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Rules of Phonics

Text of English :Rules of Phonics

Rules of PhonicsThe English Sound/Symbol RelationshipVowels & ConsonantsThere are two kinds of letters: vowels and consonants. Vowel sounds are made in your throat with your mouth open. Consonants are made with your lips, tongue, teeth and sometimes breath or voice. The main vowels are a, e, i, o and u. They are always vowels. Y and W are sometimes vowels, too. (They are always consonants when they are at the beginning of a word.) All other letters are consonants. Every word has a vowel in it. Even the smallest words, which are I and A, include a vowel. There are no words that have just consonants. In fact, it is very difficult to pronounce consonants clearly without a vowel. Every letter has a name. It also has a sound. As children begin to read and write, usually from kindergarten through third grade, they come to understand that the "alphabetic" layer of English spelling, simple sound/symbol correspondences, can't account for the way many English words are spelled. They also gradually come to understand that one symbol or group of symbols can stand for more than one sound, and sometimes a sound can be spelled several different ways. They also will learn that groups of letters can subtly change the meaning of a word -- such as the addition of ed, s and es. Some teaching strategies for helping students to develop pattern and meaning: Meet the Vowels: a, e, i, o, and u and sometimes y and sometimes w. All other letters are consonants. Sometimes vowels have short sounds as in man, hen, pit, hop and sun. When a word has only one vowel between two consonants, the vowel usually says its short sound.Sometimes vowels have long sounds, mail, feet, ripe, goat, cube. When a word has two vowels, we usually hear only the first vowel and it says its long sound. Word sort activities: Do word sorts with simple words, e.g. at, ate, pin, pine, mad, made, can, cane, cut, cute, dim, dime, rip, ripe, bit , bite, etc. Look for patterns of short/long vowel sounds. See if they can guess the secret? The "final e" rule - The "e' is so strong, it's magic. When a word has a vowel, then a consonant, then a final "e", the first vowel says it's name and the "e' has no sound. It actually follows the rule: When two vowels are close together (and in this case, there is only one consonant between them) the first one usually says its name. Do word sorts with vowel digraphs that make long vowel sounds: met, meat; ran, rain; far, fair; pant, paint; man, main; her, hear; set, seat; bed, bead; got, goat; cot, coat; rod, road; cost, coast. Help them come up with the rule by themselves as they see the pattern: When a word has two vowels we usually hear only the first vowel sound and it says it long sound. Or "When two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking." (When you use this latter saying, be sure they understand what the first vowel is saying -- i.e. its name.) (Another important note: the "u" in the 'qu' digraph is never considered a vowel -- it is part of the untouchable "qu".) Have student make a new word by adding a silent helper to these words: met, bet, cot, ran, pin, fed, got, pant, etc. Do a word sort of words ending in a vowel: by, why, she, fry, go, cry, he, fly, me, sky, no, be, so, sky, my, we, dry, spy, yo-yo, spry, try, we, my, etc. What is the rule? When a word has only one vowel and the vowel is at the end of the word, the long sound is usually the only one heard. And this is one of the places where "y" becomes a vowel. Do a word sort with words 'c' and 'g' words: candy, cold, curl, corn, scale, circus, dance, pencil, center, bicycle, police, cup, city, cent, cat, dice, etc. gate, golf, gum, gem, giant, gym, general, gold, wage, germ, glad, huge, grade, goose, garden, age, gas, ago, get,, etc. Have them say the words, listening for the hard or soft sounds of the letters. Have them see if they can find the pattern and make up a rule. When "c" or "g" come before a, o, or u, it usually says its hard sound. The hard sound of "c" is like "k". When 'c' or 'g' come before 'e, i, or y, it usually says their soft sound. The soft sound of 'c' is like 's'. The soft sound of 'g' is like the sound of 'j'. We call 'c' and 'g' copycats. They sometimes copy 's' and 'j'.Variant Sounds of the Vowels and Vowel CombinationsSometimes vowels and vowel combinations have more than one sound. For instance, the letters "ow" have two sounds, as in now (where it is a dipthong) and slow (where it is silent w, acting as a vowel.) And to make things even more confusing, sometimes "ow" words are spelled the same, but do not sound the same or have the same meaning, as in the bow in the girl's hair and the bow that was taken at the end of the recital. Word sort for different sounds of "ow": town, slow, clown, brown, throw, grow, down, crow, allow, grown, window, flower, flowed, snowed, flowed, snowing, blowing, towing, row, bow, row, etc. The student may come up with a rule, such as 'ow' (dipthong) in the middle of a word or syllable is pronounced one way, whereas at the end of a word or syllable it is pronounced as long 'o'. Word sorts often help students to come up with their own rules, which is much more beneficial than being told the rule over and over. When 'l' follows a, the 'a' usually makes an "aw" sound. Do a word sort using all, ball, fall, call, tall, wall, always, fan, can, mask, etc. Again have them note the pattern and make up their own rule. Note that there are exceptions, such as "shall". When 'r' follows 'a' the sound is also distorted and sounds much like "ah" as in far. Do a word sort with these words: farm, park, barn, dart, dark, car, far. (Note: Some parts of the United States almost eliminate the 'r' sound in these words, typically Northeastern area. When 'lk' follows 'a', the sound is "aw": walk, chalk, talk, stalk.There are two sounds of oo, too. Double vowel oo can have a short sound, as in wool. Or it can have a long sound as in school. The only way to know is to try them both and see which word sounds right in the sentence. Have child read these words and decide whether they have the short or long sounds. foot, rooster, school, took, spoon, root, stood, wool, good, book, hook, food, shook, loop, smooth, bloom, droop, stood, moon, igloo, crook, wood, spool. We hear another sound in boil and boy. Have student do a word sort and see if they can think of the rule: boil, boy, toy, toil, spoil, noise, oyster, joy, join, moist, choice, coin. [They may be confused by oyster. Because the rule is that oi is used in the middle of words (or syllables) and y is used at the end of words. The y is at the end of the first syllable of oyster, so it still follows the rules of phonics.] Consonant Digraphs - Untouchables : Because the English needed more sounds, they decided to put two letters together to make a whole new sound. We call them the "untouchables" because when you see them together, you know they make a new, distinct sound and they are not sounded separately as the individual consonants are in a blend. The consonant digraphs or untouchables are sh, ch, th, wh, qu, and the less common ph. All but wh and qucan come at the beginning or ending of a word. Wh only comes at the beginning of words. Can you guess why? [It has too much air to come at the end of a word. It would be too difficult to pronounce.] Hear the sh sounds in shop, shake, cash, fresh, shoes, shut. Hear the ch sounds in chair, chase, such, teach, much, each, chin, chop, chimpanzee, church, etc. Hear the th sound in thing, thin, three, teeth, with, this, etc. Hear the ph sound in phone, phonics, graph, etc. Hear the 'kw' sound in quasi, quake, quail. Now hear the wh sound in what, when, white, wheel, which, and while. Hold a torn piece of paper before your mouth and notice the difference in the amount of air that comes out when you say "witch" and "which." There should be a big difference if you are enunciating correctly.Silent Letters Tell students that they can usually tell how to pronounce a word or spell it by listening to it carefully, but there are some words that have silent letters. We call these "oddballs!" Words with silent letters have to be learned by visual memory in order to be able to spell them.Using the following words with silent letters, read over them together: knee, known, knew, calf, wren, thumb, knit, half, written, knock, climb, wrote, knot, lamb, ghost. Talk about the silent letters. Then give them this list to have them make corrections in the misspelled words: lam, ritten, new, thum, nock, nown, nit, clim, haf, gost, nee, not, rote, caf, ren. Have child summarize what has been learned about silent letters: [The sounds /n/, /f/, /m/, /r/, and /g/ can be spelled by "silent letters.] and What are the silent letters that spell these sounds? [/n/ kn, /f/ lf, /m/ mb, /r/ wr, /g/ gh. Here are some more words to play with: kneel, wreck, knead, chalk, knife, wrist, crumbs, knead, knock, thumb. Contractions To make writing more informal and to more accurately copy our speech, contractions were invented: Instead of saying "I will leave for school in fifteen minutes," most people would say in their speech, "I'll leave for school in fifteen minutes." To say "I will" in one word, we write "I'll". This small mark, ', is called an apostrophe. It means that one or more letters have been left out and the new word is called a contraction. See if you can say some contractions for these words: could not, we will, are not, that is, you will, she will, was not, do not, there is, let us, should not, that is, I am, it is, would not. Dictate the words and have student write the contractions.

