse still, to read

    Cocoa PaintingWith its flat tints in bright colours, it looks like a Paul Klee. Commissioned by Stockholms modern art museum Moderna Museet, this is a bar of chocolate in packaging inspired by the work of Olle Baertling, a female Swedish artist who was doing shows at the museum at the same time as the cocoa product came out. Designed by the Swedish studio Edholm Ullenius, the food packaging is in the image of its two founders, the graphic artists and illustrators Sissi Edholm and Lisa Ullenius: full of vitality yet sober. IMwww.EdholmullEnius.sE

    Edholm Ullenius Sweden

    what is in it? A recent experimental work by the Turkish agency Antrepo highlighted the steady increase in writing and images on everyday packages over the last few years. By gradually removing certain graphic elements from the label a can of Red Bull, a jar of Nutella or a packet of Nesquik the original logo and the objects silhouette are laid bare, sometimes revealing a sophisticated but forgotten form. The meaning and consistency of man-made products would have disappeared altogether had not certain shopping sectors

    advertised new operating procedures. Luxury goods turned to artists or designers for solutions. A few major brands are still looking for original ideas to catch the eye, simplifying line and graphic codes while seeking to keep to the functional contingencies that have become almost primordial: a product has to be transportable, easy to use intuitive if possible be part of a sustainable process or environmentally friendly, slip into the background or be a fun item, and of course attractive too. A quick tour of current packaging.

    30:

    ei24_packagingp.indd 30 30/05/11 11:38

  • home-Made Ice CreamThe ice cream specialists Honey & Mackie called in the designer Scott Thares to spruce up the packaging for their little tubs. A patchwork of letters and information combines several coloured typefaces in tints recalling the fl avours of the products. The same colours are used for the ground on which the white lettering of the logo is set. The packaging has an old-school effect reminiscent of ice cream sundaes at the fairground. A-SCwww.winK-mPls.com

    Wink USA

    hair-raising Chocolate!Sweet & Hot invites adventurous chocolate lovers to a spicy culinary experience! A student at the British Higher School of Art and Design (Moscow), Ivanna Shashkina chose an original, dynamic illustration for the packaging of this project, combining sweet cocoa and sharp vermilion colours. Snippets of text in handwritten lettering in label-bubbles are intended for hungry young consumers. On each product, the face of a young woman with a spiced-up hairdo gives chocolate lovers a foretaste of what is coming to them! A-SCwww.BEhancE.nEt/iVannash

    Ivanna Shashkina Russia

    Less is moreA registered trademark of the White Fences Vineyard company, Meteor adopts a very simple design echoing its stage name. Designed by the American Work Labs studio, for this range of wines the packaging reaches out into an intergalactic universe. Like the Virginia night sky, the dark tall glass scintillates all the way round. A meteor, the moon and the solar system in turn dress it in white dots. As a side note, the illustration of an apprentice astrologer is hidden behind each bottle. It turns it into an astronomers telescope opening up onto a really starry sky once emptied! A-SCwww.woRKlaBs.com

    Work Labs USA

    :31

    ei24_packagingp.indd 31 30/05/11 11:38

  • Crumple, unfold!Large cities all contain within them the historical marks of people traf c fl ows in every age. So many visible and invisible traces make up the urban kernel forming folds and connecting spaces that cannot be erased. To escape from this jungle, the Palomar company asked the Alvvino studio and the designer Emanuele Pizzolorusso to devise an intuitive graphic design for Crumpled City, a collection of guides and maps of large cities. The booklet is in a small format and comes with a map on recycled paper that is crumpleproof and waterproof and clearly indicates all the must-see sights and places to go. You just stuff it any old how in your pocket. IMwww.alVVino.oRG

    Alvvino Germany

    21st-Century Make-up CasesTheir names are Krner, Radii, Kevin Murphy, Milk, Slingback and O&M. They are not the children of some star, or the titles of the latest chart-toppers, but cosmetics, the newest in the upmarket Container cosmetic range. Each of them was entrusted for its creation or revamping to a different design studio, including HCP and Rebecca Corner, responsible for coming up with some seductive curves. The result is an innovative range of packaging for lipstick, gels, creams and eyeshadow with simpli ed lines and rounded shapes. Luxury cases for the modern-day princess. CBwww.containERmadE.com

    Container Australia / China

    32:

    ei24_packagingp.indd 32 30/05/11 11:38

  • Eduardo del Fraile Spain

    Alexis Rom Estudio Spain/Italy

    :33

    Lascala: Theatrical Spanish WineWhile theatre director Ariane Mnouchkine was working with the Thtre du Soleil in late 2010, Spanish graphic designer Eduardo del Fraile was inventing wine packaging for a producer in Murcia who wanted to conquer the Chinese market. Theres no doubt that a number of Asian traditions, including Chinese theatre, classical Kathakali dance-drama and Balinese theatre, had an infl uence on his labels for the Lascala range, but Del Fraile also blended typical Spanish symbols, such as red polka-dot paper to evoke the fl amenco tradition, with the Asian iconography. As a nal touch, three faces that seem to be modelled on Japanese kabuki masks illustrate the wine range: la peineta (sculpted comb) for the ros, el abanico (fan) for the white wine and la bailadora de fl amenco (fl amenco dancer) for the red. IMwww.EduaRdodElFRailE.com

    Chic SouvenirLa Vie en France designed a range for The Original Ch-Ch Barcelona with humour and imagination based on symbols of France and clichd souvenirs. For this collection, Alexis Rom Estudio used a patchwork technique. Like an earlier series designed for Grandi Magazzini Milano, the outlandish comparisons and connections create playful and poetic images. The graphic designers used an array of collage and cutouts of black-and-white printed paper, juxtaposed with the colours of the French fl ag. The techniques they use are far from digital: the letters are painted with a brush, written in heavy lithograph pencil or made out of paper. Some of the characters are reminiscent of Banco type designed by Roger Escoffon in the 1950s. A-SChttP://alEXisRomEstudio.Eu

    ei24_packagingp.indd 33 30/05/11 11:38

  • CNAP Annual Report Data display becomes like plastic in the hands of Les Graphiquants. Typography, Caroline Fabs. (cf : 188 )

    ED Awards

    The 2011 ED awards ceremony took place on 14th May in Vilnius and for the first time the Agency of the Year award went to a French studio, Les Graphiquants, who also won the gold medal in the Annual Report and the Artistic Catalogues categories. Each year the European Design Awards are made for quality graphic art at European level. Heres a quick rundown of the shortlist and the winners

    Catalogue for the Chef duvre ? exhibition Like the cover, the chapters of the Chef duvre ? exhibition catalogue opens with images oscillating between volume and plan view. These compositions echo the purpose of the book: museum architectures (inaugural exhibition at the Pompidou Centre in Metz) (cf : 188 )

    Les graphiquants (France) GOLD _ Annual report

    Les graphiquants (France) GOLD _ Artistic Catalogues

    Photo: Les Graphiquants at the award ceremony.

