Estimation Asg

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    S U B M I T T E D B Y : M S . R A F A T F O D K A RR E G I S T R A T I O N N O : 2 1 2 - 0 7 - 2 7 - 1 0 7 7 2 - 2 1 4 1

    COURSE TITLE:

    QUANTITIES(TAKINGOFF)

    COURSENO:MQS 212

    ASSIGNMENTNO:FIFTYSIX

    [NATIONALINSTITUTEOFCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTAND

    RESEARCH]

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    ASSIGNMENT

    NICMAR/SODEOFFFICE

    1.COURSE NO : MQS 212

    2.COURSETITLE : QUANTITIES(TAKING OFF)

    3.ASSIGNMENT NO : FIFTY SIX

    4.DATEOFDISPATCH :

    5.LAST DATE OF RECEIPT OF

    ASSIGNMENT AT SODE OFFICE :

    ASSIGNMENT

    THE PLAN AND SECTIONAL ELEVATION OF A BUILDING ARE GIVEN IN FIGURE. ESTIMATE THE

    QUANTITIES OF THE FOLLOWING ITEMS OF WORK OF THE BUILDING.

    1. EARTHWORK IN EXCAVATION IN FOUNDATION.

    2. P.C.C. CONCRETE IN FOUNDATION(1:4:5)

    3. MASONRY WORK UPTO PLINTH(1:6)

    4.1ST

    CLASS BRICKWORK FOR WALLS(1:6)

    5. R.C.C. WORK IN ROOF SLABS, LINTELS, SUNSHADES ETC.(1:2:4 CONCRETE)

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    WHAT IS AN ESTIMATE

    BEFORE TAKING UP ANY WORK FOR ITS EXECUTION, THE OWNER OR BUILDER

    SHOULD HAVE A THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE VOLUME OF WORK THAT CAN

    BE COMPLETED WITHIN THE LIMITS OF HIS FUNDS OR THE PROBABLE COST THAT MAY

    BE REQUIRED TO COMPLETE THE PROPOSED WORK. IT IS THEREFORE NECESSARY TO

    PREPARE THE PROBABLE COST OR ESTIMATE FOR THE PROPOSED WORK FROM ITS

    PLAN AND SPECIFICATION. OTHERWISE IT MAY SO HAPPEN THAT THE WORK HAS TO

    BE STOPPED BEFORE ITS COMPLETION DUE TO THE SHORTAGE OF FUNDS AND OF

    MATERIALS. BESIDE THE ABOVE, AN ESTIMATE FOR ANY PUBLIC CONSTRUCTION WORK

    IS REQUIRED TO BE PREPARED AND SUBMITTED BEFOREHAND SO THAT SANCTION OF

    NECESSARY FUNDS MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE AUTHORITY CONCERNED

    THUS AN ESTIMATE FOR ANY CONSTRUCTION WORK MAY BE DEFINED AS THE

    PROCESS OF CALCULATING THE QUANTITIES AND COST OF VARIOUS ITEMS REQUIREDIN CONNECTION WITH THE WORK. IT IS PREPARED BY CALCULATING THE QUANTITIES

    FROM THE DIMENSION ON THE DRAWINGS FOR THE VARIOUS ITEMS REQUIRED TO

    COMPLETE THE PROJECT AND MULTIPLIED BY UNIT COST OF THE ITEM CONCERNED.

    TO PREPARE AN ESTIMATE DRAWING CONSISTING OF THE PLAN THE ELEVATION AND

    THE SECTIONS THROUGH IMPORTANT POINTS ALONG WITH A DETAILED SPECIFICATION

    GIVING SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION OF ALL WORKMANSHIP, PROPERTIES AND PROPORTION OF

    MATERIALS ARE REQUIRED.

    ESTIMATE

    ESTIMATE IS A WORD OF WIDER CONNOTATION AND ITS DEFINITIONS SCOPE AND

    MEANING WILL DEPEND UPON THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE CASE. IT RANGES VARIES

    FROM FORECASTING VALUES WITHOUT MEASURING TO APPROXIMATE JUDGEMENT OR

    OPINION BASED ON ACTUAL DATA SUPPLIED INCLUDING MEASURED DRAWINGS AND

    SPECIFICATIONS. AT TIMES THIS WORK IS PRECEDED BY CAUTIONARY ADJECTIVES

    LIKE APPROXIMATEROUGHESTIMATE IN GENERALPROBABLE IN SPITE OF THE

    FACT THAT ESTIMATE BY ITSELF CARRIES WITH IT THE INBUILT FEATURES OF THE

    ABOVE ADJECTIVES. THE USE OF ADJECTIVES CAN BE TRACED TO THE OLD ENGLISHCASE OF CROWSHAW WHERE ESTIMATE WAS HELD AS AN OFFER.THIS CASE HAS TO

    BE DISTINGUISHED FROM THE ESTIMATE PREPARED BY ARCHITECT WHO DOES NOT

    MAKE AN OFFER TO EXECUTE THE WORK BUT FORECAST THE PROBABLE AMOUNT OF

    MONEY WHICH A CONTRACTING PARTY WILL EXECUTE THE SPECIFIED WORK PROVIDED

    THE SITE CONDITIONS TIME FACTOR OWNER S TENDENCY TO VARY AND COUNTRY

    ECONOMIC PARAMETERS REMAIN UNALTERED.THE CROWSHAW CASE ALSO SHOWS

    THE CHANGE IN DIMENSION OF THE WORD ESTIMATE DEPENDING UPON THE

    CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE CASE.

