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  • ENGLISH / ULSTER-SCOTS GLOSSARYULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

    A Core Vocabulary Wordlist with Verb Tables

    Compiled and edited by

    Philip Robinson

    Published by The Ullans Press for

    The Ulster-Scots Academy Implementation Group and the Ulster-Scots Language Society

  • IMPRINT DETAILSThis glossary is based on the dictionary database collections of the Ulster-Scots LanguageSociety, including verb tables and other extracts from P Robinson's Ulster-Scots: AGrammar of the Traditional Written and Spoken Language, 2nd edition (Ullans Press,2007) and the spellings used for all words covered by the deliberations of the SpellingStandards Committee conform to the spelling standards agreed in partnership with theUlster-Scots Academy Implementation Group.

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise,without the prior permission of the Ulster-Scots Language Society.

    Copyright © Philip Robinson and the Ulster-Scots Language Society 2012

    ISBN 1-905281-20-X (hard copy)

    This digital edition 2013

  • CONTENTS

    TITLE PAGE

    IMPRINT DETAILS

    INTRODUCTION

    ABBREVIATIONS

    ULSTER-SCOTS GLOSSARY

    VERB TABLES

  • INTRODUCTIONThis wordlist and verb tables are intended to provide learners with a guide to the Ulster-Scots words and forms that equate to a basic core vocabulary of the most common Englishwords. Some, indeed many, of these words are shared between English and Ulster-Scots,but are nevertheless included here.

    For distinctive Ulster-Scots vocabulary that is still current, see James Fenton's The HamelyTongue, and for a detailed account of the grammatical rules for Ulster-Scots verbs, seePhilip Robinson's Ulster-Scots: A Grammar of the Traditional Written and SpokenLanguage.

    The Ulster-Scots spellings given in this glossary are those agreed by the SpellingStandardisation Committee of the Ulster-Scots Academy Implementation Group oncompletion of its first phase of spelling standardisation.

  • ABBREVIATIONSadj - adjective

    adv - adverb, adverbial

    conj - conjunction

    def art - definite article

    indef art - indefinite article

    n - noun

    n pl - plural noun

    phr - phrase

    prep - preposition

    pron - pronoun

    v - verb

    vbl n - verbal noun

    v neg - negative verb

    v pt - verb past tense

    v pp - verb past participle

    (hist.) - historical, i.e. only attested in older literature

    (loc.) - local, i.e. this form only current in one locality

    (lit.) - literary, i.e. older form revived for formal or literary use

    (occas.) - occasional

    (joc.) - jocular

    (emph.) - emphatic, i.e. only when the form bears positional stress

    Note on diacritics (accents).

    Where accents appear on vowels in Ulster-Scots, they indicate features of pronunciationand can be omitted without any change to spelling (see Spelling and Pronunciation Guide).

  • There are only three recommended for standard use:

    a) ï (diæresis over 'i')

    This is to represent English short 'i' in words such as 'pig and 'pin' when it is pronounceddistinctively in an Ulster-Scots homonym

    e.g. pïg/pig

    b) ü (diæresis over 'u')

    This is to represent English short 'u' in words such as 'pull', 'bush', 'bull' when it ispronounced distinctively in an Ulster-Scots homonym

    e.g. büsh/bush [pronounced to rhyme with "hush "]

    c) è (grave accent over 'e')

    This is to represent an interdental pronunciation of the preceding consonant when followedby '-er'

    e.g. eftèr/efter

  • GLOSSARYA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y

    Aa indef art a; (hist.) aneable adj fit; (sometimes perjorative) able; (a~ to) fit tae, can daeabout prep (near to) aboot, nearhan; (concerning) adae wi, aboot, o, anent;

    (approximately) or sae, aboot, or that, roon; (because of) wi, abootabove prep abain; (a~ my head) awa abain meact n ect, (of Parliament) Ect; (a~ of despair, etc.) daen in desperation, etc. v ect (tha lig,

    etc.); dae (ocht); (in a play) play-ect; acts, events vbl n pl daeinsaction n ection; (hist.)(lit.) actiounadd v add; (a~ up) coontacross adv ower; (hist.) athortafraid adj feart, afeart, scarred, ascarredafter adv eftèrafternoon n eftèrnuin, eveninagain adv aganeagainst prep agin, (loc.) aganeage n (period) days (o); (person) ageago adv bak; (long a~) (hist.) lang syneagree v agree, gae alang wiair n air, (tune) tunealive adj leevinall adj aa, alallow v alloo, letalmost adv maistlie, near, gyelyalone adv alane; on (his) lanealong adv alang; prep langwyesalso adv forbye, anaa, tae, as weel; (hist.) ekealways adv ayeam v am, be, bis, besamong adv amangamount n feck, amoontan indef art an; (hist.) ane

    1

  • and conj ananger n ang'ranimal n annymalanother adj anitheranswer n answer, (hist.) repone; v gie answer, mak answerany adj onieanyone n oniebodieanything n ocht, oniethinappear v mak an appearance, (hist.) kytheapple n eppleApril n Aprileare v ir, is, be, bes; (a~ to) maunaren't v neg irnae, isnae, binnae, bisnaearm n airmaround prep aroon, roon, aboot, roon aboot; (all a~) aa roonarrange v set up, fix uparrive v cum; (reach) win, landart n airtas adv / conj as, lake, fur, whanas far as adv tha lenth oas soon as adv tha minit, as shane asas was (his) custom adv phr lake (he) aye daenas well adv anaa, forbye, tae, as weelask v ax, ast, speerasked v pt ast, axt, speeredasleep v sleepinat prep atat all adv avaate v pt etAugust n Agustautumn n autumn, bak en o tha yeir, (lit.) hairstaway adv awa

