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<ul><li><p>Enhancing Cultural Competence in Teaching An Intervention to secure the Right to Quality Education of Minorities: A Case Study of the Hmong in Vietnam </p><p>Dissertation submitted </p><p>for the academic degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Rostock University, Germany </p><p>by Phuong Minh Luong </p><p>Rostock, 2015</p><p>zef007Schreibmaschinentexturn:nbn:de:gbv:28-diss2016-0042-0</p></li><li><p>Enhancing Cultural Competence in Teaching An Intervention to secure the Right to Quality Education </p><p>of Minorities: A Case Study of the Hmong in Vietnam </p><p>Dissertation </p><p>zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades </p><p>Doctorphilosophiae (Dr. phil.) der Philosophischen Fakultt </p><p>der Universitt Rostock </p><p>Vorgelegt von Phuong Minh Luong </p><p>geboren am 04.11.1978 in Vietnam </p><p>Rostock, 2015 </p></li><li><p>Gutachter: </p><p>1. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Nieke Institut fr Allegemeine Pdagogik und Sozialpdagogik, Universitt Rostock </p><p>2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Jens Brachmann Institut fr Allegemeine Pdagogik und Sozialpdagogik, Universitt Rostock </p><p>3. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Ingrid Gogolin Allgemeine, Interkulturelle und International Vergleichende Erziehungswissenschaft, Universitt Hamburg </p><p> Datum der Einreichung: 25. March 2014 Datum der Verteidigung: 30. January 2015 </p></li><li><p> i </p><p>ERKLRUNG </p><p>Hiermit versichere ich an Eides statt, dass ich die eingereichte Dissertation mit dem Titel </p><p>Enhancing Cultural Competence in Teaching An Intervention to secure the Right to </p><p>Quality Education for Minorities: A Case Study of the Hmong in Vietnam </p><p>selbststndig und ohne fremde Hilfe verfasst, keine anderen als die von mir angegebenen </p><p>Quellen und Hilfsmittel benutzt und die den benutzten Werken wrtlich oder inhaltlich </p><p>entnommenen Stellen als solche kenntlich gemacht habe. </p><p>Ich versichere weiterhin, dass die vorliegende Dissertation weder insgesamt noch </p><p>ausschnittweise fr die Erfllung einer Auflage im Sinne von 6, Absatz 2 und 5 der </p><p>Promotionsordnung der Philosophischen Fakultt der Universitt Rostock verwendet wurde </p><p>und dass sie in keiner anderen akademischen oder staatlichen Prfung vorgelegt wurde ( 9, </p><p>Absatz 7). </p><p>Rostock, den 02.02.2015 ................................................................................. </p><p>(Unterschrift) </p></li><li><p> ii </p><p>ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS </p><p>It has been a joyful and meaningful journey that started from scratch. Much hardship and </p><p>challenge emerged on this road. However, I met people and received a lot of their </p><p>encouragement, supports and guidance. They strongly motivated me to achieve my passion </p><p>on and commitments of securing the right to quality education for minorities. I would like to </p><p>take the opportunity to express my gratitude and thanks to all. </p><p>First, I would like to extend a very special thank to Professor Wolfgang Nieke, my </p><p>supervisor. I owe him a great debt of gratitude for his insightful and constructive advices and </p><p>guidance. With his pivotal orientations, dedicated supports and encouragement, I could </p><p>complete this significant research work. </p><p>I would also thank Professor Joan DeJaeghere, Department of Organizational Leadership, </p><p>Policy and Development at the University of Minnesota (USA), for her reviews on the </p><p>research articles and contributions to my research presentation at the International </p><p>Conference on Redesigning Pedagogy in Singapore (2013). </p><p>I am deeply indebted to all the local officers, educational administrators, teachers, Hmong </p><p>students and their parents and community in Lao Cai and Ha Giang provinces for their strong </p><p>supports and participation in the study during my field trips. </p><p>A number of colleagues at Vietnam National Institute for Education Science and Ministry of </p><p>Education and Training helped me to prepare the introduction letters to the grassroots </p><p>agencies, to make the research arrangements in the field and to update the educational </p><p>statistics in Vietnam. I am greatly grateful to their supports and helps. </p><p>The field research could not achieve its rich data without Dinh Thanh Huong, my research </p><p>assistant, during my first field trip in 2011 in Lao Cai and Ha Giang. She assisted me to </p><p>prepare the teaching tools with the experimental teachers, to take video recordings of the </p><p>instructional periods and to transcribe all the in-depth interviews and focused group </p><p>discussions so that these transcriptions could timely be sent back to the participants for their </p><p>clarity and accuracy during the field trip. Without her responsive supports, the intervention </p><p>design could not effectively be made and the experiment could not be fulfilled within its three </p><p>month duration. I highly appreciate and thank for her great devotion and endless assistance. </p></li><li><p> iii </p><p>Dr. Trinh Thang, Phan Viet Nga, Dang Thuy Hanh, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen, James </p><p>Conroy, Christopher Fulton and Chris Banes made their significant effort in editing the </p><p>language of this dissertation. I would gratefully recognize