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EQUINE NUTRITION. HORSE= Hindgut Fermenter In the horse, all true digestion is by enzymatic digestion and takes place in the fore gut (ahead of the cecum)

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EQUINE NUTRITION Slide 2 HORSE= Hindgut Fermenter Slide 3 In the horse, all true digestion is by enzymatic digestion and takes place in the fore gut (ahead of the cecum). This accounts for 52-58% of the crude protein digestion and virtually all soluble carbohydrate digestion (fiber excluded). Slide 4 In addition, bacterial or microbial digestion of Fiber occurs in the Hindgut (cecum and colon) where large quantities of volatile fatty acids are produced through fermentation and are absorbed. Slide 5 This dual system allows the horse to digest: 1. Simple carbohydrate sources such as starch from grain in the Fore Gut= ENZYMATIC DIGESTION 2. Fibrous sources such as oat hulls, soy hulls, beet pulp, hay and pasture are digested in the Hind Gut= BACTERIAL/ MICROBIAL DIGESTION Slide 6 HIND- GUT FORE- GUT Duration in the Foregut= 1.5 hours Duration in the Hind-Gut= 2-3 days Slide 7 For enzymatic and microbial action to digest feed efficiently, the horse needs healthy teeth to grind feed and allow enzymes and bacteria to attack the plant cell walls. Teeth should be examined during the annual health check to ensure that they are wearing normally and are effectively grinding the feed. Slide 8 The emptying time of the stomach after filling can be about 12 minutes, and the rate of passage down the small intestine is about 1 ft/min. The net result is that food can go from the mouth to the cecum in about 1 hours (FOREGUT TO HINDGUT= 1.5 hours) Slide 9 The small volume of the stomach and rapid passage of food from the stomach is the reason horses eat almost continuously, thus the name. HAY BURNERS Slide 10 Various studies on total passage time, indicate 2-3 days is required from when food is ingested until it is passed in the manure. ..The mature horse's large intestine makes up more than half of the total volume of the digestive tract, is important for microbial digestion of food and is a major reservoir for water. Slide 11 When undigested starch and sugars reaches the hindgut, the microbial fermentation process in the cecum produces a higher level of lactic acid. This creates a more acidic environment in the hindgut (lowering the pH), resulting in the state known as.. HINDGUT ACIDOSIS Slide 12 Risks Related to Hindgut Acidosis Hindgut acidosis is itself a health risk, as the lower pH can kill beneficial bacteria and allow dangerous pathogens to prosper It is the beginning of more serious digestive distress. A high volume of lactic acid in the bloodstream may also reduce the ability of the horses muscles to clear lactic acid that builds up during exercise. This may, in turn, lead to a slower recovery from exercise or. Tying Up. Hindgut acidosis is also known to lead to: 1.Laminitis, 2.Colonic Ulceration 3.Potentially to Colic. Slide 13 There are good bacteria and bad bacteria in the horses gut. The good bacteria are killed off by sugars, creating lactic acid, which then causes lesions or ULCERS in the hindgut. The bad bacteria die off very quickly however, creating Endotoxins. These Endotoxins seep into the bloodstream through the gut lesions and go straight to the LAMINAE of the horses foot, causing inflammation and destroying it. The once tightly connected epidermal and dermal laminae lose hold of each other. This is LAMINITIS. Slide 14 SIGNS OF LAMINITIS Slide 15 ULCERS- GASTRIC/ COLONIC Slide 16 SIGNS OF ULCERS 1.Overall Poor Condition 2.Inability to Gain Weight/ Poor Appetite 3.Excessive Chewing/ Teeth Grinding/ Wood Chewing/, etc. 4.Pawing the Ground when eating 5.Physical Discomfort 6.Poor Performance 7.Reluctance to move/ bend / extend 8.Sensitive to external pressure (colonic) 9.Tucked Up/ Tucked Under Body Position 10.Presence of Hemoglobin (Gastric) and Albumin (Colonic)- Fecal Blood Test Slide 17 SIGNS OF COLIC Gas/ Spasmodic, Impaction, Sand, Parasite, Twisted Gut Flank Watching Pawing the Ground Rolling/ Lying Down Restlessness Sweating Muscle Tremors/ Shaking Depression/ Decreased Appetite Lack of Manure Droppings/ Diarrhea Swishing Tail Slow Capillary Refill Time/ Pulse Kicking / Biting at the Belly Bucking Slide 18 NUTRITION TIPS FOR OPTIMAL FEEDING (To Aid/ Prevent -HIND GUT ACIDOSIS, LAMINITIS, ULCERS AND COLIC, etc.) 1.Feed your horse only what they need (based on Body Condition and Activity Level) 2.Feed Low Starch- High Fiber/ High Fat Rations 3.Promote Healthy Bacteria in the Hind Gut 4.Offer Free Choice -Good Quality Forage (obtain a forage analysis if available) 5.Feed/ Ration Balancers in small/ frequent portions (2 -4 xs per day) 6.Follow an Effective De-Worming Schedule/ Parasite Control 7.Schedule an Annual Dental/ Teeth Checkup 8.Avoid sudden changes in feed/ forage/ rations. 