    [start of glossary]

    Bbaby n ba, babbie, wean, bairn

    2

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • back n bak, (loc.) bek; exclamation (horse command) bik!; (on / to the b~) a-bakbad adj ill; (sick) badbag n baagball n baaband n banbank n bank, (loc.) benk; (peat) bink, broobar n (door) boult, barbase n fit; (building foundation) foonds, fittinsbasic adj mainbat n batbe v be; (habitual, emphatic) bes; (habitual, unemphatic) bis (see also was, is, are etc.)beach n shorebear v (endure) thole; (carry) cairry; (fruit) cum ootbeard n bairdbeast n beecebeat v bate, thong; (severely) battèr, whalebeautiful adj bonnie, bricht, guid lukkin, beautyfu; (hist.) lovesomebecause conj acause, fur, seein, because; (b~ of) fur, oot o, ower tha heid o, on accoont obecome v get; v pt got; (becoming) gotbed n bedbeen v pp binbefore adv afore, in front o, or; (b~ ever) or iverbegan v pt begood, begunbegin v stairt, joinbehind adv ahint, behin; (b~ a person's back) ahint baksbelieve v heed, credit, tak (it) in; (hist.) trowbell n bellbelong v belangbelow adv alow, unnèrbeneath adv unnèr, aneath, in alowbeside adv aside, aginbesides conj aside frae, forbyebest adj bestbetter adj bettèr; v (get the b~ of) get tha best obetween adv atween: (hist.) aqweest; (b~ now and then) (hist.) atween anbeyond adv ayontbig adj bïg, muckle

    3

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • bird n burdbit n bïtblack adj blak, (loc.) blekblind adj blinblock n block, jorrblood n bluidblow n bat, blarge, bleech, bleenge, booch, dig, kep, leenge, mell, reeve, skite, sleenge,

    snirt, sother, sowse, sugh; (heavy) keb, stemisher; (severe) whizeekblow v blaa, blawblue adj blue, (loc.) bue; (in compounds) blae-; (b~berry) n blaeberrie; (b~bottle) n

    maggot-fleeboard n boordboat n boat, (local) bóatbody n bodiebog n boag; (peat) mossbold adj boulbone n banebook n buikboot n buitborn v boarnboth adj baithbottom n (base) fit; airsebought v pt bochtbowl n bowlebox n boxboy n lad, gossoon, weefla, wee fella, weetchilbranch n brenchbread n breid; (b~ roll) bapbreak v brekbridge n brigbright adj brichtbring v bring; (put one's way) throwbroad adj braidbroken v pp broke, (loc.) brok, bust, bustitbrother n britherbrought v pt brocht, brungbrown adj broon

    4

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • build v bigbull n büllburn v burn, (hist.) brunbush n büshbusy adj bizzie, (be) aa gobut conj bot, but; (but for) onlie furbuy v buy; (b~ for) traitby prep bi, by; wi, gin; (b~ the time) agin, gin; (b~ way of) in tha wye oby adv bye

    [start of glossary]

    Ccall v caa, cat; (summon or name) cry; (c~ names) miscaacame v pt cumcan v can, (be) fit tae; v pt cudcan't v cannaecap n kep; (cloth) duncher; (peaked) skoopie kepcar n car, mottor-carcard n cairdcare v (for) luk eftèr; (about) care; (take c~) tak tent, tak heed; (doesn't c~) disnae fash

    (himsel); no bothered (aboot)carry v cairry; (heavy) humpcart n cairtcase (in c~) adv fur fear; (in any c~) oniehoocat n ket, brimmie, pooshiecatch v ketch, catch; v pt ketched, catched; (rabbits at night) lamp; (trout by tickling)

    ginnle; n (door) snibcattle n kye, beececaught v pt catched; (c~ out) hadcause n cause, (loc.) caasecentre n middle, hairt; (town c~) hairt o tha toon, doon tha tooncertain adj certes, surecertainly adv fur certes, fur sure; (hist.) atweelchair n chair, saitchance n chance, (loc.) chauncechange v shift; (weather) cum in; (one's mind) rue

    5

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • chest n (body) breesht, kist; (container) kistchimney n lum, chimleychild n wean, chile, pappin, grouselin; (boy) weefla; (girl) weelass; (lively) flinchildren n pl childèr, weanschoose v chusechoosey adj parteeklarChristmas n Chrissmas; (occas.) Chrissymas; (hist.)(lit.) Yule, Yuletide, Yuletimchurch n, adj kirk; (Presbyterian) meetin-hoose; (Roman Catholic) chapel; (Episcopal)

    churchcinema n pictèr-hoosecircle n circle, ring, rooncity n cïtieclass n cless; (level at school) buikclean adj clain; v dae oot, redd ootcleaning n reddin ootclear adj apen, clear; v (one's head or liquid) shireclear out v redd ootclimb v clim, (tree) speelclock n clock; (wall) wag-at-tha waaclose v shut; (eyes) babcloth n (dish, floor, etc.) cloot; (material) claithclothe v cleed; v pt cledclothes n claes; (rough, wearing) palyins; (casual) dishables; (poor) duds; (garments)

    dollies; (cheap and flashy) fal-de-lals; (tattered) jogginsclothing n claes; (stitch of) dudcloud n cloodcoarse adj coorse, ruchcoast n shorecoat n coat, (loc.) cóat; (light, of paint) sleek; (woman's, loose) jeegercold adj coul, stairvin; (wind) nirlin; (in nature) coulrifecollect v gethercollege n collegecolour n colourcomb n kamecome v cum; (unexpectedly) land; v pt cumcommon adj plaincompare v tak, luk at