their contributions to this research. </p><p>I am deeply indebted to German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) which awarded me a </p><p>research scholarship for the four-year period (2010-2014) that enabled me to conduct this </p><p>research. </p><p>I greatly appreciate the kind supports of academic and general staff at the University of </p><p>Rostock and especially, the staff of the Institute of Education Science and Social Pedagogy. </p><p>Their assistance was very important for my progress in professional knowledge, information </p><p>technology skills, language skills, and cultural integration in a culturally different </p><p>environment. Especially, I gratefully acknowledge the assistance from Dr. Constanze Berndt </p><p>who helped me a lot to get familiar with the life in Rostock. She also supported me to collect </p><p>the related information at the beginning of my research. </p><p>A deep sense of gratitude would be expressed to my parents, my husband and two small </p><p>children for their continuous encouragement, immense love and care. The pride they have </p><p>had in me instilled my inner great strength. They have been my biggest inspiration and </p><p>motivation to overcome all the difficulties and challenges. Their support, encouragement and </p><p>sacrifices for my study have been boundless. </p><p>Sincere thanks to all my friends and family who have given me love and support throughout </p><p>my life. </p></li><li><p> iv </p><p>ABSTRACT </p><p>Most countries throughout the world today are culturally diverse. Shape and nuance of </p><p>culturally diverse environment in a society originate from the history of its ethnic groups and </p><p>vary across countries. In the growing diversity, rights of people from culturally different </p><p>backgrounds need to be equally recognized and exercised in all multi-ethnic nations. Among </p><p>a variety of rights, the right to education is emphasized as a pivotal right. Numerous </p><p>researchers have addressed ways to provide quality education for all students of different </p><p>ethnic groups. On this journey, the focus on cultural competence in teaching has generated a </p><p>great deal of responses from pedagogues and researchers. This research investigates the </p><p>minority status of the Hmong in Vietnam and argues that their subordination in the society </p><p>generates the sense of inferiority in social interaction. This subsequently results in their </p><p>disproportionately poor academic outcomes (Luong and Nieke, 2013). On this basis, it </p><p>extends the paradigm of recognition from the philosophy and sociology to pedagogy in the </p><p>process of examining cultural competence in teaching as an intervention to secure the right to </p><p>quality education for Hmong students. The research used two complementary perspectives of </p><p>politics of recognition from the well-known philosophers. Specifically, Fraser (2003) </p><p>proposed to conceive recognition as a matter of justice along with subordination status of an </p><p>ethnic group. In her argument, social injustice was formulated by the system factors known </p><p>as institutionalized patterns of cultural values. Meanwhile, Taylor (1994) and Honneth (1992, </p><p>1995) viewed recognition to be a matter of self-realization. Two scholars attributed the </p><p>impaired subjectivity and damaged self-identity to misrecognition or non-recognition. These </p><p>two perspectives of recognition ground the prerequisite conditions for attaining full partners </p><p>and full, undistorted subjectivity so as to have a full capacity to get access to quality </p><p>education. </p><p>The research used the mixed research method with the grounded theory approach. It </p><p>examined the conditions for building cultural competence in teaching through an </p><p>ethnographic study. Besides, the conceptualization of cultural competence in teaching and its </p><p>impacts on interaction in classroom were developed and investigated through an experimental </p><p>study on the basis of video-analysis of the instructional periods supported by Transana </p><p>software (version 2.51). The field study was conducted in two phases (three months in 2011 </p><p>and two months in 2013) in Lao Cai and Ha Giang provinces in which a high proportion of </p><p>the Hmong population is settled. </p></li><li><p> v </p><p>The ethnographic study was conducted by nine in-depth interviews, eight focused group </p><p>discussions and observations of three Hmong classes. The target groups of this study were the </p><p>Hmong teachers, non-Hmong teachers, Hmong students, Hmong parents and community, </p><p>educational administrators and an expert in the Hmong culture. The findings indicated the </p><p>minority status of the Hmong and its significant influences on their disproportionately poor </p><p>academic outcomes (Luong and Nieke, 2013), cultural characteristics and challenges in </p><p>teaching and learning for Hmong students. These findings provided valuable inputs for </p><p>designing the interventions of the experimental study for four teachers. The project </p><p>interventions included the contextualization of instructional contents, visualization of learnt </p><p>concepts through local living practices, adaptability of patterns of communication, </p><p>engagement of local resources in the teaching and so on. These interventions aimed at </p><p>enacting equal social status and making Hmong students regard their