Syllabication ...Not An Exact Science

First and foremost, it is important to acknowledge that "syllabication" is not an exact science. It is the inexact process of analyzing a long unfamiliar word and dividing it into shorter segments, and often by trial and error, sounding it out, chunk by chunk, to try to find the pronunciation of a recognizable and meaningful word that fits in the context of the reading. It is my opinion that syllabication should not be introduced until student knows all of the consonants sounds and has an understanding of the basic rules of phonics. A good rule of thumb is that mid-second graders should be able to read and spell two-syllable words. By third grade, they whould be able to read and spell three-syllable words, and children older than that should be able to read and spell four-syllable words whose meaning they understand. Syllabication is one of the most difficult reading skills to teach because there are no clear-cut right or wrong ways of dividing words. It is important to note that a reader doesn't necessarily have to divide a word the way the dictionary does and that it is often a matter of trial and error, experimenting with various divisions and sounds until reader comes to a familiar word that makes sense in context. Your student may more easily understand the word "chunk" or " "bit" than the more complicated word "syllable." Syllables are "chunks" of words. The first step in teaching syllabication is to have student learn that big words are just several little syllables or chunks strung together -- from left to right -- and that syllables generally follow the rules of phonics for smaller words. As with other areas of language development, syllabication starts with "listening." Teacher or tutor should speak a multisyllable word, such as "sing/ing" and explain that the word has two syllables or chunks, indicating a mark between the two chunks so that the first chunk will be read before going on to the second chunk. (I often will put my finger over all but the first chunk of a multisyllable word until the child has read it, then move to the next, etc. This is a good strategy for children to employ.) E.g. sing/ing, per/mit, mi/gra/tion, hy/drant, sprink/le, o/cean/og/raph/y. With repetition, hopefully, your student will learn quickly to hear and clap syllables correctly. (The Phonics Game has a card game called Divide and Conquer, which has the syllables alternately printed in black, gray, black, etc. for ease in learning how to divide syllables into words.) During step 1, you might want to point out how syllables are sounded out according to rules of phonics, which have already been learned. For instance, every syllable must have a vowel sound just as does every short word. E.g. in/vent, in/vent/ory. Every vowel sound must have a syllable. (Note: vowel sound -- e.g. 'make' has only one vowel sound; sail has only one vowel sound.) Two separate vowel sounds cannot be in the same syllable, e.g. O/hi/o, re/in/vest. (This would be a good example to model trial and error. Student might on reading the word 'reinvest' have to experiment between a two or three syllable word, e.g. rein/vest with the long a sound for 'ei', but when that does not produce a recognizable word or one that makes sense in the context of the reading, student would be encouraged to regroup, and make another try by dividing between the e and the i, and producing a three syllable word and a discussion of two prefixes in the word, which changes the meaning of the root word.) (Another point to discuss would be that prefixes and suffixes usually make up a syllable and are not divided. This is one of the reasons to study affixes -- it's a shortcut for students to instantly recognize root words, prefixes and suffixes and know to divide accordingly.) Syllabication is even more difficult for students with limited vocabularies. This is one of the reasons we encourage parents to read to their children from infancy, building their verbal vocabularies, as well as their background knowledge. And one of the reasons I encourage a study of prefixes, suffixes and root words. Step 2: After student has mastered hearing and tapping out the syllables, print may be introduced. Show student how to look at an unfamiliar word, divide it, and using the rules of phonics pronounce it. Have they heard that word before? Does it make sense in the context of the reading? It helps to identify prefixes, suffixes and any familiar word parts, such as sail/boat, mail/box, re/cite, swords/man, en/ter/tain. If it is an unrecognizable word or does not make sense in the context of the reading, student should be encouraged to try a different division, different emphasis, etc. Multisyllable words are not spoken in monotone. Explain to your student about emphasis, loud and quiet syllables. Reader will have to determine whether word sounds right and alter emphasis accordingly. Reader may have to read emphasis with trial and error, too, until recognizable and meaningful word is found. It is also important for students to understand the "schwa" or "weak vowel" sound that occurs in multisyllable words, such as in "about" or "ribbon", "lettuce." To help with spelling, student should be advised to enunciate as clearly as possible and to "think" a/bout with a long a, and rib/bon with two short vowels, even though that is not the way they are typically pronounced. A syllable break usually occurs between double consonants: chat/ted, bit/ter, mis/spell. (Remind student why the consonant is doubled in chatted and bitter. (The doubled consonant is used to retain the short vowel sound which precedes it.) The 's' is doubled in misspell for another reason: 'mis' is a prefix added to the root word 'spell.' A syllable break usually occurs between two consonants that cannot blend together,such as b and j, n and v, t and m, etc. e.g. sub/ject, in/vite. A single vowel (e.g. I) or a single vowel at the end of a syllable is often long (says the name of the vowel): he, she, my, hi, de/fy, Ju/ly, re/peal. A single vowel in a syllable followed by one or more consonants is often short. E.g. mat, sun, in/tend, cof/fee, en/ter. The rules of phonics which work for little words usually work for syllables in longer words. The English language is a sound/symbol code. Various sounds are represented by various symbols, which determines the meaning of words, e.g. meat, meet; their, there, they're. So to assess an unfamiliar word, one looks at one sound symbol at a time and blends sounds into syllables (smaller chunks) and the chunks (syllables) into words. Not only are there individual "chunks" that usually follow the rules of phonics, but these chunks or syllables can be stressed differently to determine division, as well as correct pronunciation to aid in finding a recognizable word, and thus comprehension, which can be very difficult at times for those with limited English vocabularies, e.g. at/ro/cit/ies vs. a/troc/it/ies. It