    34 :

    ei24_ED Awards.indd 34 31/05/11 17:56

  • Bleed (Norway)GOLD _ Corporate illustration

    MyspaceAn Internet space for sharing that seeks to be a unique experience for its users, Myspace fi ts in with the idea of a global culture that gives programmers, artists and consumers the tools to discover, publish and exchange views on shared interests. Recently endowed with a new logo and a new website, the Myspace management invited Bleed to design the rest of the companys visual identity. Based on the promotional slogan program, create, celebrate, the Norwegian studio devised illustrations that combine each of the three notions with an image, to be found on all communications media, both printed and online, including offi ce stationery. IMWWW.BLEED.COM

    : 35

    ei24_ED Awards.indd 35 31/05/11 17:56

  • TransmdialeUne ligne, un point, voil la communi-cation A line, a point: that sums up the communication for the 11th edition of the multimedia arts festival Transmediale. Raban Ruddigkeit has cleverly boiled down his graphic preparation so as to keep only the active principle. A binary code ensures it is in keeping with the theme of this years event: response: ability This matter of interfaces between man and computer fi nds its source in the primordial element of each party, namely DNA and computer programming. But the formulas effectiveness doubtless lies in its despotic application to the typography, poster, booklet and fl yers, where it is brilliantly renewed each time. CBWWW.RUDDIGKEIT.DE

    Ruddigkeit (Germnay)BRONZE _ Brand implementation

    36 :

    ei24_ED Awards.indd 36 31/05/11 17:56

  • Christian Busse (Germnay)GOLD _ Student project

    Facts+patterns : Infografi sche Musterim AlltagA graduate project for the communications department of the HTW, the applied arts school of Berlin, Christian Busses work combines everyday objects with work on data display focusing on common topics. They highlight the possible association of informational content with an aesthetic form. Each illustration is adaptable and deals with a topical matter confronting the object and its functionality in the western world to a major humanitarian issue; the plates show poverty in the world, the shower curtain addresses water shortages, the dress takes in the problem of child labour and the textile industry. IM

    : 37

    ei24_ED Awards.indd 37 31/05/11 17:56

  • Thonik (Netherlands)ED AWARDS SHORTLIST

    Florian Mewes (Netherlands)GOLD _ Posters series

    Net Echt (Life Like) Working together on an event from October 2010 to January 2011, three of Amsterdams largest institutions, the Van Gogh Museum, the Foam Photography Museum and the EYE Film Institute, inquired into Naturalism, an art movement that is relatively little covered by art history or photography. Entrusted to Florian Mewes fi rm the Dutch Gotofl o studio, the poster campaign is accompanied by an online platform Net Echt (Life Like) that handles and presents certain aspects of the movement through specifi c themes. IMWWW.GOTOFLO.EU

    WWW.GROOTMEWES.COM

    38 :

    ei24_ED Awards.indd 38 31/05/11 17:57

  • TapeLocated in Arnhem, Tape is a bar that is turned at convenient moments into an exhibition area or a theatre stage. In response to the convertibility of the space, Cline Lame, a member of the Dutch agency Lava, seeks to design an amusing modular identity based on the letter A in the word Tape. Simplifi ed by an easily disguised triangle, the letter becomes a pointed hat, a cocktail glass or a snowy peak. The separation into two fi elds is effectively applied both in the two-colour scheme and the confronting of fl at tints and images.CBWWW.CELINELAMEE.COM

    NRCA Dutch daily newspaper, the NRC Handesblad is famous for its very highbrow news coverage. The Thonik team based its identity on the chevron quotation mark, a symbol of writing and quoting, a fl exible, dynamic sign that in one direction recalls the play button, or fast forward when double, or again the mathematical sign greater than. The newspapers communication plays on the signs multiple meanings and combinations, whether it collides with a photographic subject or is self-suffi cient, a manifesto for a strong identity. CBWWW.THONIK.COM

    Cline Lame (Netherlands)ED AWARDS SHORTLIST

    : 39

    ei24_ED Awards.indd 39 31/05/11 17:57

  • ei24_SDLp.indd 50 30/05/11 12:13

  • StockholmDesign Lab

    How many people workat the Stockholm Design Lab? Fifteen.

    What are the different trades represented?Artistic directors, designers,accounting directors, marketing directors, produc-tion directors. We share our offi ces with the co-founder, Thomas Eriksson, with whom we set up an architecture agency with over 35 staff. The two agencies work together on a number of projects.

    Industrial design and graphic design are an integral part of Swedens cultural history. How is this heritage expressed in your work?I think that Sweden enjoyed success and won recognitionthrough the creation of brand identities that followed on from a smart distribution principle combining small-scale logistics and production. Large fi rms like H&M or Ikea used design as a force for development only much later on. H&M moved from being a clothing supplier to a fashion brand during the 1990s. Ikea, with whom we have worked for over 15 years, introducedoriginal Scandinavian design in the late 1990s with a project called Ikea PS which we had the pleasure of launch-ing, very successfully, at the Milan Furniture Fair.

    The Ericsson brand also real-ized later on that the design was the part of the product with the greatest impact.

    Why is design so important in the Scandinavian cultures? I am not sure it is that important, but I would saythat it is part of the culture. More so in Denmark than in any other country.

    Is there such a thing as Swedish graphic design?I am sure that every country can see that in their own culture. At SDL, we use our Scandinavian cultural back-ground by emphasizing simplicity and functionality, but most of all simplicity, which we combine with infl uences from all over the globe. If you listen to Swedish music, you fi nd a similar approach, with Jan Johanson, The Embassy, Robyn.

