Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities Public Entrepreneurship 13 Transitional Categorization of Youth Entrepreneurs in Kashmir 14

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<ul><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities 1st Edition, July 2011</p><p> Copyright 2011 by Mercy Corps </p><p>Cover Design, Illustrations, Layout by Malik Sajad</p><p>All photographs are by Malik Sajad, Nafeesa Ahmad, Usman Ahmad and Showket </p><p>Chapter 2, Page 17) </p><p>Back Cover Image: Digitally rendered view of the Kashmir Valley from space. The perspective is looking from the east. The image is taken from Views of the Earth accessible at: http://earth.imagico.de/</p><p>For more information about the SKYE Project or to email us about errors or omis-</p><p>!</p><p>Websites: </p></li><li><p> ! "#"</p><p>#</p><p>$!</p><p>% &amp;'! "</p><p>(</p><p>)#</p><p>*(("</p><p>Disclaimer</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities</p></li><li><p>TABLE OF CONTENTS</p><p>DISCLAIMER I</p><p>ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IX</p><p>ABOUT MERCY CORPS XIMercy Corps Investment in Youth</p><p>Mercy Corps in Kashmir</p><p>THE SKYE PROJECT XIII</p><p>PREFACE XV</p><p>THE SKYE APPROACH XVII</p><p>LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS XIX</p><p>KASHMIR 1</p><p>"#$%&amp;%$"'(</p><p>Bulge, Youth Unemployment) 2</p><p>Youth Entrepreneurship An Opportunity for Kashmir 4</p><p>Research Objectives 7</p><p>Research Methodology 7</p><p>Limitations 8</p><p>9</p><p>*(+%10</p><p>Types of Entrepreneurship 10</p><p>Economic Entrepreneurship 11</p><p>Social Entrepreneurship 12</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities</p><p>Public Entrepreneurship 13</p><p>Transitional Categorization of Youth Entrepreneurs in Kashmir 14</p><p>A Diagnostic Framework for Young Entrepreneurs in Kashmir 16</p><p>A Diagnostic Snapshot of Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir 16</p><p>Motivations driving youth entrepreneurship in Kashmir 18</p><p> ./&amp;&amp;</p><p>/&amp;19</p><p> From necessity to opportunity in Kashmir 19</p><p>Motivations for Young Kashmiri Entrepreneurs 20</p><p>Motivations and Experiences of Youth Entrepreneurs in Kashmir: Five Case Studies </p><p>21</p><p> Case Study #1: Chasing Opportunities in the Revival of Kashmiri Craft,</p><p> #45(+ 21</p><p> $648</p><p>#" </p><p> 94;(+ 23</p><p> Case Study # 3: Mushrooming Opportunities a student determined to stand </p><p> #=45(+25 </p><p> Case Study # 4: Competing to get a start a Kashmiri techie builds a business, </p><p> ?4@(+26</p><p> Case Study # 5: The apple of his eye an entrepreneur returns to strength- en </p><p> "'"?HQ+ 28</p><p>The Level of Entrepreneurial Activity of Youth in Kashmir 30</p><p>Perceived barriers and de-motivators to youth entrepreneurship in Kashmir 30</p><p>Learning from start-up failure - understanding the constraints and barriers to youth </p><p>entrepreneurship in Kashmir 33</p><p> VX#%Z[&amp;&amp;\]^_//</p><p> entrepreneur) 33</p><p> VX#%4[X&amp;]^</p><p> Winning social acceptance and support) 33</p></li><li><p>VX#%H[9]^</p><p> _+34</p><p> VX#%`[X&amp;</p><p>]^</p><p> ?</p><p>+34</p><p> VX#%q[{]^</p><p> _+34</p><p> VX#%|[&amp;{=}</p><p>]^~</p><p>&amp;&amp;+35</p><p> VX#%5[</p><p>^.