    6

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • compared to conj besides, agin, compared wicomplete adj (absolute) fair, parfait; (whole) hale, ins an oots, frae en tae yinconnect v connect, join upconsiderable adj some, brave; (c~ number) brave wheenconsist v (be) made up (o)contain v houl (bak)contented adj (be) contentitcontinue v cairry on, conteenyecontrol v hannlecook v cookcool adj (of a person) distant; v cool (it) dooncopy n copie; v mak a copiecord n coardcorn n coarncorner n (in a road) ben, loop; n pl neuks an crannies v corner; 'corner' (a person) (local)

    yockcorrect adj richtcost n coastcould v cudcouldn't v cudnaecouncil n cooncilcount v coontcountry n kintriecouple n (pair) kipple, twa, twasome; n pl (roof trusses) kipples adj (few) twarthiecourse adj coorsecow n coo, chaytie, bastecows n coos, kyecream n craimcross adj crabbit; n crosscrow n craa, craw; (hooded) corbie, hoodie; (c~ stepped gable) corbie steps, craa-step't

    gaivelcrowd n thrang, crood; v crood, thrangcrown n crooncry v greet; (howl) foof, bilyorcunning adj fly, sleekitcup n kip; (hist.) bickercut n, v cut

    7

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • [start of glossary]

    Ddad n da, daddiedance n dance, (loc.) daunce, hooley, jeeg, swarrie; v dance, (joc.) lep aboot; (take a

    partner) liftdanger n dangerdare v dar, durst, offerdaren't v neg darnae, durstnaedark n dairk, mirk; (in nature) dairksome; adj mirkiedaughter n dochterdawn n scraich o dayday n daydead v deid; (d~ nettle) n day-nettledeaf adj deefdeafen v deevedeal n dale; v dale, prigDecember n December, (loc.) Decemmerdecide v pickdepend on v lippendepth n depth, tha deep o (it)describe v rin owerdetermine v set (oot)determined adj (hae yer) mine set ondevil n deil, divil, tha bad yin, tha bad man, tha ill yin, tha sorra (in phrases like) sorra tha

    yin, sorra faa ye, rin lake tha sorra; (hist.) Auld Simdevelop v growedictionary n dictionar, wurd buikdid v pt dïd, daendidn't v dïdnae, niverdie v deedied v pt deeddiffer v gae agindifference n dïffrence, (loc.) dïffersdifferent adj dïffrent, dïffrenter aganedifficult adj awkart, thran; (hist.) thrawart; (task, question, etc.) hard; (person) thran; (d~

    task) siege, tellure

    8

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • direct v road, airt; (a blow) (hist.) ettledirection n airtdirectly adv (straight) fair; (at once) strecht aff, richt awadiscuss v collogue, taak aboot, rin owerdisgust n v scunnèrdistance n far, farness, lenth, swutch; (hist.) abeich; (at a d~) far aff, thonnerdivide v sinnèr, pairt; (equally) halfdivided v pt divid; (arithmetic) gaes intae; (badly d~) (unfair) ill dividdo v dae; v pt dïd, daen; vbl n pl daeinsdoctor n doctor, docdoesn't v disnaedog n doag, (loc.) dug, coallie (doag)done v pp daen, dindon't v dïnnaedoor n dure, (loc.) dorr double n doobledoubt n dootdown adv doondraw v draadream n draim, dreamdress v get / pit on (ye); (turnips) sneddrink v drink; (occasionally) tak a wee drap; (deeply) glug; n jorum, drink; (small) sopedrive n (initiative) go, adae; v (hard) coard; (workers) herresh; (at great speed) flake,

    whaledriven v pp drivdrop n v drap, (loc.) dropdrove v pt drivdrown v droonduck n deuck; v jookdusk n dailygan, gloamindust n stour; (fine, from flax-scutching) powcedwell v bide, leeve

    [start of glossary]

    Eeach adj iverie; (hist. and lit.) ilk, ilka; pron. (something e~) apieceear n. lug

    9

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • early adj adv earlie; (e~ morning) scraich o dayearth n warl, yirthease v let oot; (done with e~) easie daeneast n easteasy adv easieeat v eatedge n en, edge; (of water) side; (of a cliff) tapeffect n ootcum, effect; (have e~) daeegg n eggeight n echteighteen n echteeneighty n echtieeither adj adv ether, yin or titherelbow n elbaelectric n, adj lectricelement n bït; (of a heater) barelse adv else; (or e~) (local) or less; (e~where) some ither placeempty adj empieend n enendure v tholeenemy n enemie, (hist.) faeenergy n go, drive, pooerengine n inginEngland n Inglanenough adj adv eneuchenter v cum (on) in, ga' in; (exam, etc.) (pit) in furentire adj haleenvironment n surroondsequal adj aa tha yin, aa tha sameequate v (coont) tha sameespecially adv specially, maistlieeven adj even, flet; adv evenevening n nichtevent n daeinsever adv iver, ayeevery adj iverieeye n ee; n pl. een