    Ikea, Hemtex, H&M, airlines. You work with multinationals and very big companies. How did this come about?It was a luxury not having to choose or not having to focus on one particular type of business. Large or small. We always launch into a new project with great relish and try to learn as much as we can each time. For instance, on the petroleum industry, chocolate, skis, energy, the

    art of Alexander Calder or the director Tomas Alfredson. All different, but their work process is the same: come up with a bright idea and give it concrete form in the best way possible. We usually like to develop the overall project in-house so as to be able to hire and help freelance work-ers. Ninety per cent of projects on product sales, architecture and design involve joint work with TEA (Thomas Eriksson Architects).

    What experience have you gained from this joint work? Client relations?Our fi rst assignment was SAS, Scandinavian Airlines. The project called for input from many specialists. At one stage, there were more than 60 of us working on various aspects of the overall design: uniforms, drawings of aircraft, cutlery, photographs of destinations, lounge concepts, a single type-face, etc. Over 2,500 different applications were needed.Scandinavian Airlines knew exactly what they were look-ing for and claimed that design was the key to standing apart from other airlines. With an extremely tight schedule and a very strict design concept, we somehow managed to see it through. The team was exhausted, but this project was very satisfying and it taught us a great deal.

    What is your approach when working on a global identity? Where do you start?We ask ourselves what? and what for? The answer lies in the third question, how? We use this approach for all our commissions, whether domestic or international.

    Do you ever work with other studios? Yes, Stockholm Design Lab has already worked withHenrik Nygren, Greger Ulf Nilson (Moderna Museet), 1.2.3 (Biennale di Venezia).Jasper Morrison (stra Stadtbahn), Acne (SAS), GertWingrdh (Filippa K Ease), La Mosca (Velux), Johan Prag(Filippa K). And also with several advertising agencies.

    Is there any fi nancial backing for graphic design in Sweden (for small studios for instance)? A development policy?No.

    And how do you see SDL shaping up in the future?Like the lyrics in the Daft Punk single that came out on the 13 October 2001: Harder, better, faster, stronger.

    STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN STUDIO SET UP IN 1998

    BJRN KUSOFFSKY [INTERVIEW] (AGE 46), THOMAS ERIKSSON (AGE 52), GRAN LAGERSTRM (AGE 72) WWW.STOCKHOLMDESIGNLAB.SE

    Stock

    holm

    Design Lab

    A m

    agical place, city or

    architectur

    e?Th

    e Villa Malap

    arte on the island

    of C

    apri.

    : 51

    ei24_SDLp.indd 51 30/05/11 12:13

  • 52 :

    Centre left: Ikea Food. Identity and packaging concept to bring together the brands various food products under a single label.

    Left and above:Ikea Packaging. Identity and new packaging range for over 8,000 products distributed worldwide. SDL designs the packs

    in line with Ikea values and creates an identity system including pictograms, symbols, and typography.

    Stadium. Development of the global identity and the seat design for an international chain of sports shops. A joint production with the Thomas Eriksson architects agency. Autumn 2005.

    Your

    pre

    fere

    nce, pap

    er or digita

    l?Bo

    th.

    Stock

    holm

    Design Lab

    ei24_SDLp.indd 52 30/05/11 12:13

  • : 53

    Hemtex. Global identity and store design for the group dedicated to textiles and household linen, 2009.

    Ohmine Shuzo. Global identity and packaging for a line of three sakis produced by the Japanese Takeshi Akiyama. H&M. Packaging and research for the H&M stores cosmetics line.

    Rstrand Glass. Packaging of a new range of wine glasses for Rstrand, a Swedish porcelain makers active since 1726.

    Stock

    holm

    Design Lab

    One

    or more Sw

    edes w

    ho hav

    e influe

    nced

    you

    ?Th

    e Melin-sterlin

    tea

    m and

    the

    ir in

    cred

    ible w

    ork for the Mod

    erna

    Mus

    eet in the

    196

    0s.

    ei24_SDLp.indd 53 30/05/11 12:13

  • 54 :

    One

    of y

    our pr

    ojects tha

    t mea

    nt som

    ething

    spe

    cial to yo

    u?Brn

    da Ord, a

    n installation

    produ

    ced jointly with Bige

    rt & Bergs

    trm

    .

    Filippa K Underneath. Packaging and sales concepts for reusable nylon bags, developed by the Swedish fashion label.

    Bottom right-hand page.Filippa K Ease. Creation of a logotype and a visual based on a flower base for one of the labels collections. Produced jointly with the electronic music producer Mokira.

    Venice Biennale. Creation of a new identity for the 53rd edition of the Venice Biennale (Italy) curated by Daniel Birnbaum. Based on the making worlds concept. SDL developed a language based on abstract forms, in relation to the different regions of the world and the notion of universality national flags while creating something new.

    Stock

    holm

    Design Lab

    ei24_SDLp.indd 54 30/05/11 12:13

  • : 55

    Stock

    holm

    Design Lab

    Artist or

    gra

    phic artists w

    hose w

    ork yo

    u like

    ?Ed

    Rus

    cha, Jo

    hn Balde

    ssari, Wolfgan

    g Tillm

    ans, Ai W

    eiwei, P

    eter Sav

    ille, Ano

    thermou

    ntainm

    an.

    Swedish Cultural Institute. Identity of the Swedish Cultural Centres around the world aimed at

    fostering ties between the community and the cultural, economic, scientific networks of each country.

    ei24_SDLp.indd 55 30/05/11 12:13

  • 56 :

    Stock

    holm

    Design Lab

    A boo

    k?At

    the

    mom

    ent, Kad

    dish

    , Chr

    istian

    Boltans

    kis boo

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    Above: Scandinavian Airlines.Global identity of the Swedish airline (SAS Group) under development since 1998.

    Below: stra. Public transport identity, map and signs (bus, tram, stations) for the city of Hanover in Germany. The graphic

    programme is part of TW2000, a city development plan with tramways that uses the system developed in 1997 by Jasper Morrison.

    ei24_SDLp.indd 56 30/05/11 12:14

  • Askul. Identity and packaging for the products of a Japanese mail order firm. SDL focused

    on the identity of the brand products by working on the packaging with a simple, playful, colourful line.

    Stock

    holm

    Design Lab

    If you

    wer

    e no

    t a de

    sign

    er, w

    hat wou

    ld you

    like

    to be

    ?Film

    direc

    tor.

    : 57

    ei24_SDLp.indd 57 30/05/11 12:14

  • Grald Venturi looks back at the function and evolution of western music notationin the 20th century, and examines some examples of graphic exploration that highlight structural and compositional aspects reflecting the evolution of music itself.