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    IMPORTANCE OF ESTIMATING

    1. IT HELPS IN WORKING OUT THE APPROXIMATE COST OF A BUILDING OR PROJECTBEFORE THE WORK IS TAKEN IN ORDER TO ASCERTAIN THE FINANCIAL

    IMPLICATIONS INVOLVED AND TO KNOW WHETHER IT CAN BE COMPLETED

    ACCORDING TO GIVEN SPECIFICATIONS WITHIN CERTAIN FINANCIAL LIMITS OR

    REQUIRES MODIFICATIONS OR DROPPING OF THE PROPOSAL ALTOGETHER

    DEPENDING UPON THE AVAILABLE FINANCIAL RESOURCE.

    2. IT FORMS THE BASE FOR THE PROCESS OF COST-PLANNING.3. IT IS USEFUL IN FRAMING THE TENDERS FOR THE WORKS AND TO CHECK THE

    CONTRACTOR S WORKS DURING AND AFTER EXECUTION FOR THE PURPOSE OF

    INTERIM AND FINAL CERTIFICATE.

    4. REQUIREMENT OF CONTROLLED MATERIALS LIKE CEMENT AND STEEL CAN BEESTIMATED FOR MAKING APPLICATIONS TO THE CONTROLLING AUTHORITIES.

    5. CLIENTS CAN BE ADVISED ON :a) FIXATION OF STANDARD RENT.

    b) COVER NOTE FOR FIRE INSURANCE AND CLAIM FOR DAMAGES IN CASE OF FIRETO A BUILDING.

    c) REASONABLENESS OF THE AMOUNT CLAIMED IN THE ARBITRATIONPROCEEDINGS.

    VALUATIONS OF OWNER OCCUPIED PROPERTIES ON LAND AND BUILDINGS BASIS FOR

    SALE, PURCHASE, MORTGAGE, GENERAL GOVERNMENT PURPOSE.

    EARTHWORK INEXCAVATION FOR FOUNDATION TRENCHES

    EARTH IS EXCAVATED FOR FOUNDATION TRENCHES TO THE EXACT WIDTH AND

    DEPTH OF FOUNDATION TRENCHES TO THE EXACT WIDTH AND DEPTH OF FOUNDATION

    WITH VERTICAL SIDES AND THE BOTTOM LEVELLED BOTH LONGITUDINALLY AND

    TRANSVERSELY. THE QUANTITY OF EARTHWORK IS CALCULATED IN CUBIC METRE (CU

    M) UP TO TWO DECIMAL PLACES, MULTIPLYING THE ACTUAL REQUIRED LENGTH X

    BREADTH X DEPTH OF EXCAVATION. EARTHWORK FOR STEPS SHALL BE INCLUDED.

    EARTHWORK IN FILLING:-

    THIS CONSIST OF TWO PARTS:-

    A)FOUNDATION TRENCHES

    B)PLINTH FILLING.

    NORMALLY EXCAVATED EARTH FROM THE FOUNDATION TRENCHES IS USED FOR

    FILLING. THE EXACT RAMMED AND CONSOLIDATED VOLUME IS CALCULATED. BUT

    CONSIDERING THE QUALITY OF EARTH PLINTH FILLING MAY BE DONE BY SAND AND

    IN SUCH A CASE PLINTH FILLING WORK SHALL BE SEPARATED FROM FOUNDATION

    FILLING.

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    a) FOR FOUNDATION FILLING : THE VOLUME IS CALCULATED IN CU M. CONSIDERINGTHE LOW RATE OF EARTH FILLING THE QUANTITY IS USUALLY TAKEN AS 1/5 THE

    VOLUME OF EARTHWORK IN EXCAVATION. BUT FOR HIGH RATE DUE TO CARRIED

    EARTH OR FOR ACCURACY,

    QUANTITY OF EARTHWORK=(

    VOLUME OF WORK IN

    EXCAVATION-VOLUME OF WORK IN FOUNDATION)THE VOLUME OF WORK IN

    FOUNDATION MAY BE OF BRICK SOLING, CONCRETING AND MASONRY WORK UPTO

    GROUND LEVEL.

    b) PLINTH FILLING : THE VOLUME IS CALCULATED IN CU M.THE INTERNAL LENGTHAND BREADTH OF A ROOM OR VERANDAH BETWEEN PLINTH WALLS I .E: EXCLUDING

    PLINTH OFFSET FROM THE MEASUREMENT OF ROOM OR VERANDAH ARE TAKEN

    AND MULTIPLIED BY THE DEPTH OF FILLING. THE DEPTH OF FILLING IS TAKEN

    FROM THE GROUND LEVEL UPTO THE BOTTOM OF FLOOR STRUCTURE .