would have helped the reader to know that atrocis is Latin for cruelty and cities comes from the Latin word for citizen, ergo cruelty against citizenry or community. Another related word coming from the same Latin root would be atrocious, although atrocious and atrocities are pronounced differently, whether linguistically correct or through tradition and/or cultural differences. Root Words New words can be built from root words. For example, 'wish' can turn into wishing, wishes, wishful, wished; 'cook' can turn into cooked, cooking, cooks, uncooked, cookbook.We can read multisyllable words by blending sounds into chunks and then chunks into meaningful words. It is helpful to study prefixes and suffixes and root words. At the time of this writing, there was a website with a Selection of Latin and Greek Roots, Combining Forms, Words, and Prefixes, http://www.imt.net/\`nwwa/homeschool/roots-class/book/introLatin.html, with a reference for ordering: Strathnaver Books, 1517 14th Street West, Suite 227, Billings, Mt. 59102. English From the Roots Up by Joegil Lundquist is available through Timberdoodle or through Literacy Unlimited Publications, P. O. Box 278, Medina, Wa. 98039-0278. Have student go through an old magazine with a highlighter, looking for root words within other words. Wonderful, quietly, rejoin, depart, taken, gardener, etc. Have student make up some new words from root words: tall, slow, write, care, show, salt, paint, join, quiet, etc. English from the Roots Up b Joegil Lundquist, published by Literacy Unlimited, Bellevue, Washington, gives children and adults a firm foundation in common Latin and Greek root words and affixes. A quick and easy way to increase vocabulary and spelling skills. Latin and Greek are as essential to developing a good vocabulary as phonics is to reading.Prefixes and SuffixesA syllable at the beginning of a root word, which modifies or changes its meaning is called a prefix. Some common prefixes are: un as in undo, in as in inside, dis as in disapprove, re as in reply, de as in defrost. A syllable added at the end of a root word to form a new word, which is related in meaning, is called a suffix.some suffixes are: -er, -ly, -ful, -less, -y, -en, -ness. Spelling We can spell multisyllable words by blending sounds into chunks and then the chunks into words. Encourage your student to say the word and think about what the first chunk is and what letters represent the sounds in that chunk and then in sequence spell the remaining syllables. For instance, in entertainment, we would ask ourselves: "What are the syllables (small chunks) that we hear? En/ter/tain/ment. What are the sounds in en'? e' n' -- what are the symbols for en?' Then we would move on to ter', tain,' ment. Noting, if necessary, that the long a sound in tain' is a vowel combination. If he is uncertain how to spell it, have student write all the ways it might be written and see if he can select the correct one from the written word.Multisyllable words almost always have a dominant syllable, one that has a natural high and or low, or is more pronounced or stressed than the others. It is often subtle, but if read in the wrong way can alter the meaning.A syllable is a word or part of a word (a little chunk of a bigger word), containing one vowel sound. How many vowel sounds do you hear in these words: play (1), open (2), grape (1), goat (1), singing (2) , brown (1), flash (1), magic (2), garden (2) , person (2), staying (2), coat (1). The number of vowel sounds heard tells you the number of syllables in a word. Note: Even though there are two vowels in 'coat', there is only one vowel sound. When two consonants separate two vowel sounds, the first syllable usually ends after the first consonant. cor/ner, gar/den, big/gest, tim/ber, yel/low, un/til. Write out a bunch of two syllable words and have student divide them as I have done. In words that have a short vowel sound and one consonant at the end, the final consonant is usually doubled before adding the suffix ed , ing. er, or est. Have student add ed, ing, er, or est,, as appropriate , to the following words: plan, chop, tan, rob, drag, knit, tag, clap, step, drop, rip, spot. big, thin, flat, sad, mad. When adding y to words with a short vowel sound and one consonant at the end, the final consonant is also usually doubled, as in happy, foggy, sunny, and funny. However, when you want to add er or est to words which end in y, you first change the y to i. Have student add "y" to root words mud, fog, sun, fun. Then have them change the words by adding er and est. There are exceptions: With some words the final consonant is not doubled when adding y, such as in sleepy, salty, dirty, dusty. But when er or est are added to the root word, the y is still first changed to i. When a root word has a prefix or a suffix added to it, the prefix or the suffix usually make a syllable. Divide these words into syllables: refill, unlock, inside, unhappy, handful, kindness, impure, owner, refresh, replace, helpless, gladly, reread, replace, dislike, hopping, discount. Encourage students to use their best phonetic spelling. To listen to the syllables in a word and apply the rules of phonics to each syllable. Write the following words on a sheet of paper or the chalkboard: country, countries, worry, worried, worrying. Which words are nouns and which are verbs? Ask student to identify the last letter in country and worry. [y] Is it a consonant or a vowel? [It is acting as a vowel in this case -- and is copying 'e'. What happened when the noun was made into a plural? [Changed the y to i and added es.] What happened to the verb when ed and ing were added? [The y changed to i when ed was added. The y did not change when ing was added.] Here are some practice exercises:Write the plurals of : family, company, lady, party, pony.Write the singulars of: libraries, pennies, bodies.Write these verbs with ed: hurry, marry, carry, copy.Write the following verbs with ing: study, cry, carry, play Have students develop their own personal dictionaries with words they are learning. Have students identify their own "problem" words and put them in the journal. Have students act as their own spelling editors, using a box for each phoneme to help them think it through. Example: chain would have three boxes because it has three phonemes: ch ai n. Children with learning difficulties profit by creating word lists, doing word sorts, and organizing by word families. Have student read their own writing and make their own corrections. Never mark up a student's paper. Often when a student self-corrects, he will recognize that he has made an error....for instance, mak will be read with a short vowel sound and he will know that he needs to do something to make the long /a/ sound...then it is a decision about whether it will be a_e or ai, etc. Have him write it all the ways that it could be if he doesn't immediately come up with the silent e.

