ESTIMATION OF CROP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION UNDER ... Knowledge of crop water requirements is an important

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  • विभभन्न मौसमीय पररस्थितियों में फसऱ िाष्पोत्सर्जन का आॊकऱन

    ESTIMATION OF CROP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

    UNDER VARIABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS

    AMIT KUMAR SINGH

    DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL PHYSICS

    INDIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    NEW DELHI - 110012

  • ESTIMATION OF CROP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

    UNDER VARIABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS

    A Thesis

    By

    AMIT KUMAR SINGH

    Submitted to the Faculty of Post-Graduate School,

    Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi,

    in partial fulfillment of the requirements

    for the award of the degree of

    MASTER OF SCIENCE

    in

    AGRICULTURAL PHYSICS

    2012

    Approved by:

    Dr. (Ms). Ananta Vashisth (Chairperson) : …………………………………………...

    Dr. (Ms). U.K. Chopra (Co-Chairperson) : …………………………………………...

    Dr. S.D. Singh (Member) : …………………………………………...

    Dr. R.N. Sahoo (Member) : …………………………………………...

  • Division of Agricultural Physics,

    Indian Agricultural Research Institute

    New Delhi-110012, India

    Dr. (Mrs.) Ananta Vashisth,

    Senior Scientist

    CERTIFICATE

    This to certify that the thesis entitled ―Estimation Of Crop Evapotranspiration

    Under Variable Weather Conditions‖, submitted to the faculty of the Post

    Graduate School, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, in partial

    fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Agricultural

    Physics by Amit Kumar Singh, Roll no. 20027 embodies the results of bonafide

    work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance. No part of the thesis

    has been submitted by him for any other degree or diploma.

    I further certify that any help or any information received during the work on

    this thesis has been duly acknowledged.

    Place: New Delhi (Ananta Vashisth)

    Date: June 30, 2012 Chairperson

    Advisory Committee

  • Dedicated

    to

    My Beloved Parents

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I humbly and whole heartedly bow my head before Lord Almighty for blessing me

    all his grace to successfully complete my two years study and research endeavour in IARI.

    I was lucky to get Dr. (Mrs.) Ananta Vashisth, Senior Scientist, Division of

    Agricultural Physics, as Chairperson of my Advisory Committee. I express my profound

    sense of gratitude and sincere obligation to mam for his valuable suggestions and kind

    help rendered during the entire research programme.

    I owe my heartfelt thanks to Dr. (Mrs.) U.K. Chopra. Principal Scientist,

    Division of Agricultural Physics, Co-chairperson of advisory committee and Professor of

    Division for all his help, encouragements and valuable suggestions during the research

    work, expert guidance, trustworthy inspiration, unwavering perseverance, unabated

    encouragements, constructive criticisms, indomitable spirit and support which motivated

    and helped for the successful completion of my thesis. I express my profuse thanks to

    the members of my Advisory Committee, Dr. R.N. Sahoo, Senior Scientist, Division of

    agricultural Physics, Dr. S.D. Singh, Principal Scientist, Division of Environmental

    Science, IARI, New Delhi for his perpetual support and ever-willing assistance and

    guidance given to me throughout this endeavour.

    My sincere thanks to Dr. Ravender Singh, Head for his guidance and allowing

    me to use facilities available in division.

    I express my profuse thanks Dr. (Mrs.) Pramila Aggrawal, Dr. V.K. Sehgal, Dr.

    D.K. Das, Dr. K.K. Bandopadhyay, Dr. Debashish Chakraborty, Dr. R.N. Garg and Dr.

    Sanatan Pradhan for providing me the necessary facilities and encouragement throughout

    the research work.

    I am deeply gratified to Dr. V.K. Gupta, Dr. D. K. Joshi and Shri P.K. Sharma,

    Division of Agricultural Physics, IARI for extending timely and valuable help during the

    experimental work of this study.

    I am extending my sincere gratitude to Vipin mam, Kanchan, Rawat Sir and

    Rajender ji Division of Agricultural Physics all other technical, administration and

    supportive staff members in the Division of Agricultural Physics, IARI, New Delhi for

    the constant support, affection and motivation which helped me to complete my study in

    the Division.