    10

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • exact adj exect, dead onexample n (as an e~) fur yin; (take, for e~) luk at thaexcept adv apairt fraeexcite v get ye gaunexercise v get a bit o exerciseexpect v (be) lukkinexperience n event, ee-apener

    [start of glossary]

    Fface n face, (abusive, jocular) bakefact n feetfair adj (just) richt, (legal) (hist.) jonick, (tolerable) middlin, (a f~ number) a guid (brave,

    etc.) wheenfall v faa, falfamily n femliefamous adj weel-knowed, weel-kentfar adv farfarm n fairmfast adv adj quïckfat n creesh; adj (of a person) fat, stootfather n faither, daddie, dafavour n a guid turnfear n scar, (be) scarredfeast n (festive) boord; (large meal) feed; v (f~ yourself) get thon doon yeFebruary n Febuarie, (lit.) Februarfeeble adj wakefeed n feed, rozner, charge, (joc.) tarnisher; v feed, eatfeel v feel, graipfeet n feetfell v pt fellfellow n fellafew n wheen, adj twarthiefield n fielfifth adj fift, fithfight n fecht

    11

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • figure n figgerfill v fillfinal adj lastfind n (discovery) fin; v finfine adj brave, guid, granfinger n fing'rfinish n enfinished v pt daenfire n fire; (kitchen) apen hairth, inglefirst adj furstfish n fishfit n,v fitfive adj fiveflag n flegflat adj fletflea n flayfloor n flure, (loc.) flareflour n flureflow v flowe, rinflower n flooerfly n v fleefold v foulfolk n fowk, folkfollow v follaefood n meat, fuidfoot n fitfootball n fitbafor prep fur, forforce v gar, makforeigner n stranger; (to a district) blaa-inforest n plantin, wuidform n foarmfortnight n foartnichtforty n foartieforward adv forrit, (loc.) fortfound v pt funfoundation n ruit; (of a building) fittins

    12

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • four adj fower; (local) fivverfraction n frectionfree adj free, fur naethinfresh adj freshFriday n Fridayfriend n freen, billiefright n scarfrom conj frae, (unstressed [fae])front adj frontfrown n froon, scoolyfruit n fruitfull adj fu, füllfumble v fummlefun n funfundamental adj mainfurniture n furnytèr, plenishin

    [start of glossary]

    Ggable n gaivelgain v wungale n stoarmgamble v gemmlegame n game, diversiongang n genggarden n gairdengas n gesgate n gate; (hist.) yett; (field opening) slapgather v gethergave v pt gien, (occas.) giedgeneral adj genèralgentle adj saftgentlemen n pl (ladies and g~) guid fowks, yin an aaget v getghost n ghaistgirl n lass, hizzie

    13

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • give v gieglad adj gledglass adj n glessgo v gae (unstressed [ga]), gang (pronounced [gan])gold adj gooldgolf n gowfgone adv gane, awa; (has g~) haes went, haes gaedgood adj guidgot v pt gotgovernment n govermentgrand adj grangrant n grant, allooance; v alloograss n gressgreat adj muckle, greatgreen adj greengrew v pt growed, grewgrey adj grayground n grungrow v groweguide v road, airt, gristgun n gun

    [start of glossary]

    Hhad v pt haedhair n hairhalf adj half, (loc.) haufHalloween n Hallevehand n han; (loc.) haunhang v hinghappen v cum aboothappy adj gledsome, blythehard adj hardharmful adj hairmfuhas v haeshat n kep, bonnet

    14

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • have v haehe pron hehead n heid: (h~ ache) sair heid; (h~stone) heidstanehear v hear (tell)heard v pt heerdheart n hairtheat n heat; v pt hetheavy adj wechtieheld v pt helhelp n help; v gie a han, gie a helpher pron hirhere pron herehigh adj heichhill n brae, hïllhim pron hïmhimself refl pron hisselhis adj hïshistory n hïstriehit v pt huthold v houlhole n holehollow n hollahome n hamehope n hopehorse n horse; (riding) pownie; (mare) meerhot adj het, wairmhour n oorhouse n hoosehow adv hoo, whut-wye; (usually in questions, relating to size or amount) tha, e.g. 'Is that

    tha much it is?'huge adj muckle, gret bighundred n hunnèr, (occas.) a-hunnèrhunger n hung'rhunt v hunthurry v hie, (be) in a hurry

    [start of glossary]

    15

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • II pron A; (hist, and emph.) Iice n ice; (i~ cream) ice-craim; (cone) poke, (wafer) slideridea n thocht; (concept) notionif conj ïf, gin; (hist.) gif, ginimagine v pictèr, think; (suspect) jalouse, dootin prep ïninch n ïnchinclude v tak in, bring inindicate v point tilindustry n ïndustrieinsect n bug, insectinstant n mïnitinterest n intèrestinvent v mak, cum up wiIreland n Airlaniron n, adj airnis v be, ïs, bis, etc.island n isle, islanit pron ït, (loc.) hit

    [start of glossary]