    By Grald Venturi

    Music Notationspace-time sign systems

    98:

    ei24_GeraldVenturip.indd 98 30/05/11 11:48

  • Music and its notation system have often received great attention from visual artists, and the 20th century witnessed many experi-ments in this field. The advent and development of music graphics raises the issue of whether this medium is a means of communica-tion or an end goal.The score is a visual medium, an interface. Music notation is a type of writing with its own sign system: notes, keys, articula-tion marks. Music notation serves both as a memory and a means of communication and transmission. According to the composer Gyrgy Ligeti, notation is neither the representation of musical facts nor the image of movements or actions that lead to the pro-duction of music, although part of notation can apply to this kind of action. It is, however, a system of signs and a system of rela-tionships between these signs. Although the most common form of western music notation the score does not represent musi-cal facts, it displays certain types of space-time relationships and ratios: the spatiality of the registers (from low to high) is notated vertically, while the position in time is notated horizontally. The sequence is read from left to right, and simultaneousness from bottom to top or from top to bottom. All music implies a more or less het-erogeneous sonic organization of time. Perceived and memorized musical time is arranged in space. In its relationship with reality, it is comparable to dreaming: musical time is an imaginary space that is revealed and evolves throughout the listening experience, but a complete image of it can only be obtained retrospectively, after the last sound is heard, in a holistic memory of the music.

    As part of their respective investigations, Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee visually transcribed excerpts of music scores. These ana-lytical works enable eyes unversed in music notation to read many of a compositions structural, quantitative and qualitative aspects. Paul Klee invented a form of transcription that featured in a series of classes he gave at the Bauhaus in January 1922. He addressed the question of structural formatting, and measuring and weigh-ing, as creative processes and processes for measuring time and length I will now move on to the field of music. Here, fundamen-tal structure is represented by rhythm. To the ear, the bar exists in a latent state, one might say; but it is muffled as a network that serves as the backdrop to the quantities and qualities of the musical ideas occurring in it. The work of Klee and Kandinsky1 proposes a simplified reading of music, through a graphic inter-pretation of its structural elements. Their transcriptions by sym-bolizing lines, the pathways of lines, vocal inflections, succession and simultaneousness help the eye to discern musics funda-mental parameters. On reading the score, one notices that these same parameters, though less obvious, are often already legible. The two painters educate the eye whether familiar with music theory or not to read movement in notation. Movement cannot be reproduced by a succession of positions in space, explains phi-losopher Gilles Deleuze regarding a thesis of Henri Bergson.2 This is what resonates in the painters work: the general direction and the curves of the lines are relationships with space, ranging from the general to the specific. Kandinsky and Klee represent the general

    Above: Graphic representation by Paul Klee of a three-voice movement by JS Bach. At the start of an excerpt of the music movement, the scheme (here, two voices) shows a reading grid. The semi-tones are arranged vertically. The horizontal plane divides the time into fractions of equal duration. The duration chosen as the unit of division is the quaver. The thickness of the line its weight symbolizes the intensity or quality of the tone. The graphic interface X-rays the music in order to reveal its quantitative and qualitative structural elements: number, proportion, melodic aspect, repetition, variation, the movement of the voices, and their degree of independence or interdependence. Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern.

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  • movement by the overall look of the line, and the specific melodic movement by its singular curves, segmentations and qualities. For his graphic transcription of scratch music, graphic designer and musician Laurent Burte3 devised a typographic system and a typeface based on the hands movement on the turntables: it is a kind of action notation. The project, a 2003 collaboration with French electronic-music band Birdy Nam Nam, yielded a collection of ideograms that fuse gestural information into a single form. Today, there is still extensive research into the visual transcrip-tion of music notation. Recently, in the SisTeMu project, graphic designer Laia Clos created a graphic interpretation of the ampli-tudes, rhythm and intensity of articulations and ornaments in the score of Vivaldis Four Seasons: it is a transcription of the first-violin part, and somewhat reminiscent of a Klee diagram.4

    Relationships and ratiosIn art, numbers are an intriguing subject, for what they represent or hide. Numerous musicology papers have attributed diverse and often mystical meanings to them. They represent a symbol, a mark of affiliation, or the composers signature. The hidden number has a structural function in composition: it is an item of quantita-tive information or a ratio proportion, for example. Quantitative ratios are literally taken into account by unconscious listening and memorization. In 1712, Leibniz wrote: Music is an occult exercise in the arithmetic of the soul, which does not know it is counting. Paul Klee, in his work on music, already devised quantitative cat-

    egories: bar and meter, weight and density. His work showed that notation made it possible to read the structural ratios present in music composition. The painter also demonstrated that quantity and quality always acted in a relative interrelationship: weight depends on both surface (quantitative) and colour (qualitative). The question of symmetry, for example, is considered in a very sim-ilar ways in imagery and music. In the painters opinion, the wob-bly curiosities of the five-beat bar or the seven-beat bar correspond to two-beat bars subject to unequal loads: 2+3 or 3+2 (five), 3+4 or 4+3 (seven). The quantitative is always closely linked to the qualitative: the unequal loads of the bar confer its wobbliness. Klee also discussed the conditions for achieving the asymmetrical balance of an image, i.e. a hidden symmetry, invisible yet present. Mozarts musical phrases are known for their evident asymmetry: divided into two parts, they reveal an offset centre. Formal bal-ance is maintained by other means, for example the number of notes a hidden use of symmetry. Formal balance depends on the organization and regulation of all quantitative ratios and qualita-tive relationships.

    FormRegarding form, Ligeti wrote: The syntactic relationships between the various musical elements are [] translated by our imagination into a virtual space, in which all the musical entries fragments, motifs, figures, parts, etc. act like places or objects, whereas the musical progression looks like architecture in space.5 Music estab-

    Above: Laia Clos. SisTeMu. Lesquatrestacions. Primavera (Spring) poster, from a series of four. Laia Clos, 2009-2010.

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  • Above: Laurent Burte. System of graphic and typographic transcription of scratch music, in collaboration with the Birdy Nam Nam band. Each ideogram is a combination of several items of information given by manual movements. Laurent Burte. Pyramyd, 2003.

    lishes spatial ratios of various natures in our imagination. There is depth of fi eld, from near to far; the space of pitch, from low to high; and the harmonic space. Traditional notation as used in western music scores does not depict this virtual spatialization. Consequently, it does not represent the form of music; rather, it conveys the information that enables the knowledgeable reader to mentally construct a formal synthesis.