9.Offer access to Clean Water at all times. 10. Offer Balanced Chelated/ Organic Vitamins & Minerals 11. Maintain Hydration levels (ie: salt blocks, direct fed electrolytes) 12. Feed a high quality Feed produced specifically for horses (no cross contamination ) Slide 19 The foal and growing horse have undeveloped cecal and colonic digestion as compared to the adult horse. There is very little microbial digestion before three months of age. Therefore, the foal requires a diet low in fiber and easily digested in the fore gut. Foals who are seen eating their mothers manure are thought to be obtaining a bacterial culture necessary for future microbial digestion NUTRITION FOR FOALS Slide 20 Equine Internal Parasites Where they live. How to find them. Fecal Egg Count Slide 21 Small Strongyles Large Roundworms Botfly Larvae Bloodworm s Tapeworms Slide 22 Dull, rough haircoat Lethargy (decreased energy) or depression Decreased stamina Unthriftiness or loss of condition Slowed growth in young horses Pot belly (especially in young horses) Colic Diarrhea SIGNS OF INTERNAL PARASITES Slide 23 YOUR HORSES CHECKLIST Clean WaterTo maintain proper hydration levels To protect from ingestion of mycotoxins Balanced Vitamins / MineralsFor absorption / utilization of nutrients EnzymesTo allow for digestion of feed/ forage Active ProbioticsTo Promote/ Maintain gut health Electrolytes To Maintain proper hydration levels ProteinTo Promote / maintain optimal body condition FiberTo optimize Fermentation FatTo provide cool energy/ optimal body condition Carbohydrates (Non-structural)To control Starch/ Sugar Supplements To address specific health-related concerns Worming Program To protect your horse from internal damage Annual Dental CheckTo promote proper digestion Slide 24 To build a Happy, Healthy and Willing Partner Slide 25 VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR HORSES A vitamin and mineral premix should be specific for the classification of horse (age, reproduction status, workload, etc). The key to using vitamin and mineral supplements is to incorporate them to balance the diet and to avoid over- supplementation. NOTE: Overfeeding vitamin and mineral supplements may create an imbalance in the amount of vitamins and minerals in your horses diet and can be toxic. Slide 26 HAY BALANCERS/ RATION BALANCERS If your horse is primarily receiving its nutrition from hay, then you should consider a supplement that balances for the vitamins, minerals and nutrients that may not be present or may have leached out of the hay. **The longer the hay has been stored the lower the nutritional content will be**. NOTE: Obtaining a Hay Analysis is helpful when confirming the vitamins/ minerals in the forage and the deficiencies that exist. Slide 27 Equi-Ferm XL is a Pre-Biotic and Pro-Biotic in all Tribute Equine Nutrition Feeds. Equi-Ferm XL works by: 1.Stabilizing digestive flora 2.Improving fiber digestion 3.Maximizing the absorption of key nutrients 4.Source of essential amino acids Equi-Ferm XL is a micro-encapsulated live yeast (reaches the hindgut in the active form), a rich source of metabolites to improve your horses feed and fiber digestion. This powerful combination enhances digestive functions so the horse gets the most out of everything it eats. This strain has been screened and selected from thousands of other strains for its capacity for improved digestive function and animal performance. It has been validated by leading research centers and in more then 50 scientific publications. EQUI-FERM XL will propel the performance and overall well-being of your horse to the next level. Slide 28 RATION BALANCEREXTRUDED FAT SUPPLEMENT THE ESSENTIALS To be used as a TOP DRESS or as a RATION BALANCER. To add an Active Pro-biotic and fill the gaps in the forage or bulk feed program. Slide 29 COMPLETE FEEDS Slide 30 EVERY HORSE IS DIFFERENT..What is the RIGHT PLAN? for yours ?? 1.Body Condition 2.Activity Level 3.Age / Breed/ Reproduction Needs 4.Special Conditions (ie: Cushings, etc.) 5.Training/ Performance Needs 6.Type of Forage the Horse is fed 7.Owners Budget 8.Feeding Schedule/ Arrangement Your Horses Nutrition Plan is based on : Slide 31 We specialize in developing the Right Plan for your Budget and your Horse (s).. Whats included: 1.Individual Body Condition Scoring 2.Performance/ Activity Level Goals Based Analysis 3.Review of Specific Needs/ Special Conditions 4.Feed Cost Calculators (comparison of different options) 5.Consultation with your Vet or Farrier as needed 6.Customized Rations offered thru our Certified Equine Nutritionist 7.Liaison with Coach/ Trainer / Owners 8.Correspondence with Saddle Fitter/ Maker to discuss goals with relation to body condition. We are here to help protect the health of your horse andyour investment in your Equine Partners and Equestrian Pursuits

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