    JJanuary n Januarie, (lit.) Januarjob n jab, (loc.) jobjoin v joinjoy n joy; (joyous) joysomeJuly n Juliejump v lepJune n Juinjust prep jaist

    [start of glossary]

    Kkeep v keep, houlkept v pt kep

    16

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • key n keykill v kïllkind adj kineking n kïng, keengknew v pt knowed, kentknow v know, ken; (I don't k~) (freq) A cudnae say

    [start of glossary]

    Llady n wumman; n pl weemen, wimmenfowklaid v pt laidlake n lough; (small) holeland n Ianlanguage n tongue, lang'age; (hist.)(lit.) leidlarge adj bïglast adj last; (at l~ ) at tha hinnèr en: (l~ night) yesterday nichtlate adv latelaugh v lachlaw n laalead1 v road, airtlead2 n (metal) leedlearn v lairnleast adj weest, smaalestleave v lea, (loc.) leeled v pt ledleft adv, adj leftleg n leglength n lenthless adj unnèr, lesslet v let; v pt lut, letletter n lettèrlevel adj fletlie (down) v lie(tell a) lie v leelife n life; (all my l~) aa ma dayslift n, v lift

    17

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • light n, adj lichtlike v lake, likeline n linelist n lïst, (hist.) leetlisten v listen, gie ear til; (carefully) tak tentlittle adj weelive v leevelocate v pit, finlog n loglonely adj lonesomelong adj langlook v luk, tak a luklost adj loastlot n (brave, guid, etc.) wheenloud adj lood; (too l~) wud deeve ye, ower loodlove v love; (hist.) lo'elow adj laich

    [start of glossary]

    Mmade v pt made; (hist.) makkitmain adj mainmajor adj main, bïgger, (gye) bïgmake v makman n manmany adj monie, (guid, brave, etc.) wheen, (people) monies a yinMarch n Mairchmark n mairkmarket n mairketmaster n maistèrmatch n matchmaterial n stuffmatter n mettèrmay v michtMay n Meyme pron me

    18

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • mean v meanmeasure n, v misuremeat n mate, (loc.) meat; (all butcher's m~) beefmeet v meetmelody n tune, airmen n men, menfowkmethod n wyemidday n nuin, heich twal, dennèrtimmiddle n mïddlemight n, v michtmile n mile; n pl milemilk n mïlk; (pass the m~) (joc.) pass tha coomillion n mïllionmind v minemine pron mineminute n mïnitmiss v mïssmix v mïxmodern adj modrenmoment n mïnitMonday n Mündaymoney n money, catter; (hist.)(lit.) sillermonth n month; (hist.) mondmoon n muinmore adj mairmorning n moarnin, forenuinmost adj maistmother n mither, ma, mammiemotion n shift, (loc.) mavementmountain n moontain; (loc.) murntinmouth n mooth, bake (hist.) moumove v shïft, (loc.) mavemuch adj much, mucklemultiply v get mair an mair, get bigger; (maths) (m~ by) timesmusic n music, (lit.) musickmust v maunmy pron ma

    19

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • [start of glossary]

    Nname n name; (what is your n~ ?) whut dae the' caa ye?narrow adj nerranation n fowk; (hist.) lede; (lit.) natiounnatural adj natèralnature n natèr; (in his n~) tha wye o himnear adj nearhannearer adv neardèrneat adj naitnecessary adv needitneck n neckneed v need; v neg neednaeneighbour n nighberneither adj nethernephew n nevyenever adv nivernew adj new; (n~ thing) newancenext adj nixt; (hist.) neistnight n nichtnine n nineno adj naeno interj nanoise n soonnone adv nanenoon n nuin; heich twalno-one pron naebodienor conj nornorth n (loc.) noarthnorthern adj noarn, (hist.) norlinnose n neb, cootèrnot adv no, (loc.) nawnote n notenothing adv naethinnotice n notys, (loc.) notishNovember n November, (loc.) Novemmer

    20

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • now adv noonowhere adv naewhar, naeplacenumber n nummernumeral n nummernut n nut, (hist.) nit

    [start of glossary]

    Oobject n thing, airticle; v (be, go against, etc.) aginobligation n (hist.)(lit.) obligatiounobserve v watch, owerseeoccur v happen, cum abootocean n sea, oceanOctober n Uptober, Octoberof conj ooff adv affoffer v dale, mak an offeroffice n offysoften adv affenoh excl achoil n oilold adj oul; (hist.) auldon prep ononce adv yinst, yince, (hist.) anceone n yin, (hist.) aneone adj yin, (hist.) ae, yaeonly adj onlie, (loc.) onie, (hist.) ae, yaeopen adj, adv apenoperate v workopposite adv forenentor conj ororder n, v ordèrorgan n (church) organ, kist o whussles; (body) inside pairtsoriginal adj furst, oreeginalother adj itherour adj oor, (loc.) wor

    21

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • out adv ootover adv ower, (loc.) ivverown adj ainoxygen n air, oxygen

    [start of glossary]

    Ppage n pagepail n bucketpain n hurt, painpainful adj sair, painfupaint v gie a (lick/coat, etc.) o paintpair n twa, twasome, kipplepal n mate, cronie, billiepalm n loof; (grease the p~) creesh tha loofpaper n paperparcel n paircelparent n mither an/or faitherparish n pairishpark n pairkpart n pairtparticular adj yin, parteeklarparty n pairtiepass v passpast adv bye, aa byepath n padpattern n pattrenpay v pyepeace n peacepeg n pegpen n penpeople n fowk, yinsperhaps adv aiblinsperiod n (of history) days o; (of time) while; (punctuation) füll stappermit n pass; v letperson n bodie

