Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities Public Entrepreneurship 13 Transitional Categorization of Youth Entrepreneurs in Kashmir 14

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  • Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities 1st Edition, July 2011

    Copyright 2011 by Mercy Corps

    Cover Design, Illustrations, Layout by Malik Sajad

    All photographs are by Malik Sajad, Nafeesa Ahmad, Usman Ahmad and Showket

    Chapter 2, Page 17)

    Back Cover Image: Digitally rendered view of the Kashmir Valley from space. The perspective is looking from the east. The image is taken from Views of the Earth accessible at: http://earth.imagico.de/

    For more information about the SKYE Project or to email us about errors or omis-

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  • Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    DISCLAIMER I

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IX

    ABOUT MERCY CORPS XIMercy Corps Investment in Youth

    Mercy Corps in Kashmir

    THE SKYE PROJECT XIII

    PREFACE XV

    THE SKYE APPROACH XVII

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS XIX

    KASHMIR 1

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    Bulge, Youth Unemployment) 2

    Youth Entrepreneurship An Opportunity for Kashmir 4

    Research Objectives 7

    Research Methodology 7

    Limitations 8

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    Types of Entrepreneurship 10

    Economic Entrepreneurship 11

    Social Entrepreneurship 12

  • Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities

    Public Entrepreneurship 13

    Transitional Categorization of Youth Entrepreneurs in Kashmir 14

    A Diagnostic Framework for Young Entrepreneurs in Kashmir 16

    A Diagnostic Snapshot of Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir 16

    Motivations driving youth entrepreneurship in Kashmir 18

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    From necessity to opportunity in Kashmir 19

    Motivations for Young Kashmiri Entrepreneurs 20

    Motivations and Experiences of Youth Entrepreneurs in Kashmir: Five Case Studies

    21

    Case Study #1: Chasing Opportunities in the Revival of Kashmiri Craft,

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    Case Study # 3: Mushrooming Opportunities a student determined to stand

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    Case Study # 4: Competing to get a start a Kashmiri techie builds a business,

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    Case Study # 5: The apple of his eye an entrepreneur returns to strength- en

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    The Level of Entrepreneurial Activity of Youth in Kashmir 30

    Perceived barriers and de-motivators to youth entrepreneurship in Kashmir 30

    Learning from start-up failure - understanding the constraints and barriers to youth

    entrepreneurship in Kashmir 33

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    entrepreneur) 33

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    Winning social acceptance and support) 33

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    Improving the ecosystem for youth start-up entrepreneurs in Kashmir 36

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN KASHMIR 39

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    The social legitimacy and perception of entrepreneurship 42

    The role of the personal environment for Kashmiri youth 43

    The success, reputation and credibility of young entrepreneurs in Kashmir 44

    Awareness of entrepreneurship in Kashmir 45

    The stigma of failure 45

    Social Acceptance of Women Entrepreneurs and Gender Discrimination 45

    KASHMIR 47

    Education in Kashmir 48

    Educational constraints to entrepreneurship in Kashmir 49

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    The importance of BAS/BDS for young start-up entrepreneurs in Kashmir 54

  • Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities

    Existing Business Development Services in Kashmir 55

    Gap Analysis: Business Assistance and Support for Kashmiri Youth Start- up Entre-

    preneurs 59

    Lack of youth knowledge of available business support services in Kashmir 59

    Lack of tailor-made business training and advice for Kashmir youth start-ups

    59

    Lack of business connections 60

    Lack of mentoring 61

    The Business Plan and the need for detailed business assistance and support for

    youth start- up entrepreneurs in Kashmir 62

    Elements of a Business Plan 62

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    Overview of Existing Financial Services for Kashmiri entrepreneurs 66

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    possibilities in Kashmir 69

    Lack of business experience, savings, credibility and securities for debt 70

    Long waiting periods 72

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    %FRAMEWORK IN KASHMIR 73