    CEMENT OR LIME CONCRETE IN FOUNDATION:-

    THE VOLUME IS COMPUTED IN CU.M I.E : LENGTH X BREADTH X DEPTH OF

    CONCRETE. DIMENSION OF LENGTH AND BREADTH FOR CONCRETE REMAIN THE SAME

    AS THAT OF EARTHWORK WHEN THE SECTION OF ALL WALLS OF THE BUILDING ARE

    SAME .

    MASONRYWORKINFOUNDATION &PLINTH:-

    THE VOLUME OF DIFFERENT OFFSETS OR LAYERS AND PLINTH WALL ARE

    CALCULATED ONE BY ONE IN CU M BY MULTIPLYING THEIR INDIVIDUAL LENGTH,

    BREADTH AND THICKNESS ORHEIGHT.AS THERE IS NO OPENING IN THE WALL UPTO

    PLINTH NO DEDUCTION IS REQUIRED.

    MASONRYWORKINSUPERSTRUCTURE WALLS:-

    FOR WALLS UPTO ONE BRICK THICK(I.E UPTO 20 CM) THICK THE VOLUME IS

    CALCULATED IN CU.M . LENGTH X BREADTH OR THICKNESS X HEIGHT.THE WALL IS

    CONSIDERED FIRST SOLID HAS NO OPENINGS AND NO LINTEL. AFTER CALCULATING

    THE VOLUME OF BRICKWORK (CONSIDERING SOLING FIRST) STANDARD DEDUCTION FOR

    VOLUME OF OPENINGS VOLUME OCCUPIED BY LINTEL OR ANY OTHERS ARE MADE AS

    PER STANDARD RULES OF DEDUCTION PRESCRIBE BY IS:1200(DESCRIBE IN ARTICLE

    4-4) TO ARRIVE IN THE ESTIMATED QUANTITY OF BRICKWORK. FOR MULTI-STOREYED

    BUILDINGS BRICKWORK FOR DIFFERENT STORIES SHALL BE KEPT SEPARATED .

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    R.C.C OR R.BWORK:-

    REINFORCED CONCRETE MAY BE USED IN COLUMNS,LINTELS,BEAMS,ROOF SLABS

    ETC.THE QUANTITY IS WORKED OUT IN CU .M I.E: LENGTH X BREADTH X DEPTH

    INCLUDING REINFORCEMENT. THE VOLUME OCCUPIED BY REINFORCEMENT IS NOT

    DEDUCTED FROM THE VOLUME OF CONCRETE. THE QUANTITY OF REINFORCEMENT IS

    FOUND SEPARATELY BY PROVIDING A SEPARATE ITEM IN THE ESTIMATE IF NOT

    OTHERWISE MENTIONED. EACH TYPE OF WORK IS CLASSIFIED SEPARATELY .THE

    METHOD OF MEASUREMENT IN CONJUNCTION IN COLUMN AND BEAMS HAS BEEN

    STATED IN THE R.C.C CHAPTER.ACCORDING TO IS RECOMMENDATION FORMWORK I.E :

    SHUTTERING SHALL BE CLASSIFIED AND MEASURED SEPARATELY .IF REINFORCEMENT

    OR SHUTTERING ARE INCLUDED AND CONSIDERED AS A CONSOLIDATED ONE ITEM.

    THIS SHOULD BE FULLY DESCRIBE AND MEASURED IN CU. M R.B WORK IN LINTEL AND

    ROOF SLAB IS MEASURED IN CU. M AS IN THE CASE OF R.C.CCHAJJA IS INCLUDED

    WITH R.C.C WORK.

    PRINCIPLES UNIT FOR VARIOUS ITEM OF WORKS:-

    a) MASS, VOLUMINOUS AND THICK WORK SHALL BE TAKEN IN CUBIC UNIT ORVOLUME (VIZ, CUBIC METRE,CU M)

    b) THIN, SHALLOW AND SURFACE WORK SHALL BE TAKEN IN SQUARE UNIT OR INAREA.THE THICKNESS SHALL BE SPECIFIED IN THE DESCRIPTION OF THE ITEM AND

    THE MEASUREMENT OF LENGTH AND BREADTH OR PROJECTION SHALL BE TAKEN

    TO CALCULATE THE AREA.( VIZ, SQUARE METRE, SQ M)c) LONG AND THIN WORK SHALL BE TAKEN IN LINEAR OR RUNNING UNITS AND

    LINEAR MEASUREMENT SHALL BE TAKEN (VIZ, RUNNING METRE, RM).

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    LONG AND SHORT WALLOR OUT-TO-OUT &IN-TO-IN METHOD:-

    IN THIS METHOD THE LONGER WALLS IN A BUILDING (GENERALLY IN ONE

    DIRECTION) ARE CONSIDERED AS LONG WALLS AND MEASURED FROM OUT-TO-OUT

    AN