    22

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • phrase n phrasepick v (tak a) pickPict n Pechtpicture n pictèrpiece n bit; (big) wudge, jorrpig n pïg, soo; (p~ sty) pïg-hoose, pïg-crewpin n pïnpipe n pipeplain adj plain; (landscape) flet apen grunplan n plan; v ettleplane n planeplanet n warlplant n, v plant, pit inplay v spoartplease v plaiseplural adj mair nor yinpocket n poaket, poochpoem n póamepoint n, v pointpoor adj puirpopulation n fowkport n (loc.) poartpose v (a question) ax; (p~ as) let on tae beposition n wye, whar-aboots, poseetionpossess v own, haepossibly adv aiblinspost n post, (loc.) poastpot n potpound n pun, poonpower n pooerpractice n precticepractise v prectisepray v mak a prayer, prayprepare v mak/get readiepresent adv here; n gift, (hist.) hansel; (at p~) jaist noopress v püshpretty adj guid-luikin, sonsie, cantie

    23

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • print n, v prent; v pt prentitprobable adj maist likelieprobably adv maist likelie, aplyproblem n problem, puzzlerprocess n wye o daein; v pit throuproduce v brïng/pit ootproduct n ootcum, produceproper adj richt, properproperty n propertyprotect v gie sheltèr; (hist.) bield; pertect, protectprove v proveprovide v giepull v (gie a) pu, püllpush v (gie a) püshput v pit

    [start of glossary]

    Qquality adj guidquarter n quartèrqueen n queenqueer adj odd; (hist.) uncoquestion n questin; v quuz; (hist.) speerquick adv quïckquiet adj quaitquilt n quultquit v quätquite adv brave an, gye an, quare an, etc.

    [start of glossary]

    Rrabbit n rebbitrace n (nation) fowk, (hist.) leid; v raceradio n wirelessrail n railrain v rain

    24

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • raise v raise, (st) riseran v pt runrather adv retherreach v (a place) reach, wun tae; (stretch out) raxread v (hae a) readready adv readiereal adj raelrear v rair (rairin tae go); adj bakreason n raison, causereceive v getrecord n recairdrecord v recoardred adj ridregion n districtremember v minerepeat v gae ower aganereply n (gie an) answer; (hist.)(lit.) reponerepresent v reprysentrequire v need, cud dae wirest v (hae a) restresult n resultrich adj weel-affride v ride; v pt ridright n, adj richtring n rïngrise n rise, (occas.) raiseriver n wattèrroad n road; (loc.) róad; (hist.) gaterock n roakrode v pt ridroll v rowle, (hist.) rowroom n room; (hist.) chammerroot n ruitrope n raiprose n roseround adj roonrow n raa

    25

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • rub v (gie a) rub, (loc.) ribrule n rulerun v rin

    [start of glossary]

    Ssafe adj safesafety n safetiesaid v pt sayed, allooed; (he/s~) qo he, q'hesail n, v sailsalt n sautsame adj same; (the s~) tha yinsand n sansad adj doonhairtit, aa doonsat v pt sutSaturday n Settèrdaysaucer n sassersave v savesaw v pt saa, seensay v sayschool n schuilscience n sciencescore n scoreScotland n ScotlanScots n (the language) ScotchScottish adj Scotchsea n seasearch v hunt, luk furseason n saisonseat n saitsecond adj saicontsection n pairt, slice, bïtsee v seeseed n seedselect v pickself pron sel

    26

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • sell v sellSeptember n September, (loc.) Septemmersend v sensense n (suspect) jalouse; (common s~) wutsent v pt sentserve v servesession n (hist.)(lit.) sessiounset v setshadow n sheddashare v dividesharp adj shairpshe pron she, hirsheet n sheetshell n shellshine v shineship n boat, (loc.) bóatshoe n (hist.)(loc.) shaeshoes n pl shuneshop n shap, (loc.) shopshore n shoreshort adj shoartshould v shudshouldn't v neg shudnaeshoulder n shoothershout v (gie a) shout, guldèr, gowlshow v showsick adj seekside n sidesigh n seichsight n sichtsign n signsilence n wheesht, quaitsilver adj sillersimilar adj like, lakesimple adj simple, easysince prep fraesing v sïng, gie a sang

    27

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • single adj sïng'lsister n sïstèrsit v sïtsix adj sïxsize n (what s~ is it?) hoo big is it?skill n skill, knak; (skilful) knakkyskin n skinsky n sky, liftsleep v (hae a) sleepslip v skid, skiteslow adv slowsmall adj smaa, weesmart adj smairt, clivver, ablesmell n smell, whiff, hoagsmile v (gie a ) smile, smirksnake n snakesnow n snaaso adv, conj saesoap n saipsoft adj saftsoil n soil, grun, moul, cliesold v pt soul, (occas.) seltsoldier n sodgersolution n answersolve v work ootsome adj someson n sin, (Biblical) sinn; (The S~ of God) Tha Sinn o Godsong n sangsoon adv shane, soonsorrow n sorrasoul n sowlsound n soonsouth n soothspeak v taak, speak; (he s~ Scots) he taaks Scotchspecial adj specialspeech n taakspeed v hie, speed, flee