[</p><p>^</p><p> 8+35 </p><p>Improving the ecosystem for youth start-up entrepreneurs in Kashmir 36</p><p>ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN KASHMIR 39</p><p>_$40</p><p>The social legitimacy and perception of entrepreneurship 42</p><p>The role of the personal environment for Kashmiri youth 43</p><p>The success, reputation and credibility of young entrepreneurs in Kashmir 44</p><p>Awareness of entrepreneurship in Kashmir 45</p><p>The stigma of failure 45</p><p>Social Acceptance of Women Entrepreneurs and Gender Discrimination 45</p><p>KASHMIR 47</p><p>Education in Kashmir 48</p><p>Educational constraints to entrepreneurship in Kashmir 49</p><p>!"#53</p><p>The importance of BAS/BDS for young start-up entrepreneurs in Kashmir 54</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities</p><p>Existing Business Development Services in Kashmir 55</p><p>Gap Analysis: Business Assistance and Support for Kashmiri Youth Start- up Entre-</p><p>preneurs 59</p><p> Lack of youth knowledge of available business support services in Kashmir 59</p><p> Lack of tailor-made business training and advice for Kashmir youth start-ups </p><p>59</p><p> Lack of business connections 60</p><p> Lack of mentoring 61</p><p>The Business Plan and the need for detailed business assistance and support for </p><p>youth start- up entrepreneurs in Kashmir 62</p><p> Elements of a Business Plan 62</p><p>$65</p><p>Overview of Existing Financial Services for Kashmiri entrepreneurs 66</p><p>#"</p><p>/ 69 </p><p>/ </p><p> possibilities in Kashmir 69</p><p> Lack of business experience, savings, credibility and securities for debt 70</p><p> Long waiting periods 72</p><p> &amp;"72</p><p>%FRAMEWORK IN KASHMIR 73</p><p>Business registration procedures 74</p><p>Facing corruption during the start-up process 75</p><p>&amp; 77</p><p>Building an enabling ecosystem for effective youth entrepreneurship in Kashmir 78</p></li><li><p>Improving entrepreneurship education and training in Kashmir </p><p>(V6Z+79</p><p>Increasing social and cultural acceptance of entrepreneurship in Kashmir </p><p>(V64+81</p><p>%</p><p>/"/</p><p>entrepreneurs </p><p>(V6H+82</p><p>Improving business assistance and support to Kashmiri youth start-up </p><p>entrepreneurs </p><p>(V6`+;`</p><p>Improving the administrative and regulatory framework in Kashmir </p><p>(V6q+;q</p><p>BIBLIOGRAPHY 87 </p><p>RECOMMENDED BOOKS FOR ASPIRING YOUTH ENTREPRENEURS 93</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities</p><p>ANNEXES</p><p>Annexure I: SKYE Baseline Key Findings 95</p><p>Annexure II: SKYE Research Methodology: 109</p><p>Annexure III: Baseline Questionnaire 113</p><p>Annexure IV: Quadrant Analysis used for Youth Focus Group Discussion 119</p><p>''()*+( Questionnaire: Youth Led Focus Group Discussion: OYK, 121</p><p>''()*+( Youth problem-solving report on the issue of economy 123</p><p>''()*+(&amp;(8*</p><p> 137</p><p>''()*+(%V139</p><p>discussion for Government &amp; Financial Institutions 141</p><p>''()*+(, Framework for 21st Century Learning 143</p><p>'()*+(,"V4QQ`/4QZq+155</p><p>'())*+(, Registration Process &amp; How to set up 161</p><p>''()*+(,8&amp;$&amp;+ 165</p><p>'())*+(, 8&amp;&amp;+169</p></li><li><p>+</p><p>Acknowledgement</p><p> ,- ./"0</p><p>1"" </p><p> !"#$%&amp; </p><p>'()%&amp;(#*+ &amp; &amp;!"#$+)$!##!%&amp;,#-./&amp;01</p><p>1"# 23%" ##"</p><p>4### +# " </p><p>1</p><p>"2%5 6 2%. </p><p>'"/1/.7+ 2 ./</p><p>1"'345</p><p>898:88;%(5</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities</p></li><li><p>+</p><p>ABOUT MERCY CORPS./ 6 </p><p> 7 &amp;</p><p> 8 9:;; ;</p><p>Mercy Corps Investment in Youth</p><p>6?