    I articulate my appreciation to all my seniors of the Division especially Rajeev

    Bhaiya, Rakesh Bhaiya, Jitendra Bhaiya, Nilimesh Sir Sudipta Sir, Rajkumar Sir, Saurav

  • Sir, Debasish Sir and Sarath Sir. I am earnestly thankful to my torch bearing and adored

    senior Mondal Bhaiya and Pankaj Bhaiya, Harvinder Bhaiya, Jayant Bhaiya, Praveen

    Bhaiya, Subhashish Bhaiya, Dinesh Bhaiya and Gaurav Dhir Sir for their ever-willing

    lending hands, support, guidance and encouragement poured on me during my study. It is

    a matter of immense privilege for me to express my whole hearted thanks to my beloved

    friends Prasanna, Monu, Paritosh, Sanjay, Sumit,Debrup ,Golui, Ranjan ,Prakash and

    Soobedar whose moral support, advice and assistance helped me in all walks of my life. I

    extend my whole hearted thanks to my classmates Bappa and Mukhtar for their nice

    company, immeasurable help and support rendered to me during the two years of study in

    the division. I express my thanks to my juniors Vidyasagar, Abhishek, Ashish, Paulson,

    Amit and Rekha for their nice companionship.

    I am grateful to the Director, IARI, New Delhi, for providing me necessary

    facilities to carry out my research work at this Institute. I extend my gratitude to IARI

    for the financial support in the form of IARI Fellowship.

    IARI, New Delhi (Amit Kumar Singh)

    Date: June 30, 2012

  • CONTENTS

    Sl. No. Chapter Page No.

    1. INTRODUCTION 1-3

    2. BACKGROUND 4-15

    3. MATERIALS AND METHODS 16-24

    4. RESEARCH PAPER I 25-40

    5. RESEARCH PAPER II 41-50

    6. DISCUSSION 51-52

    7. SUMMARY 53-56

    8. ABSTRACT 57-58

    9. साॊराश

    59-60

    10.

    11.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    APPENDIX

    i-xiii

    xiv-xviii

  • 1

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table

    No.

    Title Page

    No.

    1. Soil properties at experimental site. 17

    2. Average Reference evapotranspiration estimated at different

    stage by Penman-Monteith equation.

    30

    3. Crop stage of different varieties of mustard at variable weather

    conditions

    32

    4. Adjusted Single crop coefficient of mustard at different stage 33

    5. Adjusted basal crop coefficient of mustard at different stage 34

    6. Average value of crop evapotranspiration estimated using single

    crop coefficient approach in mustard at different stage

    35

    7. Total Crop evapotranspiration estimated using different approach

    in mustard at different stage

    36

    8. Average value of crop evapotranspiration estimated using dual

    crop coefficient of mustard at different stage

    37

    9. Seed Yield (Kg/ha) in different varieties of mustard grown at

    variable weather conditions

    45

    10. Percentage oil content in mustard grown at variable weather

    conditions

    46

    11. Radiation use efficiency of different varieties of mustard grown

    under different weather conditions

    48

  • 2

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Fig.

    No.

    Title After

    Page No.

    1. Weekly observed and normal minimum (min) and maximum (max)

    temperature during rabi season 2011-12 at IARI, New Delhi.

    28

    2. Weekly observed and normal minimum (min) and maximum (max)

    rainfall during rabi season 2011-12 at IARI, New Delhi.

    28

    3. Observed and normal bright sunshine hours during rabi season

    2011-12 at IARI, New Delhi.

    28

    4. Observed and normal evaporation during rabi season 2011-12 at

    IARI, New Delhi.

    28

    5. Observed and normal bright wind speed during rabi season 2011-

    12 at IARI, New Delhi.

    28

    6. Observed and normal relative humidity during rabi season 2011-12

    at IARI New Delhi.

    28

    7. Daily net radiation estimated at experimental site 29

    8. Daily Refere