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SEMINAR ON SUMMER TRAINING AT ESCORTS TRACTOR’S PLANT, FARIDABAD. SUBMITTED TO ER.ASDFGRET KUMAR SUBMITTED BY MAHESH 1710623 Mechanical

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Escorts Tractors Workshop (PLANT) fARIDABAD.

Text of Escorts Tractors Workshop, Faridabad Power Point Slide.pptx

Slide 1

SEMINAR ONSUMMER TRAININGATESCORTS TRACTORSPLANT, FARIDABAD.

SUBMITTED TOER.ASDFGRET KUMARSUBMITTED BYMAHESH1710623Mechanical

1HISTORY OF TRACTORS IN INDIAAs commercialization of agriculture grew in intensity in the mid-to-late 19th century.

From 1945 to 1960, tractors and bulldozers were imported for land reclamation and cultivation in mid-1940s. In 1947 central and state tractor organizations were set up to develop and promote the supply and use of tractors in agriculture and up to 1960, the demand was met entirely through imports. There were 8,500 tractors in use in 1951, 20,000 in 1955 and 37,000 by 1960.

From 1961 to 1970, Local production began in 1961 with five manufacturers (Eicher, Gujarat Tractors, TAFE, Escorts, M&M) producing a total of 880 units per year. By 1965 this had increased to over 5000 units per year and the total in use had risen to over 52,000. By 1970 annual production had exceeded 20,000 units per year with over 146,000 units working in the country.

Commercialization:-To apply methods of business to for profit.2From 1971 to 1980, Six new manufacturers were established during this period although three companies (Kirloskar Tractors, Harsha Tractors and Pittie Tractors) did not survive. HMT began manufacturing Agricultural Tractors in 1972 under the HMT brand name with technology acquired fromZetorof the Czech Republic. Escorts Ltd. began local manufacture of Ford tractors in 1971 in collaboration with Ford, UK and total production climbed steadily to 33,000 in 1975-76.

From 1981 to 1990, further five manufacturers (Auto Tractors, Haryana Tractors, United Auto Tractors, Asian Tractors, VST Tillers) began production during this period but only last one of these survived in the increasingly competitive market place. Annual production exceeded 75,000 units by 1985 and reached 140,000 in 1990 when the total in use was about 1.2 million. Then India - a net importer up to the mid-seventies became an exporter in the 1980s mainly to countries in Africa.

From 1991 to 1997, Since 1992, it has not been necessary to obtain an industrial license for tractor manufacture in India. By 1997 annual production exceeded 255,000 units and the national tractor population had passed the 2 million mark. India now emerged as one of the world leaders in wheeled tractor production.These Companies Can Not Survive Because Of Highly Competitive Market And Negative Working Capital.Zetor Is Company Of Czech Republic Country. This Country is near polland.

3List Of Some Manufactures MANUFACTURERCOLLABORATORYEAREicher Tractors LtdGebr, Eicher Tractor. West Germany1961Gujarat Tractors LtdMotokov Praha, Czechoslovakia1963TAFEMessey Ferguson. UK1961Escorts LtdMoloimport Arazawa Zaklady Mechaniczne .Ursus Poland1964Mahindra And MahindraInternational Harvestor. UK1965+Escorts Tractor LtdFord .U.K.1971Hindustan Machine ToolsMotokov Praha. Czechoslovakia1971Kirloskar Tractors LmtKlochner Humboldt Deutz. Germany1974Punjab Tractor LimitedCMERI.INDIA1974Pittie Tractor LimitedNo Data Available1974

Introduction to COMPANY

The Escorts Group is among India's leading engineering Organization operating in the sectors of agri-machinery, construction & material handling equipment, railway equipment and auto components.

Escorts has played a pivotal role in the agricultural growth of India for over five decades. Escorts offers a comprehensive range of tractors, more than 45 variants starting from 25 to 80 HP.

A leading material handling and construction equipment manufacturer, they manufacture and market a diverse range of equipment like cranes, loaders, forklifts Etc.

Escorts has been a major player in the railway equipment business in India for nearly five decades. Our product offering includes brakes, couplers, shock absorbers, rail fastening systems, composite brake blocks and vulcanized rubber parts. In the auto components segment, Escorts is a leading manufacturer of auto suspension products and shock absorbers.

5HIGHLIGHTsIn 1960, The parent company, Escorts, set up the strategic Agri Machinery Group (AMG) to venture into tractors.In 1965, we rolled out our first batch of tractors under the brand name of Escort.In 1969 a separate company, Escorts Tractors Ltd., was established with equity participation of Ford Motor Co., UK for the manufacture of Ford agricultural tractors in India.In the year 1996 Escorts Tractors Ltd. formally merged with the parent company, Escorts Ltd.Since inception, Escorts have manufactured over 1 million tractors. For viz.Farmtrac: World Class Premium tractors, with single reduction and epicyclic reduction transmissions from 34 to 75 HP.Powertrac: Utility and Value-for-money tractors, offering straight-axle and hub-reduction tractors from 34 to 55 HP. Indias No.1 economy range engineered to give spectacular diesel economy.Escort: Economy tractors having hub-reduction transmission and twin-cylinder engines from 27 to 35 HP.Venture:- a risky or daring journey or undertaking. In 1965 escort was collaborated with Moloimport Arazawa Zaklady Mechaniczne .Ursus Poland.