@A</p><p>)B;"</p><p>9;;</p><p>1"%)</p><p>"</p><p>C . / 0 ./6</p><p> !1 0</p><p>Defining YouthMercy Corps defines youth as a period of progression towards independent responsibil-ity, which varies from 10 to 29 depending on context. Mercy Corps Youth Transformation Framework</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities</p><p>D0# </p><p>8" 16"</p><p>Mercy Corps in Kashmir./0 "</p><p> ) </p><p>-/ </p><p>" </p></li><li><p>+</p><p>The Start Up Kashmir Youth Entrepreneur Development Project</p><p>8?;$1</p><p>Key Activities:</p><p>6#$A </p><p>"" </p><p>5))</p></li><li><p>+</p><p>/"6</p><p>A3 </p><p>! 6</p><p>6 ) </p><p>6 6</p><p>!</p><p>"</p><p>'3450 </p><p> " '345 </p><p>"!F%&amp;'G</p><p>(#5#%&amp;6)+'##!'3456! 0" </p><p> !! </p><p>"</p><p> '34 5 "</p><p>3 '34""</p><p>'345' ."</p><p>8"</p><p> "</p><p> ""</p><p>"</p><p>$ '345</p><p>"1"</p><p>"</p><p>"0</p><p>Preface</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities</p></li><li><p>+</p><p>THE SKYE APPROACH</p><p>+###)$ #%(5</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities</p></li><li><p>++</p><p>APEDA: Agricultural Processed Food Export Development AuthorityBAS: Business Assistance and SupportBBA: Bachelors in Business AdministrationBDS: Business Development ServiceBEE: Business Enabling EnvironmentCDI: Craft Development InstituteCDP: Cluster Development ProgrammeCGS: Credit Guarantee SchemeCIS: Capital Investment SubsidyCLCSS: Credit Linked Capital Subsidy SchemeDECC: District Employment and Counseling CentresDIC: Directorate of Industries and Commerce/District Industries CentreDPR: Detailed Project ReportDST: Department of Science and TechnologyEDC: Entrepreneurship Development CellEDI: Entrepreneurship Development InstituteFGD: Focus Group DiscussionGDP: Gross Domestic ProductGEM: Global Entrepreneurship MonitorICDP: Integrated Cooperative Development ProjectIID: Integrated Infrastructural Development SchemeILO: International Labor OrganizationIUST: Islamic University of Science and TechnologyJ&amp;K Jammu &amp; KashmirJKEDI: Jammu and Kashmir Entrepreneurship Development InstituteJKSES: Jammu &amp; Kashmir State Self Employment SchemeKVIC: Khadi Village Industries CommissionLPG: Liberalization, Privatization &amp; GlobalizationMBA: Masters in Business AdministrationMCES: MAJ Consulting Engineering ServicesMOU: Memorandum of U understandingMSME: Micro Small &amp; Medium EnterpriseNABARD: National Bank for Agriculture and Rural DevelopmentNIT: National Institute of TechnologyNMCP: National Manufacturing Competitiveness ProgrammeNSSO: National Sample Survey OfficeOYK: One Young KashmirPDD: Power Development DepartmentPESTLE: Political, Economic, Socio-cultural, Technical, Legal and Envi ronment AnalysisPMEGP: Prime Minister Employment Generation Programme</p><p>List of Abbreviations</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities</p><p>PWD: Public Works DepartmentRAFT: Youth Relationships &amp; Alliances for TransformationSCFS: Seed Capital Fund SchemeSEO: Search Engine OptimizationSGDP: State Gross Domestic ProductSK: Start up KashmirSKDP: Skill Development ProgrammeSKEWPY: Sher-e-Kashmir Employment and Welfare Programme for YouthSKUAST: Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science &amp; Technol ogySKYE: Start Up Kashmir Youth Entrepreneur Development ProjectSLBC: State Level Bankers CommitteeSLIIC: State Level Inter Institutional CommitteeSSM: Sir Syed MemorialUNCATD United Nations Conference on Trade and DevelopmentUNDP: United Nations Development ProgrammeUSIC: University Science Instrumentation Centre WTO: World Trade Organization</p></li><li><p>Chapter 1 </p><p>1$?;;B,-</p><p>HI@ $*H"</p><p>7I/7</p><p>1 </p><p>"</p><p>,-C=;="</p><p>$ </p><p> %</p><p>Youth Entrepreneurship An Opportunity for Kashmir</p><p>8</p><p>" :' </p><p> "</p><p>4</p><p> #</p><p>$EO/$&amp;"</p><p>B)</p><p> "</p><p>K8</p></li><li><p>Chapter 1 @</p><p>4</p><p> / 0 /6 $6"</p><p>J"6</p><p> 4 </p><p> / </p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities=</p><p>6</p><p> J6"""</p><p>?