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EPIDEMIOLOGY UNIT, MINISTRY OF HEALTH, JAMAICA · PDF file Released July 10, 2015 ISSN 0799-3927 sites NOTIFICATIONS- All clinical s INVESTIGATION REPORTS- Detailed Follow up for all

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  • Released July 10, 2015 ISSN 0799-3927

    NOTIFICATIONS-

    All clinical

    sites

    INVESTIGATION

    REPORTS- Detailed Follow up for all Class One Events

    HOSPITAL ACTIVE

    SURVEILLANCE-30 sites*. Actively pursued

    SENTINEL

    REPORT- 79 sites*. Automatic reporting

    *Incidence/Prevalence cannot be calculated

    1

    Week ending June 27 , 2015 Epidemiology Week 25

    WEEKLY EPIDEMIOLOGY BULLETIN EPIDEMIOLOGY UNIT, MINISTRY OF HEALTH, JAMAICA

    Weekly Spotlight Climate change and infectious diseases

    EPI WEEK 25

    Today, worldwide, there is an apparent increase in many

    infectious diseases, including some newly-circulating ones

    ... This reflects the combined impacts of rapid

    demographic, environmental, social, technological and

    other changes in our ways-of-living. Climate change will

    also affect infectious disease occurrence.

    Vector-borne and water-borne diseases

    Infectious agents vary greatly in size, type and mode of

    transmission... Those microbes that cause “anthroponoses”

    have adapted, via evolution, to the human species as their

    primary, usually exclusive, host. In contrast, non-human

    species are the natural reservoir for those infectious agents

    that cause “zoonoses” (Fig 6.1). There are directly

    transmitted anthroponoses (such as TB, HIV/AIDS, and

    measles) and zoonoses (e.g., rabies). There are also

    indirectly-transmitted, vector-borne, anthroponoses (e.g.,

    malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever) and zoonoses (e.g.

    bubonic plague and Lyme disease).

    Important determinants of vectorborne disease transmission

    include: (i) vector survival and reproduction, (ii) the vector’s

    biting rate, and (iii) the pathogen’s incubation rate within the

    vector organism. Vectors, pathogens and hosts each survive

    and reproduce within a range of optimal climatic conditions:

    temperature and precipitation are the most important, while

    sea level elevation, wind, and daylight duration are also

    important.

    Adapted from:http://www.who.int/globalchange/climate/summary/en/index5.html

    SYNDROMES

    PAGE 2

    CLASS 1 DISEASES

    PAGE 5

    INFLUENZA

    PAGE 7

    DENGUE FEVER

    PAGE 8

    GASTROENTERITIS

    PAGE 9

    http://www.google.com.jm/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&docid=Juz0TfK8UHFxbM&tbnid=kFpmxj0_4cgraM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://summitpediatrics.blogspot.com/2011/02/fever-friend-or-foe.html&ei=e0GlUofFHMXokQfS24CQAw&bvm=bv.57752919,d.eW0&psig=AFQjCNFhU0bYMgQWIDEj6PAPCGgii5YGGQ&ust=1386648250476674 javascript:edit(18335)

  • Released July 10, 2015 ISSN 0799-3927

    NOTIFICATIONS-

    All clinical

    sites

    INVESTIGATION

    REPORTS- Detailed Follow up for all Class One Events

    HOSPITAL ACTIVE

    SURVEILLANCE-30 sites*. Actively pursued

    SENTINEL

    REPORT- 79 sites*. Automatic reporting

    *Incidence/Prevalence cannot be calculated

    2

    REPORTS FOR SYNDROMIC SURVEILLANCE GASTROENTERITS

    Three or more loose

    stools within 24

    hours.

    FEVER

    Temperature of

    >38 0 C /100.4

    0 F (or

    recent history of

    fever) with or without

    an obvious diagnosis

    or focus of infection.

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53

    N u

    m b

    e r

    o f

    C as

    e s

    Epi weeks

    GE ≥5 Weekly Threshold vs Cases 2015, EW 1-25

    2015 Cases 5 years and older Epidemic Threshold

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    1400

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51

    N u

    m b

    e r

    o f

    C as

    e s

    Epi Weeks

    GE

  • Released July 10, 2015 ISSN 0799-3927

    NOTIFICATIONS-

    All clinical

    sites

    INVESTIGATION

    REPORTS- Detailed Follow up for all Class One Events

    HOSPITAL ACTIVE

    SURVEILLANCE-30 sites*. Actively pursued

    SENTINEL

    REPORT- 79 sites*. Automatic reporting

    *Incidence/Prevalence cannot be calculated

    3

    REPORTS FOR SYNDROMIC SURVEILLANCE FEVER AND

    RESPIRATORY

    Temperature of

    >38 0 C /100.4

    0 F (or

    recent history of

    fever) in a previously

    healthy person with

    or without respiratory

    distress presenting

    with either cough or

    sore throat.