ethnic culture and </p><p>identity in the classroom through the paradigm of recognition. </p><p>The experiment study was conducted in Lao Cai in 2011 with 12 instructional periods in the </p><p>subject of Nature and Society in three Grade-3 Hmong classes instructed independently by </p><p>one Hmong and two Kinh teachers in two primary schools. The preliminary results of the first </p><p>field trip were achieved from the analysis of video recordings by the grounded theory </p><p>method. The results were consolidated and validated through the second field trip in Ha </p><p>Giang in 2013. The research addressed the process of developing cultural competence in </p><p>teaching for educators in culturally diverse educational environment. The results of the </p><p>experimental studies described the specific manifestations of cultural competence in teaching </p><p>with the paradigm of recognition. Notably, along with the evidence of the development of </p><p>cultural competence in teaching of three teachers, the results also showed how the cultural </p><p>competence in teaching fostered the sense of self-confidence, self-concept and self-respect </p><p>and conversely, how the cultural incompetence worsened the sense of inferiority for the </p><p>Hmong students in these classrooms. Moreover, the results also suggested the factors of </p><p>cultural competence in teaching that might have caused the differences in the patterns of </p><p>interaction between these classrooms. </p><p>With the constructivist, participatory and pragmatic approach, the research involved the </p><p>selected teachers in the ethnographic study that helped them to understand the needed </p><p>conditions (including the minority status, cultural characteristics, challenges in teaching and </p><p>learning of the Hmong students) for the development of their cultural competence in </p></li><li><p> vi </p><p>teaching. These conditions underlay the solid knowledge base for designing and delivering </p><p>the culturally responsive instructions. The cultural competence in teaching is conceptualized </p><p>through the experimental study with five major components including cultural assessment, </p><p>diversity valuing, management of dynamics of cultural differences, cultural adaptability and </p><p>institutionalization of cultural knowledge. The cultural assessment is made in two categories. </p><p>On the one hand, it emphasizes teachers inquiry of students minority status, cultural </p><p>characteristics, learning and communication features and living practices. On the other hand, </p><p>it requires teachers to make self-reflection on their language sensitivity, understanding of </p><p>alien concepts in the mainstream generic curriculum to students cultural frame of reference. </p><p>Subsequently, the diversity valuing is made on the basis of this knowledge base. Accordingly, </p><p>teachers recognize and respect students culturally different perspectives and minority culture </p><p>in their instruction. The cultural differences in terms of cultural perspectives and patterns of </p><p>communication are managed with the relativistic and transformative approach. Two types of </p><p>cultural adaptability are described here namely, adaptability of educational environment and </p><p>adaptability of individual teachers. Adaptability of educational environment to students refers </p><p>to adjustments in task development and knowledge constructing method in which teachers </p><p>mainstream students experience, living world and cultural characteristics in instruction. </p><p>Meanwhile, adaptability of individual teachers refers to recognition and accommodation of </p><p>patterns of communication. Such adaptability secures the equal status for Hmong students in </p><p>schools while fostering their sense of self-confidence, self-concept and self-respect. The </p><p>institutionalization of cultural knowledge is deemed to legitimize cultural identity and </p><p>minority cultures of students from culturally diverse backgrounds in school organization, </p><p>policies and regulations, procedures and engagement of parents and community in the </p><p>educational process. </p><p>On the basis of these parameters, the development of cultural competence in teaching showed </p><p>that all three teachers obtained the significant improvements after their participation in the </p><p>experiment. As a result, it positively changed in the students interaction in the classrooms. </p><p>Noticeably, the Hmong teacher achieved the best cultural competence in teaching compared </p><p>with her Kinh colleagues. The students in her class interacted actively and confidently in the </p><p>classroom. The results also showed that the Kinh teachers more often valued students </p><p>perspectives and culture, recognized their different perspectives and adapted to their patterns </p><p>of communication. Therefore, the students participated more keenly and actively in </p><p>contributing and sharing their ideas or feedback. </p></li><li><p> vii </p><p>The research makes a significant contribution to the provision of a heuristic conceptualization </p><p>of cultural competence in teaching and a specific process of developing cultural competence </p><p>in teaching for educators. Among a variety of approaches to, and perspectives on the </p><p>pedagogy for multicultural or intercultural education, this research outlines a ho...</p></li></ul>


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