</p></li><li><p>Chapter 1 :</p><p>Research Objectives</p><p>" </p><p>!</p><p>*</p><p>F%44G4"</p><p>#D0"</p><p>) 34 */ 8! ""</p><p>'345</p><p>"'345"</p><p>" </p><p> ! * (PPP!P"</p><p>! </p><p> 0 </p><p> '345 </p><p>0"</p><p>Research Methodology</p><p>" '345 </p><p> 0 </p><p>D # #</p><p>0)</p><p>$ +</p><p>There is an urgent need to strengthen Kashmirs entrepreneurship ecosystem and fully support aspiring youth entrepreneurs.</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and OpportunitiesB</p><p>Primary Research</p><p>3)C&amp; F)C&amp;G '% ) ?;</p></li><li><p>Chapter 2 K</p><p>YOUTH AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP</p><p>))&amp;!)/))&amp; ) </p><p>'"O O</p><p>/'!.</p><p>CHAPTER 2</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities</p></li><li><p>Chapter 2 </p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities</p></li><li><p>Chapter 2 ? %</p><p> " !$.36</p><p>!.3$.3!% .3 </p><p>".3</p><p>D0"" .3C</p><p>%"</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities</p><p>"!0 &gt; </p><p>!5"</p><p>Transitional Categorization of Youth Entrepreneurs in Kashmir: </p><p> E F("(G $ #0</p><p>*@</p><p>81 </p></li><li><p>Chapter 2 </p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities@"#$!'X"*!!!]X\X&gt;"$XQ"' X &gt; X X"Q\!X]X\+ ' ! [Q"\^ X#!$!X XQ"X"" @\ X_!$X!X`*X &gt;!!QX' !X! &gt; !&gt; X"X`'!QX`!+</p><p> X$!' ! "QX &gt; &gt;Q"X"" ]X\ ! Q"X""[Q#\!X"+</p><p>'! &gt;@ X ]!" !X"X` ! $!" X_!&gt; X X" Q\!X]X\+ ' ! [Q`X X#!$!X X @\!QQ"X"""Q+</p><p> X" X X` "#$!'!'"#$!'+</p><p>'! &gt;@ "#$!' X"*!! ]X\X_!&gt;X X" Q\!X]X\+ @ Q"X""+ ' ! [Q"@!$XXX#!$!XX @\ !Q Q"X"" "Q!$X`$X+</p><p> X$!'!"QX</p><p> QX' !&gt;@X]!" !X"X` ! $!" X_!&gt; X X" Q\!X]X\+ ' ! [Q]!"Q ! X#!$!X !QX` X"X` X &gt; "!"Q"X""+</p><p> !"</p></li><li><p>Chapter 2 L </p><p> F</p><p>G</p><p> ! </p><p> )</p><p>"""" </p><p>Intention</p><p>'345%'!*&gt;@L </p><p>@:L F=;L</p><p>7 The sample size of the SKYE Project Baseline Survey was 1000 randomly selected Kashmiri youth between the ages of 18 to 30 years (100 respondents per district). This survey included an equal number of Urban Males, Urban Females, Rural Males, and Rural Females. The majority of survey respondents were between the ages of 18 to 25 years. For a {|}|~}|}{}~</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities</p></li><li><p>Chapter 2 </p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities?;</p><p>$ </p><p>C"." </p><p>$)C&amp;F)C&amp;G*H3</p><p>%</p><p>!IJ"</p><p>76</p><p> "A</p><p>H I) </p><p> E 0 1 </p><p>Motivations for Young Kashmiri Entrepreneurs</p><p>5</p><p> "D0 </p><p>80 </p><p> '*6 !"</p><p>"6 FG</p><p>1($6#"</p><p>)"( </p></li><li><p>Chapter 2 ??</p><p>"!</p><p>I</p><p> HI </p><p> , 4E'&gt; $H I</p><p>" </p><p> " </p><p>"</p><p> ?</p></li><li><p>Chapter 3 &gt;9</p><p>7</p><p>The role of the personal environment for Kashmiri youth</p><p>J" </p><p> 7 </p><p>8 </p><p> 7 </p><p> . " $</p><p> '"</p><p>. </p><p> 8</p><p>8 </p><p>) %</p><p> 7</p><p> 8 " *H.</p><p>"1"/&gt;</p><p>6</p><p>Spotlight on Successful Entrepreneurs in Kashmir:</p><p>Fayaz Bhat</p><p>Brief Intro- First generation entrepreneur.