    New notationsMusic and its composition can be considered as a living organ that undergoes developments, blendings and transformations. Music notation is not a closed system: it has constantly evolved, reformed and diversifi ed in order to meet new needs. The notation system is not exempt from defects or internal contradictions, but these shortcomings or lacunae are often what prompt musicians to renew or enrich it. Such innovations are driven both by organo-logical evolution and by specifi c needs to do with communicating and transmitting music that poses new challenges. The search for improved legibility may involve adding new signs, changing or replacing others, or simplifying the existing sign system. In 1923, the composer Arnold Schnberg wrote in his book Style and Idea: I believe that when notating music, one should say as little as pos-sible with letters, or even words, and maximize the use of signs. To replace textual indications on ways of playing bowed string instruments (pizzicato, col legno, spiccato, sul ponticello, etc.), the composer developed a complete set of picture-signs. The follow-

    ing year, he published a detailed explanation of his new 12-tone notation. This was a radically innovative system that replaced the fi ve-line stave by a three-line stave. It has hardly ever been used (even by its inventor) but it fi ts perfectly into the progression of Schnbergs research. His music led to the dissolution of tonality. As a result, substantial use of alteration signs (sharp, fl at, natural) tended to overload scores. It is noteworthy that during the same period, composers used these signs according to differing conven-tions. Schnberg sought to lighten the existing notation system, in order to resolve a problem posed by the evolution of music gram-mar.6 During the 20th century, especially its latter half, music nota-tion diversifi ed intensely with the evolution and multiplication of musical aesthetics and practices to which notation was attached. Most prominent was the emergence of so-called graphic notation systems. As long as it remained notation, it was not really graphic art these new systems were functional, not aesthetic, in purpose. Once one masters a new system, the graphic aspect acquires sec-ondary importance, and gives way to the semantic aspect. On this topic, Ligeti distinguished several new notation categories: result notation, which conveys the music in utmost detail and meets the requirements of a determined musical form. For musical texts that leave room for greater formal indeterminism, execution notation is to be preferred. In this case, there are two possibilities: fi rstly, action notation one notates what the performer must do to make the music, and not what one hears and prescriptive notation.

    Reverse Chirp Flare TransformBaby scratch Forward scratch

    UziBubble Tear Zig zag

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  • Music graphicsMusic and imagery share a lexical field: form, colour, material, tex-ture, motif, line, movement, harmony, stress, rhythm, etc. Theodor Adorno noted in the work of Debussy, Stravinsky and Wagner a closeness between painting and music that he described as pseudo-morphosis into painting. In Adornos opinion, the ear has to be re-educated to listen properly to Debussys music [] as end-to-end colours and surfaces, as in a picture. The succession merely presents what, depending on the meaning, is simultane-ous: thus does the gaze move over the canvas.7 He emphasized the qualitative evolution of time by describing a feeling of static juxtaposition. This statism first directs the ear to the depth of field, almost causing it to forget the temporal progression of the music. The listener is consequently directed to colour, texture, and planes. This whole is similar to visual perception, a quasi-mutation of time into space, which is especially striking in Gyrgy Ligetis piece Atmosphres.In the case of graphic notation, what we have is no longer nota-tion but an autonomous image. The scores produced by musicians Cornelius Cardew, Sylvano Bussotti and Earle Brown are graphic compositions in their own right. The images are not prescriptive and do not communicate the music. The function of the graphics is to inspire the performers interpretation of the music. Treatise by Cornelius Cardew is a 193-page graphic score practically devoid of music notation. It consists of entangled geometric figures, and is crossed by a horizontal line that provides a point of reference

    throughout reading. The instrumentation and orchestra size are for the performers to decide. The goal is to evaluate the ratios between the graphic figures. The elongated character of the score and the horizontal line, which crosses each plate, invites a left-to-right reading. Besides the sporadic presence of signs inherited from music notation, the direction of reading is the only point of commonality with a traditional score. Even so, there is a double stave under each image for the notation of a few bearings. The score does not prescribe conventions. These, however, may arise from the musicians choices, in relation with the musical context they develop. The composer felt that performers least familiar with music would produce the most interesting renderings of his work. With a view to prompting a situation of collective invention, the formal indeterminism of the music thus becomes a key issue. Sylvano Bussottis graphic art is on show in one of his Five Pieces for David Tudor. Bussotti used music-writing elements but elimi-nated their significant function. The stave, for example, is multi-plied almost ad infinitum and no longer acts as a bearing for the reader. This type of medium profoundly questions the role of the performer, who must convert the image by association in order to produce a musical form: he must be able to fulfil the dual role of performer and composer. In Earle Browns December 1952, the image can be hung on the wall like a picture; playing it is not nec-essary. This perhaps marked the height of musics pseudomorpho-sis into painting: Browns music potentially exists through the image only.

    Above: Cornelius Cardew. Treatise. 193-page graphic score. The graphic figures should be freely interpreted. Cornelius Cardew, 1963-67.

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  • Above: Earle Brown. December 1952, excerpt from FOLIO (1952-53) and 4 SYSTEMS (1954). 1961 by Associated Music Publishers. Print courtesy The Earle Brown Music Foundation.

    Music and the visual arts are often informed by two-way research and experimentation, conducted by artists from both disciplines. Schnbergs painting explorations, for instance, are well known. The composer did not claim to be a painter, however; he said the practice let him approach the problems he encountered in music differently. Ligeti showed how a Paul Klee engraving ena-bled him to find a solution for the formalization of an intuition, a musical vision, that was bothering him. Renaud Huberland, a graphic designer at the Salut Public studio and a teacher at the Belgian art school ERG, gets his students to investigate the prob-lems developed by Paul Klee in his classes in Weimar, and explores the resonance between music and graphic design in his own work. To reframe and decontextualize problems by considering another context, which may be that of another discipline, provides a detached perspective and offers additional pathways into reflec-tive practice. In this respect, it is of fundamental importance that places of artistic education, whose purpose is to train artists and not just artworkers, musicians and graphic designers, should be places of research, experimentation and cross-disciplinary creation.

    References :Zentrum Paul Klee: www.paulkleezentrum.chLaia Clos: www.motstudio.comLaurent Burte: http://laurentburt.wordpress.comThe Earle Brown Music Foundation: www.earle-brown.orgBibibliothque Publique dInformation: www.bpi.frCentre Georges Pompidou: www.centrepompidou.fr

    With assistance from the Earle Brown Music Foundation, the Zentrum Paul Klee, the Bibliothque Publique dInformation, the Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM) and the Centre Georges Pompidou.

