Environment Law Project Final

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    Damodaram Sanjivayya NationalDamodaram Sanjivayya National

    Law UniversityLaw University

    Visakhapatnam, Andhra PradeshVisakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh

    Environmental Law : Project onEnvironmental Law : Project on

    Deforestation & Sustainable Forest

    Managment

    SUBMITTED BY

    Y.V.AnilKumar

    44thth Year B.A.,LL.B(Hons)Year B.A.,LL.B(Hons)

    ROLL NO: 200948ROLL NO: 200948

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    TABLEOF CONTENTS

    TABLEOF CONTENTS.....................................................................................................................2

    INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................3

    Deforestation: ...................................................................................................................... 3

    Nexus between Deforestation and Environment ............................................................... 4

    ...................................................................................................................................................7

    CHAPTER- III .........................................................................................................................8

    SUSTAINABLEFORESTMANAGEMENT................................................................................................8

    3.1. National Forest Policy, 1988 .........................................................................................9

    3.2. The Arabari experiments in JFM .............................................................................. 12

    3.3. Why sustainable forest management? ....................................................................... 14

    3.4. Criteria and indicators approach for sustainable forest management .................15

    3.5. International initiatives ............................................................................................... 16

    3.6. Indian initiative ........................................................................................................... 17

    CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS ............................................................................... 19

    CHAPTER- I

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    INTRODUCTION

    Deforestation:

    Deforestation refers to the permanent destruction of naturally occurring forests andwoodlands, the cause of which is normally implied to be human activities 1 primarily such as

    logging, cutting trees for fuel, slash-and-burn agriculture, clearing land for livestock grazing,

    mining operations, oil extraction, dam building, and urban sprawl or other types of

    development and population expansion.2 This means that deforestation includes the

    destruction of forests, in which the treetops touch each other to form a canopy, as well as

    woodlands, in which trees are spaced further apart. But the term deforestation does not apply

    to the removal of trees from plantations or industrial forests3 plantations such as plantations

    of gums and pines.4

    Thousands of years ago, forests and grasslands covered most of the earth since ancient

    times; Clearing forests goes hand-in-hand with human development5 gradually he discovered

    fire and stone metals for self defence against wild animals. About 10,000 years ago

    agriculture was discovered and that was the starting of the civilisation from then onwards

    man has been adapting the environment to meet the growing needs of civilizations, from the

    cutting down of the first trees for fire, through to the clearing of woodlands to settlers tobuild their homesteads, trees have long been at the mercy of man.6 In many parts of the world

    huge areas of woodlands and forests have been cleared over the centuries to both provide

    wood for essential purposes such as fuel, ships and building, and also to free the land for

    other use.7 The nuts and fruits of the trees are useful for human foods, medicines, and dyes,

    and the roots, nuts, young shoots and branches (and the flush of young grass after burning)

    provide food for animals.8 The biggest driver of deforestation is agriculture meanwhile

    majority of the population were dependant on agricultural sector9 farmers cut forests to

    1 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/155854/deforestation, accessed on 10-10-2011.2 http://environment.about.com/od/biodiversityconservation/f/deforestation-overview.htm., accessed on 10-10-

    20113 http://www.globaled.org/issues/152/a.html., accessed on 10-10-2011.4 http://www.bcb.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/deforestation.htm., accessed on 10-10-2011.5 http://www.ehow.com/about_5389808_history-deforestation.html., accessed on 10-10-2011.6 http://www.scribd.com/doc/10307557/Definition-of-Deforestation, accessed on 15-10-2011.7 http://edu.udym.com/the-history-of-deforestation, accessed on 15-10-2011.8 http://www.historytoday.com/michael-williams/history-deforestation, accessed on 15-10-2011.9

    http://www.effects-of-deforestation.com/deforestation-history.php, accessed on 15-10-2011.

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    provide more room for planting crops or grazing livestock. Often many small farmers will

    each clear a few acres to feed their families by cutting down trees and burning them in a

    process known as slash and burn agriculture.10

    In the course of time man devised science and technology step by step and depended on

    these for improving his living standard the invention of metal, saws and then power saws

    greatly accelerated the ability to clear land. This became the prominent since the Industrial

    Revolution in the 1800s, forests have been exploited worldwide.11 With the help of science

    and technology, man overcame the natural barriers and established the supremacy over the

    Nature. He can travel from one part of the world to the other part, in a matter of few hours,

    undertake journey to outer space and planets, dive down to the bottom of seas and explore the

    wonders and so on. But at the same time the environment became more and more degraded

    and polluted. As a result of manmade activities (deforestation, urbanization, industrialisation,

    etc.) the quality of environment suffered which has threatened the survival of man himself on

    earth.12

    Nexus between Deforestation and Environment

    Deforestation problem is not only limited to a city or state or country, it is a global

    problem, it is the problem of the entire humanity. Since 1915 efforts for formulating humanecology are going on but today the entire global society is beset with the problem 13 due to the

    world's rapidly growing population and demands on valuable resources the entire global

    society realized that Forests are vital for life on earth. They are not just the green cover we

    need to make the earth look beautiful; they have many functions integral for our survival and

    sustenance. They function as a resource for many aspects of human life.14Life on Earth is

    heavily dependent on the forest cover all around the planet. Besides the fact that these green

    wonders make the planet extremely good to look at, they also have a great many features that

    are performed by them, most of them which are pivotal to our growth, survival and

    10 http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation-overview, accessed on

    15-10-201111 http://www.ehow.com/about_5389808_history-deforestation.html, accessed on 15-10-2011.12http://books.google.com/books?

    id=OT6Wy88sj9YC&pg=PA11&dq=deforestation+and+industrialisation&hl=en&ei=QoW1TuXlH4fsrAftoqy6Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CFQQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=deforestation

    %20and%20industrialisation&f=false, 15-10-201113R.P. Pathak, Education in the emerging India, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors (P) Ltd, 2007, New Delhi.14

    http://www.earthconservation.net/importance-of-forests.html, accessed on 15-10-2011.

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    sustenance. From the point of view of human life, they are very important as they provide a

    large array of resources that we use in our everyday life15 from this discussion an inference

    can be drawn in the words of Einstein who observed that, The environment is everything

    that isnt me . Man interacts directly with the natural environment and as a result there

    develops a close-set biocultural behaviour patterns which is seen to be integrated with the

    daily mode of life of the people concerned. These sets of interrelationship between man and

    environment have always been given specific importance in the domain of human science

    thus the study of environmental law begins.

    However Environment means different things to different things to different people,

    Section 2(a) of The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 affords an inclusive definition of

    environment. It says that environment includes water, air and land, and the inter-relationship

    amongst water, air, land, and the inter-relationship amongst water, air, land and human

    beings, other living creatures, plants, micro-organisms and property. Man interacts directly

    with the natural environment and as a result there develops a close-set biocultural behaviour

    patterns which is seen to be integrated with the daily mode of life of the people concerned.

    The role of the adjustment with the surroundings is the basic factor