    28

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • spell n (of time) while; (magic) blinkspend v spenspot n spotspread v (scatter) skail; (evenly) spreid, spreadspring n spring; (season) Sprïngtim, Spr&iumlng o tha yeirsprout v sprootsquare n squarestand v stanstar n star; (hist.) starnstart n stairt, join taestate n (hist.) kintrie; (condition) state, condeetionstation n stationstay v stap (ower), styesteam n steamsteel n steelsteep adj styestep n stepstick n stickstill adv yitstolen v pp stolestone n stanestood v pt studstop v quätstore v pit bye; (in s~) cuminstory n storie, yairn, levitstout adj stootstraight adv strechtstrange adj strange, oddstraw n straestream n burn, race, ladestreet n raa, streetstretch v streetchstring n stringstroll v dannerstrong adj strangstudent n (be) at college, scholar; (hist.) collegianerstudy v luk intae

    29

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • stuff n stuff, (loc.) stiffstumble v stummlesubject n point, main thing, (be) abootsubtract v tak aff, tak awasucceed v cum guid, bring (it) affsuch prep sitch, (hist.) sicsuddenly adv quïck, lake thonsugar n shüggarsuggest v mak a suggestion, alloosummer n simmer, simmertimsun n sinSunday n Sünday; (hist.) tha Sabbath daysupport n (prop) stay; v gie bakkin til, (be) forsure adv shairsurprise n gunk; (pleasant) suprise; (unpleasant) supriserswallow v swallaeswear v sweerswim v sweemswivel n sweelswam v pt swumsymbolise v stan fursystem n wye o warkin

    [start of glossary]

    Ttable n table; (hist.) boordtail n tailtake v taktalk v taaktall adj lang, talteach v lairnteam n teamthan pron northank v thankthanks n pl thenksthat pron that, thon

    30

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • the def art tha, thetheir pron thairthem pron thaimthen adv then there pron thair, thonnerthese pron these, (hist.) (lit.) thirthey pron the',theythick adj thïckthin adj skinnie, poorthing n thingthink v thïnk, doot; (suspect) jalousethird adj thurd; (hist.) thirdthirty n thurtie, (hist.) thritiethis pron this; (hist.) thirthose pron thaim; (hist.) (lit.) thaethough prep tha mairthought n thochtthousand n thoosanthree adj three, (hist.) (lit.) thriethrough adv throu, (hist.) (lit.) throchthrow v throw, clodthumb n thoomThursday n Thorsdaythus adv saetie v tietime n time, whiletiny adj weeto adv tae, tiltoday n thedaytogether adv thegithertold v pt toul, telttomorrow n themorratonight n thenichttoo adv tae, anaa, forbyetook v tuk, (hist.) (lit.) taentop n tap, heidtotal n sum total, hale amoonttouch v touch

    31

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • towards adv nixttown n toontrack n trak, (loc.) trektrade v daletrain n train, injintravel v trevel, mak tha journeytree n treetriangle n triang'ltrip n trïptrouble n bothertrue adj richttry v trytube n pipeTuesday n Tuesdayturn v (gie a) turn, twusttwenty adj twuntietwo adj twatype n soart

    [start of glossary]

    Uugly adj uglie, ill lukkinUlster n Ulstèruncle n uncleunder adv unnèrunit n yin, sïng'lunless adv lessuntie v looseuntil adv taeuntrue adv lees, no richtup adv upupper adj tapmaist, upperupright adj uprichtus pron iz; (hist. and emph.) ususe v uiseused to aux uist tae

    32

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • (be) used to v phr (be) uised wiusual adj usual

    [start of glossary]

    Vvacant adj empievalid adj soonvalley n glenvalue n valyevary v changevenue n meetin placevery adj gye, pooerfu, wilevest n simmitvibrate v dinnle, (hae tha) tremmle(s)view n sicht; (opinion) thinkin, thochts, mine; v (inspect) luk owervillage n village, wee toonvisit v kaylie, (loc.) kailyevomit n boak, wattèr brash

    [start of glossary]

    Wwait v houl on; (w~ for) wait onwalk n (casual) dannèr; v waakwall n waawant v (be) eftèr, wantwar n warwarm adj wairmwas v wuswasn't v neg wusnaewash v waash, (lit.) weshwatch v watchwater n wattèrway n wye, roadwe pron weweak adj wakewear v pit on

    33

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • weather n watherWednesday n Wensdayweek n week, sennichtweight n wechtwell n (water) walwell adj weelwent v wentwere v wurweren't v neg wurnaewest n west, (hist.) wastwhat adv whut, (lit.) quhatwheel n wheelwhelk n wulk, wullickwhen adv whan, whaniver, (lit.) quhanwhere adv whar, whaur, (lit.) quharwhich pron whutch, (hist.) whilk, (lit.) quhilk;while pron while, whaniver, (lit.) quhilewhite adj white; (hist.) whitwho pron wha, (lit.) quhawhole adj halewhose pron whase, (lit.) quhasewhy interrog. fur why, why, (lit.) quhywide adj braidwife n guidwife, wifewild adj wilewill v wullwin v wunwind n wunwindow n wundaewing n wïngwinter n wuntèr, wuntèrtimwish v (hae, tak, etc. a) wushwith conj wiwoman n wumman, wimmenfowkwomen n pl weemenwon't v neg winnaewood n wud