    1. Wassily Kandinsky, Point et ligne sur plan. ditions Gallimard, collection Folio Essais, Paris, 1991.2. Henri Bergson, Matire et mmoire. Essai sur la relationdu corps lesprit, Coll. Bibliothque de philosophie contemporaine. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1939.3. Laurent Burte, Scratch graphique. ditions Pyramyd, 2003.

    4. Paul Klee, crits sur lart. La Pense cratrice.ditions Dessain et Tolra, Paris, 1980.5. Gyrgy Ligeti, Neuf essais sur la musique. ditions Contrechamps, Paris. 6. Arnold Schnberg, Le Style et lIde. ditions Buchet-Chastel, Paris, 2002. 7. Theodor Adorno, Philosophie de la nouvelle musique. ditions Gallimard, Paris, 1948.

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  • For Renau, posters enjoyed this support because deprived of that halo of mystery that surrounds a painting and because, in its expression, so humble, so unpreten-tious, it had no need to pose to be a work of art. Its signifi cance goes beyond that which it manifestly publicizes, beyond its function as notice, the plastic use of its colours and abstract laws of its forms, he declared, indirectly alluding to its documentary and social value.But he was also referring to an unbreakable bond between the history of the poster and the rise of capitalism, which he mentioned in these terms: When positive experiences technical and functional of advertising forms fi nd the highest expression of their servitude in the social needs of the new era, the fi rst step of the poster as expression of capitalism, from its early romantic stammerings to the great and latest creations, will constitute an enthralling chapter in the his-tory of the evolution of our society.

    From commercial function to socio-cultural function More than 70 years have passed since this text was published, but as far as the Spanish poster, at least, is concerned, it is perhaps only now that Renaus essay has acquired its full meaning, now that the poster has progressively lost its com-mercial function and instead gained from a social and cultural point of view.It might be that Joan Costa is indeed right when he affi rms that the poster has been replaced by other and more sophisticated, more powerful media, that it is submitted to the dictatorship of the quantitative and relegated to the back-ground within the framework of some advertising campaign launched before-hand on television. It is nevertheless worth pointing out that this comment speaks above all of commercial posters, which fell into disgrace in the last third of the 20th century.But has the death knell truly tolled for the poster, as some maintain? Is it really a means of communication suffering an identity crisis in a world saturated with messages, in which advertising fi ghts to attract the attention of consumers who are increasingly hostile to classic stratagems? So it would seem, if we consider advertising investment in Spain, for example. According to the InfoAdex study of 2009, investment has tumbled pretty much everywhere, including traditional media like radio and outdoor advertising but except for the Internet, the only medium in which there is strong growth. Indeed, there are plenty of advertis-ing executives who are themselves convinced of the obsolescence of conventional

    Goodbye Posters?In a 1937 text, La funcin social del cartel, which marked the history of Spanish posters, Josep Renau questioned the possibilities of this means of expression in Spain. He saw a new artistic discipline able to stimulate more interest among artists and the general public than most sculpture events being held at museums at that time.

    posters by raquel pelta

    Andreu Balius, 2008. One poster, two functions: serving as advertisement and as presentation of a specimen of the Pradell font, designed by the graphic artist between 2001 and 2003.

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  • media given the advent of the new channels bearing Internet and digital media, which are more fl exible, have no constraints of space or time and are open to interactivity. Their development corresponds also to a search for personalized positioning defi n-ing more and more, and better and better, a targeted public in order to measure the effectiveness of a campaign immediately. Which is the opposite of what a poster did a few decades ago. It was about this that Angharad Lewis wrote in her book, Street Talk: The Rise and Fall of the Poster, declaring that poster could not discriminate at all, that it was impartial and democratic, given that its message was addressed to all passers-by.Everywhere, including in the context of exterior advertising, posters have a relatively small importance, compared to billboards, printed awnings stretched over buildings, buses and banners, which are increasingly common in large towns. But they still have a place in street furniture, which is the most commonly used advertising medium, and which in the fi rst six months of 2010 represented 44 per cent of the investment made in exterior advertising. Of course, posters will never be able to rival far more spectacular offerings, such as olfactory postings and electronic advertising, which offer possibilities of video projection and interactivity. Nor can they compare with guerrilla marketing, or with ambient media or electronic word-of-mouth. In a certain way, one might even say that posters, more than ever today, are that expression, so humble, so unpretentious of which Renau spoke.Nevertheless, on top of the competition from the new media, one has to bear in mind that in Spain as in many other countries, posters are the victims of increasingly strict regulations governing their use in a public space. For instance, it is forbidden to place posters alongside roads, and every municipality has its own bylaws as regards dimen-sions and positioning of luminous hoardings, advertising panels and posters on its territory. These bylaws, which can vary from one town to the next, forbid and punish unauthorized posting, amongst other things, requiring prior authorization for post-ing on boards in public space. Display of posters is therefore limited to street furniture within public or private spaces.Thus it is that the poster, in some way freed of the laws of competition, has been able to preserve less marketable territories, such as shows and especially independ-ent music production, art and cultural exhibitions, together with social and politi-cal militantism.Paradoxically, while the poster emerged from the rise of capitalism and has served to encourage consumerism, it has today become a critical instrument for those seek-ing alternatives.

    Creative and spectacular The Spanish poster can boast a remarkable tradition, with roots back to the heart of the 18th century. It enjoyed a period of splendour in the fi rst third of the 20th century and a fl ourishing period in the 1960s, followed by a progressive recession with recovery of activity during some years, as in the 1980s, refl ecting the boom of Spanish design.In this sense, its history runs parallel to that of the poster in other European coun-tries, with all the nuances resulting from the individual social and cultural context, and the preoccupations of our designers resemble those of designers throughout the world. Thus, while recognizing that the poster is no longer what it was, most design-ers refuse to accept its disappearance. On the contrary, they believe that it poses some interesting challenges, as much for its past splendour as for its widespread exposure to the public or, despite everything, because it has remained a medium for mass com-munication enjoying a respectable tradition.For many, the poster even represents one of their favourite formats. David Torrents, for example, who is an unconditional fan of the poster and one of the most sought

    Top: David Torrents, 2006. The font and colour give an idea of circus in this poster for the exhibition held at the Barcelona Contemporary Culture Centre on modern-day Catalan circus and the art of risk.

