Escorts Tractors Workshop (PLANT) fARIDABAD.
SEMINAR ONSUMMER TRAININGATESCORTS TRACTORSPLANT, FARIDABAD.
SUBMITTED TOER.ASDFGRET KUMARSUBMITTED
1HISTORY OF TRACTORS IN INDIAAs commercialization of agriculture
grew in intensity in the mid-to-late 19th century.
From 1945 to 1960, tractors and bulldozers were imported for
land reclamation and cultivation in mid-1940s. In 1947 central and
state tractor organizations were set up to develop and promote the
supply and use of tractors in agriculture and up to 1960, the
demand was met entirely through imports. There were 8,500 tractors
in use in 1951, 20,000 in 1955 and 37,000 by 1960.
From 1961 to 1970, Local production began in 1961 with five
manufacturers (Eicher, Gujarat Tractors, TAFE, Escorts, M&M)
producing a total of 880 units per year. By 1965 this had increased
to over 5000 units per year and the total in use had risen to over
52,000. By 1970 annual production had exceeded 20,000 units per
year with over 146,000 units working in the country.
Commercialization:-To apply methods of business to for
profit.2From 1971 to 1980, Six new manufacturers were established
during this period although three companies (Kirloskar Tractors,
Harsha Tractors and Pittie Tractors) did not survive. HMT began
manufacturing Agricultural Tractors in 1972 under the HMT brand
name with technology acquired fromZetorof the Czech Republic.
Escorts Ltd. began local manufacture of Ford tractors in 1971 in
collaboration with Ford, UK and total production climbed steadily
to 33,000 in 1975-76.
From 1981 to 1990, further five manufacturers (Auto Tractors,
Haryana Tractors, United Auto Tractors, Asian Tractors, VST
Tillers) began production during this period but only last one of
these survived in the increasingly competitive market place. Annual
production exceeded 75,000 units by 1985 and reached 140,000 in
1990 when the total in use was about 1.2 million. Then India - a
net importer up to the mid-seventies became an exporter in the
1980s mainly to countries in Africa.
From 1991 to 1997, Since 1992, it has not been necessary to
obtain an industrial license for tractor manufacture in India. By
1997 annual production exceeded 255,000 units and the national
tractor population had passed the 2 million mark. India now emerged
as one of the world leaders in wheeled tractor production.These
Companies Can Not Survive Because Of Highly Competitive Market And
Negative Working Capital.Zetor Is Company Of Czech Republic
Country. This Country is near polland.
3List Of Some Manufactures MANUFACTURERCOLLABORATORYEAREicher
Tractors LtdGebr, Eicher Tractor. West Germany1961Gujarat Tractors
LtdMotokov Praha, Czechoslovakia1963TAFEMessey Ferguson.
UK1961Escorts LtdMoloimport Arazawa Zaklady Mechaniczne .Ursus
Poland1964Mahindra And MahindraInternational Harvestor.
UK1965+Escorts Tractor LtdFord .U.K.1971Hindustan Machine
ToolsMotokov Praha. Czechoslovakia1971Kirloskar Tractors
LmtKlochner Humboldt Deutz. Germany1974Punjab Tractor
LimitedCMERI.INDIA1974Pittie Tractor LimitedNo Data
Introduction to COMPANY
The Escorts Group is among India's leading engineering
Organization operating in the sectors of agri-machinery,
construction & material handling equipment, railway equipment
and auto components.
Escorts has played a pivotal role in the agricultural growth of
India for over five decades. Escorts offers a comprehensive range
of tractors, more than 45 variants starting from 25 to 80 HP.
A leading material handling and construction equipment
manufacturer, they manufacture and market a diverse range of
equipment like cranes, loaders, forklifts Etc.
Escorts has been a major player in the railway equipment
business in India for nearly five decades. Our product offering
includes brakes, couplers, shock absorbers, rail fastening systems,
composite brake blocks and vulcanized rubber parts. In the auto
components segment, Escorts is a leading manufacturer of auto
suspension products and shock absorbers.
5HIGHLIGHTsIn 1960, The parent company, Escorts, set up the
strategic Agri Machinery Group (AMG) to venture into tractors.In
1965, we rolled out our first batch of tractors under the brand
name of Escort.In 1969 a separate company, Escorts Tractors Ltd.,
was established with equity participation of Ford Motor Co., UK for
the manufacture of Ford agricultural tractors in India.In the year
1996 Escorts Tractors Ltd. formally merged with the parent company,
Escorts Ltd.Since inception, Escorts have manufactured over 1
million tractors. For viz.Farmtrac: World Class Premium tractors,
with single reduction and epicyclic reduction transmissions from 34
to 75 HP.Powertrac: Utility and Value-for-money tractors, offering
straight-axle and hub-reduction tractors from 34 to 55 HP. Indias
No.1 economy range engineered to give spectacular diesel
economy.Escort: Economy tractors having hub-reduction transmission
and twin-cylinder engines from 27 to 35 HP.Venture:- a risky or
daring journey or undertaking. In 1965 escort was collaborated with
Moloimport Arazawa Zaklady Mechaniczne .Ursus Poland.