6technologiesEscorts Agri Machinery has three recognized and well-accepted tractor brands, which are on distinct and separate technology platforms. These Are:

Farmtrac:-World Class Premium tractors, with single reduction and epicyclic reduction transmissions from 34 to 75 HP.

Powertrac : Utility and Value-for-money tractors, offering straight-axle and hub-reduction tractors from 34 to 55 HP.India's No .1 economy range engineered to give spectacular diesel economy.

Escort : Economy tractors having hub-reduction transmission and twin-cylinder engines from 27 to 35 HP. Pioneering brand of tractors introduced by Escorts with unbeatable advantages.

Jai Kisan Series: It consist of five new categories ValueMaxx, LoadMaxx, AgMaxx, InfraMaxx, SuperMaxx. This Series is available in the FARMTRAC line of Escorts tractors.

FERRARI :Starting with a 26 HP model, It is best suited for Glasshouse/ Nurseries, Light Transportation, Micro farming and lawn maintenance.PHOTO GALLERY

KMCKMC stands for Escorts Knowledge Management Center ,it unites professional expertise with long practical experience in Product Design, Computer Aided Engineering (Simulation & Virtual Testing), Product Evaluation & Testing. It is in about 10000 square meter area.

It Compromises of These Section

DesignTestingAssembly PlantFinal Testing

DESIGN

In this section there are design of engine, transmission, vehicle are being done. For this purpose they use

I-DEAS / NX 3-D Modeling & AssemblyPro EngineerAUTOCAD (2-D)Structural analysisThermal analysisNon linear analysisDynamic analysisFatigue analysisI-DEAS:-Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Software)

10AutoCAD, Pro/ENGINEER , I-DEAS(Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Software) aresoftware applicationfor2D and3D,computer-aided design (CAD)anddrafting. These use provide simplicity and accuracy for making parts as for viz. Rear Axle, Differential Unit, Engine etc.

Structural analysis is the determination of the effects ofloadson physicalstructuresand their components. engineer first determine information asloads,geometry, support conditions, and materials properties. The results of such an analysis typically include support reactions,stressesanddisplacements and are shown on a monitor. This information is then compared to criteria that indicate the conditions of failure.

In Thermal analysis properties of materials are studied as they change withtemperature . Viz. in Differential thermal analysis(DTA), the material under study and an inert reference are made to undergo identical thermal cycles, while recording any temperature difference between sample and reference.This differential temperature is then plotted against time, or against temperature. Then results are compared.

11Non linear analysis, this is also known as Plastic analysis" In general. Plastic analysis is usually based on the idealization of stress strain curve as perfectly plastic. In this analysis, it is assumed that width thickness ratio of plate elements is small so the local buckling does not occur. Broadly speaking the section will be declared as perfectly plastic.

Fatigue analysis, fatigueis the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic loading. It is tested by

The E-N Approach: In a fatigue test, specimens of different material types are subjected to various types of cyclic loading, such as: small-scale bending, torsion, tension, and compression. The E-N approach uses these tests to measure fatigue life. The results are plotted in terms of strain (E)vs. cycles to failure (N) on an E-N diagram. Figure:- Rear Axle

Figures:-Design Simulation & Verification using FEA tools Figure:- Detail of Rear Axle

13TestingIn testing department testing of engine, transmission and tractor testing are done. It includes engine test lab, transmission lab and tractor lab.Engine Test Lab. - Engine Test Lab includes the following tests:Friction Measurement- For friction measuring motoring dynamometer is used. In this test the engine is first run up to the desired speed by its own power and allowed to remain at the given speed and load conditions for some time so that oil, water, and engine component temperatures reach stable conditions. The fuel supply is then cut-off and dynamometer is converted to run as a motor to drive for the engine at the same speed at which it was previously running. The power supply to the motor is measured which is a measure of the friction of the engine. It is about 22kW for 34hp engine. Governing Test-This test is performed at high idle speed, rated speed and an intermediate speed.RPM is decreased in steps of 20 and it is observed at what RPM maximum power is obtained. For a good engine, the difference between maximum power RPM and the RPM at which the test is being performed should not be more than 100-120 RPM.

Gaseous & Particulate Emission Evaluation- Flame Ionization Detector is used for HC emission. Bosch smoke meter is used for smoke measurement.Endurance Test - This test is done to estimate the life of the engine. This test is generally performed on a new engine or an engine with some part modified. The test procedure depends on type of modification done. A new engine is run continuously for 3000 hours. After every 40 hours engine oil is checked, every 100 hours Full throttle test is done and in every 500 hours engine oil is checked.Oil Consumption Evaluation- This test is done for oil consumption evaluation. In this test power is measured by dynamometer and fuel consumption is measured.