    Bottom left: Alex Trochut, 2007. A personal project for the Psicotipogrfi co exhibition (Madrid, 2007). This is a good example of a drawn letter that is both text and image at one and the same time.

    Bottom right: Daniel Nebot, 2007. This simple line drawing evokes the theme of shoes for an exhibition of 30 leading Spanish brands, which brought together the work of prestigious graphic designers.

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  • after for his skills as poster designer, declared in an interview, I dont know how other people see it but for me anyway, the poster is at the centre of things. Each time theres a poster in a project, thats what matters most to me.From Andreu Balius: Designing a poster is a fantastic exercise that presupposes a series of skills ranging from colour to fonts, and including page layout. Of all the supports available to graphic designers and those who have things to say, whether its a personal project or a commission, the poster is the means of communication par excellence, that closest to people, that which gives the graphic designer the most freedom and brings him closest to the fi ne arts. Its a spectacular instrument and graphic designers adore its format.For Eric Olivares, The poster is the advertising standard of the 20th century, one of the most interesting and most creative exercises in the graphic arts.The poster is thus perceived as an opportunity to demonstrate ones talent, as it calls into play the mastery of the graphic language and tools, including the ability to syn-thesize and communicate.Some, like Gabriel Martnez, member of the Un Mundo Feliz collective, avow that even if it is possible to go further with the Internet, they have a soft spot for the poster. It retains a part of our memory and gives us pleasure when we design it, when we print it and stick it up. Its format is pleasing and we have noted that its also liked by the students who come to our studios. Perhaps theres a little romanticism in all this, because were aware that it has lost its power, probably because you cant stick a poster up in the road anymore.

    DisplacedThis is the opinion also of Balius, who claims that posters have lost their raison dtre, given that in large towns, no one knows where they can pin them up. The boards that were once available have vanished and with them [goes] the popular dimension of the poster. Today unless you go via an agency, you cant do anything, to the point that the poster has ended up resembling a sort of advertising ticket; in other words, without the impact it had before the digital age, its no longer really a poster.This situation worries Torrents, who in a conference recently stressed that the places in which it is still possible to place a poster are monopolized by municipalities or pri-vate companies. Why, he asks, cant everything that happens on the Internet also happen in the street? In a text written for the occasion, he rightly added, Why is there no better regulated, more democratic way to show a good poster to everyone? Why arent there more panels? Why is the only support we have in this country a kiosk or column on which one poster covers the next, without any temporal logic, with squadrons of young people sent deliberately on their mopeds to change them every half-hour, thus depriving the posters of the possibility of having some mean-ing or spending some time in the road without having to pay for private or public panels? Adieu posters! Well meet up in art galleries! Or in books!

    From the street to the art galleryThis declaration by Torrents expresses a common regret, the nostalgia for the street with which the poster was closely associated from the outset; we should not forget that it was the urban character that best defi ned it. Gabriel Martinez, for his part, declares himself to be less sad but just as aware of what its disappearance from the street and its admission into art galleries means: I think that today, the poster belongs more to the artistic world of exhibitions than to that of advertising.That it has progressively changed from being a means of mass communication to an exhibition piece closer to a picture is a fact that seems to agree with the large number of exhibitions organized in Spain in recent years in line with the following

    Top: Ddac Ballester, 2004. Experimental typographical project based on the Helvetica font and a text by Joan Brossa on the poetic value of letters. The experiment included an exhibition and poster.

    Bottom left: Iban Ramon, 2008. In summer, the festivals in Benidorm offer varied programmes of music, dance and theatre. The graphic designer has succeeded in suggesting the variety by making use of forms that can be read as letters.

    Bottom right: Miquel Polidano, 2007. Poster announcing a series of four matine performances of concerts by stars of the 1960s. The graphic design uses only type, in a nod to posters of the past.

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  • principle: after launching an appeal for a project on a given subject, the best works of the participating graphic designers are reproduced just for the occasion and pub-lished in limited editions. This is what Cajamadrid does for its annual competition generally on a social theme followed by a travelling exhibition of the works cho-sen by the jury and the publication of a catalogue.Metamorphosed into a unique or almost item, or restricted to the artistic sphere, the poster will probably never again be that museum in the street that so fascinated its fans at the beginning of the 20th century. We shall regret its ability to educate the publics eye and that capacity to present aesthetic innovations to the observer that could not have been seen otherwise.

    New perspectives But not all is negative in these transformations. The poster has largely freed itself of the constraints of creativity imposed by its commercial considerations, and there are numerous graphic designers to design and approach them practically as though they were works of art. The growth in the number of posters created that are not the fruits of commissions shows this clearly. These graphic designers produce them to publicize themselves (as with Balius and his typographical works for his Typerepublic foundry), send their best wishes to clients and friends, celebrate or commemorate an event or directly to sell themselves, as in the case of Alex Trochut on his website or Vasava in his Vallery gallery. The Toormix workshop, another example worth quot-ing, has recently published a collection of 101 typographical posters to celebrate its tenth anniversary.For others, like Iban Ramn and Ddac Ballester, the poster is perfect for all sorts of experiments. The former was responsible for Bsicos (2008), a refl ection on images and the meaning we arbitrarily give them, presented in a limited edition of four posters, and more recently, his We Love Geometry, a proposal for a playful initia-tion to geometry, formed of a box containing a series of cards and unfolding posters.We may also mention Ddac Ballesters Helvtica sobre negro, a visual research into the Helvetica font that included an exhibition, a book and a poster.It can also happen that graphic designers make use of posters to pass on a message, support a charity cause or express political engagement.And it is exactly this direction that is adopted in the works of Eric Olivares, Isidro Ferrer and Un Mundo Feliz, a collective that has taken a stance on such serious issues as the war in Iraq, violence against women, terrorism and the 11 March bombs, together with ecological catastrophes, and which was also set to support Haiti in the wake of the January 2010 earthquake, for example.Quite clearly, the poster is a powerful ally of graphic militancy. They are generally intended to be spread through the Internet and printed at home, as in 2003 in the middle of the Gulf War. The posters published on this occasion responded to an inter-national appeal that depended on the mobilization of numerous Spanish graphic designers, a participation that is habitually acquired for major causes, as in 2002 after the ecological disaster caused by the sinking of the Prestige oil tanker off the coast of Galicia.We are thus in a sort of graphic do-it-yourself period in which the designers handle both creation and production. Perhaps the cause is a reduction in client commissions, such as those from the largest consumer of social and cultural posters in Spain, the public sector.Producing a poster becomes in practice a militant act in favour of a species facing extinction and is at the same time an opportunity to express ones opinions and add ones personal brick to the social structure.