6technologiesEscorts Agri Machinery has three recognized and
well-accepted tractor brands, which are on distinct and separate
technology platforms. These Are:
Farmtrac:-World Class Premium tractors, with single reduction
and epicyclic reduction transmissions from 34 to 75 HP.
Powertrac : Utility and Value-for-money tractors, offering
straight-axle and hub-reduction tractors from 34 to 55 HP.India's
No .1 economy range engineered to give spectacular diesel
Escort : Economy tractors having hub-reduction transmission and
twin-cylinder engines from 27 to 35 HP. Pioneering brand of
tractors introduced by Escorts with unbeatable advantages.
Jai Kisan Series: It consist of five new categories ValueMaxx,
LoadMaxx, AgMaxx, InfraMaxx, SuperMaxx. This Series is available in
the FARMTRAC line of Escorts tractors.
FERRARI :Starting with a 26 HP model, It is best suited for
Glasshouse/ Nurseries, Light Transportation, Micro farming and lawn
KMCKMC stands for Escorts Knowledge Management Center ,it unites
professional expertise with long practical experience in Product
Design, Computer Aided Engineering (Simulation & Virtual
Testing), Product Evaluation & Testing. It is in about 10000
square meter area.
It Compromises of These Section
DesignTestingAssembly PlantFinal Testing
In this section there are design of engine, transmission,
vehicle are being done. For this purpose they use
I-DEAS / NX 3-D Modeling & AssemblyPro EngineerAUTOCAD
(2-D)Structural analysisThermal analysisNon linear analysisDynamic
analysisFatigue analysisI-DEAS:-Integrated Design and Engineering
10AutoCAD, Pro/ENGINEER , I-DEAS(Integrated Design and
Engineering Analysis Software) aresoftware applicationfor2D
and3D,computer-aided design (CAD)anddrafting. These use provide
simplicity and accuracy for making parts as for viz. Rear Axle,
Differential Unit, Engine etc.
Structural analysis is the determination of the effects
ofloadson physicalstructuresand their components. engineer first
determine information asloads,geometry, support conditions, and
materials properties. The results of such an analysis typically
include support reactions,stressesanddisplacements and are shown on
a monitor. This information is then compared to criteria that
indicate the conditions of failure.
In Thermal analysis properties of materials are studied as they
change withtemperature . Viz. in Differential thermal
analysis(DTA), the material under study and an inert reference are
made to undergo identical thermal cycles, while recording any
temperature difference between sample and reference.This
differential temperature is then plotted against time, or against
temperature. Then results are compared.
11Non linear analysis, this is also known as Plastic analysis"
In general. Plastic analysis is usually based on the idealization
of stress strain curve as perfectly plastic. In this analysis, it
is assumed that width thickness ratio of plate elements is small so
the local buckling does not occur. Broadly speaking the section
will be declared as perfectly plastic.
Fatigue analysis, fatigueis the progressive and localized
structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to
cyclic loading. It is tested by
The E-N Approach: In a fatigue test, specimens of different
material types are subjected to various types of cyclic loading,
such as: small-scale bending, torsion, tension, and compression.
The E-N approach uses these tests to measure fatigue life. The
results are plotted in terms of strain (E)vs. cycles to failure (N)
on an E-N diagram. Figure:- Rear Axle
Figures:-Design Simulation & Verification using FEA tools
Figure:- Detail of Rear Axle
13TestingIn testing department testing of engine, transmission
and tractor testing are done. It includes engine test lab,
transmission lab and tractor lab.Engine Test Lab. - Engine Test Lab
includes the following tests:Friction Measurement- For friction
measuring motoring dynamometer is used. In this test the engine is
first run up to the desired speed by its own power and allowed to
remain at the given speed and load conditions for some time so that
oil, water, and engine component temperatures reach stable
conditions. The fuel supply is then cut-off and dynamometer is
converted to run as a motor to drive for the engine at the same
speed at which it was previously running. The power supply to the
motor is measured which is a measure of the friction of the engine.
It is about 22kW for 34hp engine. Governing Test-This test is
performed at high idle speed, rated speed and an intermediate
speed.RPM is decreased in steps of 20 and it is observed at what
RPM maximum power is obtained. For a good engine, the difference
between maximum power RPM and the RPM at which the test is being
performed should not be more than 100-120 RPM.
Gaseous & Particulate Emission Evaluation- Flame Ionization
Detector is used for HC emission. Bosch smoke meter is used for
smoke measurement.Endurance Test - This test is done to estimate
the life of the engine. This test is generally performed on a new
engine or an engine with some part modified. The test procedure
depends on type of modification done. A new engine is run
continuously for 3000 hours. After every 40 hours engine oil is
checked, every 100 hours Full throttle test is done and in every
500 hours engine oil is checked.Oil Consumption Evaluation- This
test is done for oil consumption evaluation. In this test power is
measured by dynamometer and fuel consumption is measured.