    34

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • wooden adj wuddenwork n work, (loc.) wark, dargwould v wudwouldn't v neg wudnaewrite v write, pit doon; (hist.) scrievewritten v pp writ; (hist.) scrievitwrong adv wrangwrote v pt writ; (hist.) scrievit

    [start of glossary]

    Yyard n yairdyear n yeir, twalmonth, (lit.) twalmondyellow adj yellayes affirm ayyesterday n yistèrday, (hist.)(lit.) yestreenyet adv yityou pron ye; (hist. and emph.) you; pl yis; pl emphatic youseyoung adj youngyour pron yer; emphatic youryours pron yours

    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y

    35

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • ULSTER-SCOTS VERB TABLESThe Scots and Ulster-Scots past tense verb ending in '-it' or '-t' (rather than '-ed' or '-d') is awell-established historical form which also reflects a pronunciation difference withEnglish. For example:

    baked - baketlaughed - lachtwalked - waakt, dannèrttipped - couptwrestled - wrasselttopened - apen't

    However, this only applies when the verbs are 'regular' or 'plain' verbs in both languages.The following tables set out in summary how verb forms change differently in English andUlster-Scots to indicate the past.

    PLAIN VERBS: Past Tense forms with a '-d' ending in Ulster-Scotsand English

    English verb English past tense Ulster-Scots verb Ulster-Scots past tense(beat) whale whaled(build) big bigged(endure) thole tholed(hurry) hie hied(select) wale waled(trade) dale doledallow allowed alloo allooedbelong belonged belang belangedcall called caa caaddie died dee deeddivide divided divide divid

    36

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • draw drew draa draadfollow followed follae follaedhear heard hear heerdlive lived leeve leevedloosen loosened loose loosedpay paid pye pyedplease pleased plaise plaisedroll rolled rowl rowledsay said say sayed

    PLAIN VERBS: Past Tense forms with a "-t" ending in Ulster-Scots

    English verb English past tense Ulster-Scots verb Ulster-Scots past tense(carry) cairt cairtit(compel) gar gart(cry) greet greetit, gret(direct) road roadit(dodge) jook jookt(manage) hannle hannelt(nudge) dunt duntit(remember) mine mindit(scatter) skail skailt(sicken) scunnèr scunnèrt(shout) guldèr guldèrt(stroll) dannèr dannèrt(teach) lairn lairnt(tip over) coup couptact acted ect editask asked ax, ast axt, astconnect connected connect connectitcount counted coont coontitdrop dropped drap drapt

    37

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • drown drowned droon droonditfill filled fill filltgather gathered gether gethertheed heeded heed heedithunt hunted hunt huntitjoin joined join jointkill killed kïll kïlltlaugh laughed lach lachtlift lifted lïft lïftitlook looked luk luktneed needed need needitpart parted pairt pairtitpick picked pïck pïcktplaster plastered plestèr plestèrtsalt salted saut sautitshift shifted shïft shïftitstart started stairt stairtitstop stopped stap staptstretch stretched streetch streetcht, streekittalk talked taak taakt, taakitturn turned turn turntwalk walked waak waakt, waakit

    ENGLISH STRONG VERBS: Past Tense forms with a vowel soundchange in English

    Englishverb

    English pasttense

    English pastparticiple

    Ulster-Scotsverb

    Ulster-Scotspast tense

    Ulster-Scots pastparticiple

    come came have come cum cum hae cumdrink drank have drunk drink drunk hae drunkhang hanged have hung hing hung hae hungrun ran have run rin run hae run

    38

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • sing sang have sung sïng sung hae sungswim swam have swum sweem swum hae swum

    IRREGULAR ENGLISH PLAIN VERBS:

    Englishverb

    English pasttense

    English pastparticiple

    Ulster-Scotsverb

    Ulster-Scotspast tense

    Ulster-Scots pastparticiple

    catch caught have caught ketch ketched hae ketched

    tell told have told tell toul (telt) hae toul, (hae telt)

    ENGLISH STRONG VERBS: Past Tense forms with a vowel soundchange in English, and a Past Participle form with "-n" ending inEnglish also

    Englishverb

    English pasttense

    English pastparticiple

    Ulster-Scotsverb

    Ulster-Scotspast tense

    Ulster-Scots pastparticiple

    beat beat have beaten bate bate hae bate

    break broke have broken brek broke, (loc.)brok hae broke

    eat ate have eaten eat et hae etfall fell have fallen faa fell hae fellgive gave have given gie gien (gied) hae gien, (hae gied)

    grow grew have grown growe grew (growed) hae grew (haegrowed)know knew have known know knowed hae knowedlie lay have lain lie layed hae layedride rode have ridden ride rid hae ridsee saw have seen see seen hae seenswear swore have sworn sweer sweered hae sweered

    39

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

  • take took have taken tak tuk (taen) hae tuk (taen)write wrote have written write writ hae writ

    ENGLISH STRONG VERBS: Verb forms which do not change inEnglish for Past Tense or Past Participle

    Englishverb

    English pasttense

    English pastparticiple

    Ulster-ScotsVerb

    Ulster-Scotspast tense

    Ulster-Scots pastparticiple

    hit hit have hit hit hut hae hutlet let have let let lut (let) hae lut (let)put put have put pit püt hae püt

    40

    ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE GUIDES

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