    Top: Germinal, 2003. This poster expresses the spontaneity and values of a fl amenco festival aiming to promote young talent aged between 15 and 32.

    Bottom: Oyer Corazn, 1997. The iconography of the fallen angel against a fi ery background evokes the theme of one of the Goethes most famous works, Faust, performed in this case in a Madrid theatre.

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  • 140 :

    I Love Type 01 Futura, I Love Type 02 Avant Garde

    Edited by TwoPoints.NetVictionary160 pages 16 x 23 cm English 32

    The product of a collaboration between publisher Victionary and Barcelona studio Two-Points.net, I love Type 01 Futura and I love Type 02 Avant Garde are the fi rst two books in a col-lection about type. Through images, they survey recent instances of two typefaces in an interna-tional selection of high-quality graphic-design work. The preface explains that the two faces had a common history: they were victims of the success, torn between the technical constraints

    of their age lead and Letraset and the need to be exported. They also had common form and inspiration, both descending from the Bauhaus. Herb Lubalin cited the infl uence of Futura (1927, Paul Renner) when he created Avant Garde in 1970. Flexible to use and timelessly simple, these two faces fi t every aesthetic and are easy to customise. No surprises here, then. Lets hope the next titles in the collection are more boldly ambitious. CB

    Lart imprim en Suisse 2007-2010

    Stphanie Guexditions du Muse des Beaux-arts Le Locle320 pages 21,7 x 28 cm French/English 29

    This catalogue for the Triennial Exhibition of Contemporary Art, edited by its two cura-tors Stphanie Guex and Laurence Schmidlin, reviews Swiss output in the discipline from 2007 to 2010. Although the purpose of the event is to bring together representatives of

    the countrys leading printmaking firms, the book makes a highly focused selection of artists and authors, with three avenues of exploration: new forms of printed art (Silvia Buonvicinis pyrograved carpet prints, for instance), media hybridisation that challenges the limits of

    printmaking (Fabrizio Gianninis canvases) and the series production of prints. The unclutte-red page design, by the Gavillet & Rust studio, is enhanced by numerous colour reproductions and photographs. IM

    ei24_books.indd 140 30/05/11 18:38

  • : 141

    Latino Grafico

    Edited by TwoPoints.NetGestalten224 pages 24,3 x 28,7 cm Spanish/English 45

    Latin America is not only a geographic region. The continent has a strong cultural footprint, explains Cristian Jofre in his preface, that abounds with stereotypical images and refe-rences from our common imagination: Latin lovers, Speedy Gonzales, salsa and tango dan-cers, Mayas and Incas, Tony Montana, Che Gue-vara, the Rio carnival. Edited by Martin Lopez and Lupi Asensio, the founders of Barcelona stu-dio TwoPoints.net, the book is an acutely perti-nent attempt to carve out a new face for graphic

    design in South America: that of a people who are redefining their own visual language and displaying growing creative dynamism, despite a resonant artistic and cultural legacy. Latino Gra-fi co shows a selection of work by designers, illus-trators and typographers that refl ects the blend of habits and customs of a land in the throes of economic development spanning African folk, Christian symbolism, neo-punk and the impor-ted American lifestyle. IM

    BOOKS

    Through 13 March 2011, Stefan Sagmeister was the 11th carte blanche guest of MUDAC in Lausanne. New York-based for 17 years, the Austrian graphic designer showed only recent work: CD covers, posters, catalogues, graphic projects, furniture, and advertisements. This was a big statement for Sagmeister, who in recent years has been com-mitted to commissions (both public and private), which underscores the notably different profes-sional status that graphic designers enjoy across the Atlantic. Prefaced by MUDACs director, who also curated the event, Another Book about Promotion and Sales Material, the exhibition cata-logue, benefited from a top-notch art director: Zurich-based Martin Woodtli, an acute connois-seur of Sagmeister and his former business partner. The publication, different from the fi rst two, which staged the man himself, focuses on previously-unpublished projects, and should feed the Sagmeister myth for a long time to come. IM

    Sagmeister : Another Book

    Stefan Sagmeister, Chantal ProdHom and Martin Woodtliditions Pyramyd - 176 pages 17 x 24 cmFrench / English 29,90

    Back Cover #4

    Publisher: ditions B42Distributor: Les Belles Lettres53 pages 19,5 x 28 cm French /English 9,50

    Designers Identities

    Liz FarrelyLaurence King Publishing271 pages 21 x 29 cm English 24,95

    The recently-published fourth issue of Back Cover begins with a conversation between Karel Mar-tens and English author Robert Kinross: a high-calibre discussion on the binding of Printed Mat-ter, a book about the Dutch graphic designers work, and on the ties between architecture and graphic design. The latter concern connects with those of Catherine de Smet in an article on archi-tecture books as a space for deploying graphic design; and those of Jost Hochuli on the notion of the system. A forum for analysing and reflec-ting on graphic-design and typographic practices, Back Cover #4 contains seven articles; the position of each piece places in perspective its link with those before and after. Through carefully-cho-sen authors, editorial directors Alexandre Dimos and Gal tienne address themes such as code, teaching and the history of typography, always relative to the discipline and its current evolution. With Robert Kinross, Karel Martens, Metahaven, Roland Frh, Jost Hochuli, Stphanie Vilayphiou and Alexandre Leray, and Wim Crouwel. IM

    Seventy-six international designers. Seventy-six graphic identities. From business cards to websites to envelopes to newsletters, a stu-dios identity ensures graphic consistency and coherence across their own branding. Designers Identities compiles about 1,050 colour illustra-tions. Each profile starts with a business card and runs through a collection of identity adap-tations. From Akatres experiments to Dada type by deValence to black-on-black print collateral by Qube Konstrukt to the old-school motifs of Eight Hour Day, the selection by design critic Liz Farrelly demonstrates the care taken by graphic designers with their own materials. Although the graphic designers presented here produce visual language that fits their professional activities, the book explores the value of graphic work done outside the scope of commissions. RRT

    ei24_books.indd 141 30/05/11 18:38

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