Vehicle testing- For vehicle there are mainly fatigue test,
hydraulic lift testing, field test and noise test are done. Some Of
Them Are explained hereTrack test- In this test tractor is runs on
a track having cleats, or grousers.PTO performance-This is done by
the help of power take off dynamometer which measure engine power
at the power take-off. The dynamometer has range of power and
torque. PTO is 540 rpm at 1710 rpm.Power lift- This test is done by
power lift set up. In this test lift is continuously lifting the
weight of 1050 kg . Figure: Track Test Figure: Trimos Height
Metrology : Facilities for the measurement of component
dimensions using the following equipmentTrimos Height measuring
system- Trimos height gauge is used for height measurement. Profile
Projector with optical eye & software- It employed for
inspecting and comparing very small and complex parts. Portable
Surface roughness measuring equipment.3D CMM with software-A
coordinate measuring machine is a 3D device for measuring the
physical geometrical characteristics of an object.
Assembly PlantThe final processed parts from the various parts
of production shop and Heat Treatment reach the assembly Shop.
Escorts have two assembly shop different for each powertrac and
farmtrac.In farmtrac assembly line assembled 120 tractor per day
and powertrac capacity is 80 tractor per day. For lifting the
component there are hydraulic lift are used and for small part the
used roller. Conveyor is used for moving in forward direction. The
various parts reaches the assembly shop only after being washed,
cleansed and dried, which takes place when the different parts are
on their way to assembly shop. The above washing process takes
place automatically .The assembly shop can be divided into various
subparts being assembled. These groups are:Rear Line 5. Wheel
Assembly2. Transmission Assembly3. Engine Assembly LineFront
Figure:- Assembly Layout
Real assemblyThe various differential parts such as bp shaft,
differential unit etc. are assembled here. the various sub-assembly
of parts listed above are performed in the sub units.
In the first unit, the bp shafts are fitted with various
components such as circular clips, bearings etc. to be able to be
assembled to the differential unit.
The various bolts are bolted using a pneumatic bolter gun. the
differential unit is collected from the conveyor then fitted with
the necessary bearing. Then the differential unit and the bp shaft
are assembled, making up a complete one unit.
The Axles are assembled in a different sub assembly shop. rear
axle are washed and dried and then wheel side bearing is assembled
and then the whole unit along with the bull gears is assembled to
the differential unit. Differential cover assemble after these
Transmission Assemblythe gearbox cage is collected from the
conveyor roller and successively parts such as the counter shafts,
clutch shafts, main shaft along with the ball bearings are
assembled to the unit.
First gear on main shaft with 38 teeth and reverse gear with 38
teeth, second gear with 35 and third with 28 teeth. This is the
constant mesh type transmission.
After assembly, leakage testing is perform. In this test first
gear box is full of oil and then sealed. After that the pressure is
increase up to 10 bar. Then the by the motor power the clutch shaft
is revolve at 2700 rpm. This test check meshing of gears.
Assembly of Engine and Clutch Mechanism
First the clutch is assembled. Single organic coil type clutch
Before the engine assembly there is assembly of various other
accessories such as Foot board, battery clamp and other links such
as accelerator pedal link, clutch link, brake link etc.
Engine from sub assembly are assembled to the main line. A four
stoke 3 cylinder diesel engine first assembled at the engine sub
The various links and mechanism between the engine and the gear
box is fastened together.
In all the above stages of assembly, the skilled workers are
used to accomplish all the stages of assembly. But they are also
held by the pneumatic bolt guns and the over head automatic
conveyors etc to make their job easy. Figure: Clutch and brake
pedal fitting Figure: Engine and fuel tank
Front axle, Wheel and accessories and paint
After engine fitting there is assembly of front axle. After
front axle there are steering assembly of the steering and
accessories. Then clutch pedal and break is fitted. Fuel tank is
fitted after this. After the whole assembly goes the lift for
painting in the paint shop. The painting purpose there is cap
fitted on bolts of wheel hub to protecting from paint.
Figure: Front axle fitment
Paint shop is completely automatic. In the paint shop first
there is degressing, water rinsing and demineralized ,water
rinsing. After that air blowing is done. Paint Baking Oven removes
the moisture from water-based coatings and adhesives. After that
unmasking and touch up and painted the body.
Figure: Painted body of tractor
After painting there is fitting of rear wheel with tire size of
12.428 and front wheel fitment with the tire size of 616. After
fitting the wheels there is following accessories are
Fan and MotorRear hoodRadiator and coolantSteering
wheelMirrorAir filter Front lightSeat Silencer
Figure: Fitment of radiatorFinal Testing : Final testing of
tractor is lift testing and the test of track. At there a hydraulic
force of 1050 kg applied and testing is done.