    Business registration procedures 74

    Facing corruption during the start-up process 75

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    Building an enabling ecosystem for effective youth entrepreneurship in Kashmir 78

  • Improving entrepreneurship education and training in Kashmir

    (V6Z+79

    Increasing social and cultural acceptance of entrepreneurship in Kashmir

    (V64+81

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    entrepreneurs

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    Improving business assistance and support to Kashmiri youth start-up

    entrepreneurs

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    Improving the administrative and regulatory framework in Kashmir

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    BIBLIOGRAPHY 87

    RECOMMENDED BOOKS FOR ASPIRING YOUTH ENTREPRENEURS 93

  • Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities

    ANNEXES

    Annexure I: SKYE Baseline Key Findings 95

    Annexure II: SKYE Research Methodology: 109

    Annexure III: Baseline Questionnaire 113

    Annexure IV: Quadrant Analysis used for Youth Focus Group Discussion 119

    ''()*+( Questionnaire: Youth Led Focus Group Discussion: OYK, 121

    ''()*+( Youth problem-solving report on the issue of economy 123

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    137

    ''()*+(%V139

    discussion for Government & Financial Institutions 141

    ''()*+(, Framework for 21st Century Learning 143

    '()*+(,"V4QQ`/4QZq+155

    '())*+(, Registration Process & How to set up 161

    ''()*+(,8&$&+ 165

    '())*+(, 8&&+169

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    Acknowledgement

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  • Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities

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    ABOUT MERCY CORPS./ 6

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    Defining YouthMercy Corps defines youth as a period of progression towards independent responsibil-ity, which varies from 10 to 29 depending on context. Mercy Corps Youth Transformation Framework

  • Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities

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    The Start Up Kashmir Youth Entrepreneur Development Project

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    Key Activities:

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    Preface

  • Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities

  • +

    THE SKYE APPROACH

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  • Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities

  • ++

    APEDA: Agricultural Processed Food Export Development AuthorityBAS: Business Assistance and SupportBBA: Bachelors in Business AdministrationBDS: Business Development ServiceBEE: Business Enabling EnvironmentCDI: Craft Development InstituteCDP: Cluster Development ProgrammeCGS: Credit Guarantee SchemeCIS: Capital Investment SubsidyCLCSS: Credit Linked Capital Subsidy SchemeDECC: District Employment and Counseling CentresDIC: Directorate of Industries and Commerce/District Industries CentreDPR: Detailed Project ReportDST: Department of Science and TechnologyEDC: Entrepreneurship Development CellEDI: Entrepreneurship Development InstituteFGD: Focus Group DiscussionGDP: Gross Domestic ProductGEM: Global Entrepreneurship MonitorICDP: Integrated Cooperative Development ProjectIID: Integrated Infrastructural Development SchemeILO: International Labor OrganizationIUST: Islamic University of Science and TechnologyJ&K Jammu & KashmirJKEDI: Jammu and Kashmir Entrepreneurship Development InstituteJKSES: Jammu & Kashmir State Self Employment SchemeKVIC: Khadi Village Industries CommissionLPG: Liberalization, Privatization & GlobalizationMBA: Masters in Business AdministrationMCES: MAJ Consulting Engineering ServicesMOU: Memorandum of U understandingMSME: Micro Small & Medium EnterpriseNABARD: National Bank for Agriculture and Rural DevelopmentNIT: National Institute of TechnologyNMCP: National Manufacturing Competitiveness ProgrammeNSSO: National Sample Survey OfficeOYK: One Young KashmirPDD: Power Development DepartmentPESTLE: Political, Economic, Socio-cultural, Technical, Legal and Envi ronment AnalysisPMEGP: Prime Minister Employment Generation Programme

    List of Abbreviations

  • Youth Entrepreneurship in Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities

    PWD: Public Works DepartmentRAFT: Youth Relationships & Alliances for TransformationSCFS: Seed C