    FEVER AND

    HAEMORRHAGIC

    Temperature of

    >38 0 C /100.4

    0 F (or

    recent history of

    fever) in a previously

    healthy person

    presenting with at

    least one

    haemorrhagic

    (bleeding)

    manifestation with or

    without jaundice.

    FEVER AND

    JAUNDICE

    Temperature of

    >38 0 C /100.4

    0 F (or

    recent history of

    fever) in a previously

    healthy person

    presenting with

    jaundice.

    1

    10

    100

    1000

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51

    N u

    m b

    e r

    o f

    C as

    e s

    Epi Weeks

    Fever & Resp Weekly Threshold vs Cases 2015, EW 1-25

    Epidemiological Weeks 2015

  • Released July 10, 2015 ISSN 0799-3927

    NOTIFICATIONS-

    All clinical

    sites

    INVESTIGATION

    REPORTS- Detailed Follow up for all Class One Events

    HOSPITAL ACTIVE

    SURVEILLANCE-30 sites*. Actively pursued

    SENTINEL

    REPORT- 79 sites*. Automatic reporting

    *Incidence/Prevalence cannot be calculated

    4

    FEVER AND

    NEUROLOGICAL

    Temperature of >38

    0 C

    /100.4 0 F (or recent

    history of fever) in a

    previously healthy

    person with or without

    headache and vomiting.

    The person must also

    have meningeal

    irritation, convulsions,

    altered consciousness,

    altered sensory

    manifestations or

    paralysis (except AFP).

    ACCIDENTS

    Any injury for which

    the cause is

    unintentional, e.g.

    motor vehicle, falls,

    burns, etc.

    VIOLENCE

    Any injury for which

    the cause is

    intentional, e.g.

    gunshot wounds, stab

    wounds, etc.

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51

    N u

    m b

    e r

    o f

    C as

    e s

    Epi Weeks

    Fever and Neurological Symptoms Weekly Threshold vs Cases 2015, EW 1-25

    2015 Epidemic Threshold

    50

    500

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51

    N u

    m b

    e r

    o f

    C as

    e s

    Epidemiology Weeks

    Accidents Weekly Threshold vs Cases 2015, EW 1-25

    ≥5 Cases 2015

  • Released July 10, 2015 ISSN 0799-3927

    NOTIFICATIONS-

    All clinical

    sites

    INVESTIGATION

    REPORTS- Detailed Follow up for all Class One Events

    HOSPITAL ACTIVE

    SURVEILLANCE-30 sites*. Actively pursued

    SENTINEL

    REPORT- 79 sites*. Automatic reporting

    *Incidence/Prevalence cannot be calculated

    5

    CLASS ONE NOTIFIABLE EVENTS and LEPTOSPIROSIS Comments

    CONFIRMED YTD AFP Field Guides

    from WHO indicate

    that for an effective

    surveillance system,

    detection rates for

    AFP should be

    1/100,000 population

    under 15 years old (6

    to 7) cases annually.

    ___________

    Pertussis-like

    syndrome and Tetanus

    are clinically

    confirmed

    classifications.

    ______________

    The TB case detection

    rate established by

    PAHO for Jamaica is

    at least 90% of their

    calculated estimate of

    cases in the island,

    this is 180 (of 200)

    cases per year.

    *Data not available

    **Leptospirosis is

    awaiting classification

    as class 1, 2 or 3

    ______________

    1 Dengue Hemorrhagic

    Fever data include Dengue

    related deaths;

    2 Maternal Deaths include

    early and late deaths.

    CLASS 1 EVENTS CURRENT

    YEAR PREVIOUS

    YEAR

    N A

    T IO

    N A

    L /

    IN T

    E R

    N A

    T IO

    N A

    L

    IN T

    E R

    E S

    T

    Accidental Poisoning 32 311

    Cholera 0 0

    Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever 1 0 0

    Hansen’s Disease (Leprosy) 0 0

    Hepatitis B 6 35

    Hepatitis C 2 1

    HIV/AIDS

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