- Studied at National Institute of Technology, Srinagar- Worked at National Informatics Centre as Freelance Consultant for Infosys- Started business in 2004</p><p>Vision: To build a world-class company having offices through out the world and people from diverse cultures and religions working in our team. I want to add value to Kashmir, the place where I live, for my personal sat-isfaction. </p><p>Company Musky Software SolutionsSoftware development | IT services in fi-nancial, health, education sector | IT Con-sultancy | Software support </p><p>PerformanceTurnover of around 4.4 crore Rupees (US$ 1 million)</p><p>Employees 40Headquartered in Srinagar with offices in US and African Countries like Ghana and Nigeria</p><p>Quote Entrepreneurship is to be an active stake-holder in the development of the economy where the team members live and work.</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities&gt;&gt;</p><p>6!</p><p>I</p><p>." </p><p>@9L'34%5 </p><p>!/6"</p><p>27) "7</p><p>1" 47</p><p>The success, reputation and credibility of young entrepreneurs in Kashmir</p><p> 76</p><p> '34%'K;L 5! F7</p><p>G</p><p>"</p><p>"</p><p>8 *H</p><p>O</p><p>6</p><p> I$"</p><p>*H0 </p><p>5" </p><p>"</p><p>%</p><p>I8""6HI *H. "</p><p>"</p><p>*I</p><p>3J" </p><p>"!. "</p></li><li><p>Chapter 3 &gt;@</p><p>HI</p><p>A</p><p>Awareness of entrepreneurship in Kashmir</p><p>$ </p><p> '34 % ' ?BL "( ( </p><p> " 8 6"</p><p>A </p><p> #8""</p><p>*HI</p><p>The stigma of failure</p><p> '34%'D@;LHI FG 8*H) I</p><p>Social Acceptance of Women Entrepreneurs and Gender Discrimination</p><p>4 $</p><p>Spotlight on Successful Entrepreneurs in Kashmir*</p><p>Gazalla Amin</p><p>Brief Intro- First generation entrepreneur- Studied Medicine- Started business in 2006- Won First State Award for Progressive Farm-ing</p><p>Vision:To make farmers understand that their crops are cash and can be cash.</p><p>Company Fasiam Agro Farms (Product Company)Value addition | Essential Oils like Lavender, Rose, Clary Sage, etc.| Rosewater | Dried Lav-ender flowersAgro- Con Consultancy (Service Company)Consultancy for preparation for DPR in agri-culture, horticulture sector including MAPS | Hand-holding of farmers by way of introducing high value and high density plantation of vari-ous crops until the land of farmers becomes profitable | Taking up of projects for eco-parks especially those related to MAPS</p><p>PerformanceTurnover of around 30 lakh Rupees (US$ 70,000)</p><p>Employees 7 permanent and 100+ on contractual basis</p><p>Quote The best entrepreneur is one who finds out what the world needs and gives it to them.</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities&gt;=</p><p>/1' </p><p> @L:BL # =8"*H "</p><p> "#!I$"*H1" </p><p>!I</p><p>6 Shazia Sadaf, Women entreprenership in Kashmir women Studies Centre, Kashmir, March 2011</p></li><li><p>Chapter 4 &gt;:</p><p>ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN KASHMIR</p><p>CHAPTER 4</p><p>5&amp;0 '$ 0 '</p><p>/5</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities&gt;B</p><p>Entrepreneurship Education and Training in Kashmir</p><p>Education in Kashmir </p><p>$ ! </p><p> 6 </p><p> :&gt;L</p></li><li><p>Chapter 4 &gt;K</p><p>5 ?</p></li><li><p>Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities@;</p><p>" </p><p> 7$ </p><p> " </p><p> 6 </p><p>$" !*H4</p><p>! </p><p>I</p><p>4 </p><p> '34%'#</p><p> ! *</p><p>Y K8N #"</p><p>Y GKN " </p><p>Spotlight on Entrepreneurial Skills </p><p>AttributesSelf-confidence, autonomous, achievement oriented, versatile, dynamic, resilient, resourceful, calculatedrisk-taker, futuristic,adaptive, hardworking, persistent, passionate, trustworthy, ethical</p><p>BehavioursActing independently,actively seeking to achieve...</p></li></ul>

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