Equal Treatment Bench Book - .Contents Equal Treatment Bench Book i The Equal Treatment Bench Book

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  • Equal Treatment Bench Book

    …………………………………..

    February 2018

  • Contents

    Equal Treatment Bench Book i

    The Equal Treatment Bench Book is a dynamic document. In the event that you choose to print or download it, please be aware that it is subject to modification and improvement from time to time. The most recent amendments were made in March 2019.

    Contents

    Foreword ................................................................................................. 1

    Acknowledgments ................................................................................. 2

    Introduction: Equal Treatment and the Judge .................................... 3

    Introduction ............................................................................................................. 3

    Good communication .............................................................................................. 4

    Demonstrating fairness ........................................................................................... 5

    Diversity .................................................................................................................. 6

    A note on terminology ............................................................................................. 6

    Chapter 1 Litigants in Person and Lay Representatives ................ 1-1

    Contents .............................................................................................................. 1-1

    Overview .............................................................................................................. 1-2

    Litigants in person (‘LIPs’) ................................................................................... 1-4

    The courts’ duty to litigants in person .................................................................. 1-5

    Difficulties faced by LIPs ...................................................................................... 1-5

    Ways to help ........................................................................................................ 1-6

    Holding the confidence of both sides ............................................................... 1-6

    Sources of outside help and information for LIPs ................................................ 1-7

    Particular areas of difficulty .................................................................................. 1-7

    Language ......................................................................................................... 1-7

    Disability ........................................................................................................... 1-7

    Social and educational background ................................................................. 1-8

    Common procedural misunderstandings in case preparation .............................. 1-8

    Statements of case / Pleadings and limitation periods ..................................... 1-8

    Case management: understanding directions and court orders ....................... 1-8

    Disclosure of documents ................................................................................ 1-12

    Understanding the importance of documentary evidence .............................. 1-12

    Trial bundles .................................................................................................. 1-13

    Witnesses and witness statements ................................................................ 1-13

  • Contents

    Equal Treatment Bench Book ii

    Adjournments ................................................................................................. 1-14

    Sources of law................................................................................................ 1-15

    Compromise ...................................................................................................... 1-15

    Difficulties at the hearing and how to help ......................................................... 1-16

    Introductory explanations by the judge ........................................................... 1-16

    The real issues of the case ............................................................................ 1-17

    Advocacy ....................................................................................................... 1-17

    Giving judgment ............................................................................................. 1-18

    Criminal cases ................................................................................................... 1-18

    Useful guidance materials .............................................................................. 1-18

    Guilty pleas .................................................................................................... 1-18

    The value of representation ........................................................................... 1-19

    Assistance during the trial .............................................................................. 1-19

    Assistance and representation from lay representatives ................................... 1-20

    Overview ........................................................................................................ 1-20

    ‘McKenzie Friends’ ......................................................................................... 1-20

    Personal Support Unit & Citizen's Advice Bureau .......................................... 1-25

    Rights of audience ......................................................................................... 1-25

    Small Claims .................................................................................................. 1-29

    Housing Authority Officers and Employees of Arm’s Length Management Organisations [ALMOs] .................................................................................. 1-29

    Companies ..................................................................................................... 1-30

    Official Receivers ........................................................................................... 1-30

    European lawyers .......................................................................................... 1-30

    Official Solicitor .............................................................................................. 1-30

    Representing adults who lack capacity .......................................................... 1-30

    References and resources ................................................................................. 1-31

    References ..................................................................................................... 1-31

    Other .............................................................................................................. 1-31

    Chapter 2 Children, Young People and Vulnerable Adults ............ 2-1

    Contents .............................................................................................................. 2-1

    Overview .............................................................................................................. 2-2

    Who is covered by this chapter? .......................................................................... 2-5

    The rights of young and vulnerable witnesses to effective participation .............. 2-5

    Vulnerability of young and adult offenders ........................................................... 2-7

  • Contents

    Equal Treatment Bench Book iii

    The duty to safeguard children and vulnerable adults ......................................... 2-8

    Safeguarding generally .................................................................................... 2-8

    Safeguarding in courts and tribunals ................................................................ 2-8

    The judiciary’s role in safeguarding .................................................................. 2-9

    Competence ...................................................................................................... 2-10

    Requirements to take a flexible approach .......................................................... 2-11

    Expedited time-scales and active case management ........................................ 2-13

    Rules and materials ....................................................................................... 2-13

    Timetabling .................................................................................................... 2-13

    Avoiding adjournments ................................................................................... 2-15

    Scheduling a ‘clean start’ to witness testimony .............................................. 2-15

    Special measures and related adjustments ....................................................... 2-17

    Special measures ........................................................................................... 2-17

    Disapplying special measures ........................................................................ 2-18

    Avoiding confrontation .................................................................................... 2-18

    Screens .......................................................................................................... 2-18