Vehicle testing- For vehicle there are mainly fatigue test, hydraulic lift testing, field test and noise test are done. Some Of Them Are explained hereTrack test- In this test tractor is runs on a track having cleats, or grousers.PTO performance-This is done by the help of power take off dynamometer which measure engine power at the power take-off. The dynamometer has range of power and torque. PTO is 540 rpm at 1710 rpm.Power lift- This test is done by power lift set up. In this test lift is continuously lifting the weight of 1050 kg . Figure: Track Test Figure: Trimos Height Measuring inst.

Metrology : Facilities for the measurement of component dimensions using the following equipmentTrimos Height measuring system- Trimos height gauge is used for height measurement. Profile Projector with optical eye & software- It employed for inspecting and comparing very small and complex parts. Portable Surface roughness measuring equipment.3D CMM with software-A coordinate measuring machine is a 3D device for measuring the physical geometrical characteristics of an object.

Assembly PlantThe final processed parts from the various parts of production shop and Heat Treatment reach the assembly Shop. Escorts have two assembly shop different for each powertrac and farmtrac.In farmtrac assembly line assembled 120 tractor per day and powertrac capacity is 80 tractor per day. For lifting the component there are hydraulic lift are used and for small part the used roller. Conveyor is used for moving in forward direction. The various parts reaches the assembly shop only after being washed, cleansed and dried, which takes place when the different parts are on their way to assembly shop. The above washing process takes place automatically .The assembly shop can be divided into various subparts being assembled. These groups are:Rear Line 5. Wheel Assembly2. Transmission Assembly3. Engine Assembly LineFront Line

Assembly Layout

Figure:- Assembly Layout

Real assemblyThe various differential parts such as bp shaft, differential unit etc. are assembled here. the various sub-assembly of parts listed above are performed in the sub units.

In the first unit, the bp shafts are fitted with various components such as circular clips, bearings etc. to be able to be assembled to the differential unit.

The various bolts are bolted using a pneumatic bolter gun. the differential unit is collected from the conveyor then fitted with the necessary bearing. Then the differential unit and the bp shaft are assembled, making up a complete one unit.

The Axles are assembled in a different sub assembly shop. rear axle are washed and dried and then wheel side bearing is assembled and then the whole unit along with the bull gears is assembled to the differential unit. Differential cover assemble after these assemblies.

Transmission Assemblythe gearbox cage is collected from the conveyor roller and successively parts such as the counter shafts, clutch shafts, main shaft along with the ball bearings are assembled to the unit.

First gear on main shaft with 38 teeth and reverse gear with 38 teeth, second gear with 35 and third with 28 teeth. This is the constant mesh type transmission.

After assembly, leakage testing is perform. In this test first gear box is full of oil and then sealed. After that the pressure is increase up to 10 bar. Then the by the motor power the clutch shaft is revolve at 2700 rpm. This test check meshing of gears.

Assembly of Engine and Clutch Mechanism

First the clutch is assembled. Single organic coil type clutch are fitted.

Before the engine assembly there is assembly of various other accessories such as Foot board, battery clamp and other links such as accelerator pedal link, clutch link, brake link etc.

Engine from sub assembly are assembled to the main line. A four stoke 3 cylinder diesel engine first assembled at the engine sub assembly.

The various links and mechanism between the engine and the gear box is fastened together.

In all the above stages of assembly, the skilled workers are used to accomplish all the stages of assembly. But they are also held by the pneumatic bolt guns and the over head automatic conveyors etc to make their job easy. Figure: Clutch and brake pedal fitting Figure: Engine and fuel tank

Front axle, Wheel and accessories and paint

After engine fitting there is assembly of front axle. After front axle there are steering assembly of the steering and accessories. Then clutch pedal and break is fitted. Fuel tank is fitted after this. After the whole assembly goes the lift for painting in the paint shop. The painting purpose there is cap fitted on bolts of wheel hub to protecting from paint.

Figure: Front axle fitment

Paint shop is completely automatic. In the paint shop first there is degressing, water rinsing and demineralized ,water rinsing. After that air blowing is done. Paint Baking Oven removes the moisture from water-based coatings and adhesives. After that unmasking and touch up and painted the body.

Figure: Painted body of tractor

After painting there is fitting of rear wheel with tire size of 12.428 and front wheel fitment with the tire size of 616. After fitting the wheels there is following accessories are assembled:

Fan and MotorRear hoodRadiator and coolantSteering wheelMirrorAir filter Front lightSeat Silencer

Figure: Fitment of radiatorFinal Testing : Final testing of tractor is lift testing and the test of track. At there a hydraulic force of 1050 kg applied and testing is done.

THANKS