Read, read, read!Write, write, write!

Phonics is a word-attack skill in which you "sound-out" difficult words by using the common sounds of letters in the word. It is often the first reading skill taught to people and is considered one of the "basic skills". Knowledge of phonics is most helpful in linking the words one knows through simply hearing them with the actual written word. Phonics Rules The vowels are "a,e,i,o, and u"; also sometimes "y" & "w". This also includes the diphthongs "oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and many others. The consonants are all the other letters which stop or limit the flow of air from the throat in speech. They are: "b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,p,qu,r,s,t,v,w,x,y,z,ch,sh,th,ph,wh, ng, and gh".

1. Sometimes the rules don't work. There are many exceptions in English because of the vastness of the language and the many languages from which it has borrowed. The rules do work however, in the majority of the words.

2. Every syllable in every word must have a vowel. English is a "vocal" language; Every word must have a vowel.

3. "C" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "s". Examples: "cyst", "central", and "city".

4. "G" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "j". Example: "gem", "gym", and "gist".

5. When 2 consonants a joined together and form one new sound, they are a consonant digraph. They count as one sound and one letter and are never separated. Examples: "ch,sh,th,ph and wh".

6. When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel, that vowel is short. Examples: "fat, bed, fish, spot, luck".

7. When a syllable ends in a silent "e", the silent "e" is a signal that the vowel in front of it is long. Examples: "make, fete, kite, rope, and use".

8. When a syllable has 2 vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and the second is silent. Examples: "pain, eat, boat, res/cue, say, grow". NOTE: Diphthongs don't follow this rule; In a diphthong, the vowels blend together to create a single new sound. The diphthongs are: "oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and many others.

9. When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is usually long. Examples: "pa/per, me, I, o/pen, u/nit, and my".

10. When a vowel is followed by an "r" in the same syllable, that vowel is "r-controlled". It is not long nor short. "R-controlled "er,ir,and ur" often sound the same (like "er"). Examples: "term, sir, fir, fur, far, for, su/gar, or/der".

Basic Syllable Rules1. To find the number of syllables: ---count the vowels in the word, ---subtract any silent vowels, (like the silent "e" at the end of a word or the second vowel when two vowels a together in a syllable) ---subtract one vowel from every dipthong, (diphthongs only count as one vowel sound.) ---the number of vowels sounds left is the same as the number of syllables. The number of syllables that you hear when you pronounce a word is the same as the number of vowels sounds heard. For example: The word "came" has 2 vowels, but the "e" is silent, leaving one vowel sound and one syllable. The word "outside" has 4 vowels, but the "e" is silent and the "ou" is a diphthong which counts as only one sound, so this word has only two vowels sounds and therefore, two syllables.

2. Divide between two middle consonants. Split up words that have two middle consonants. For example: hap/pen, bas/ket, let/ter, sup/per, din/ner, and Den/nis. The only exceptions are the consonant digraphs. Never split up consonant digraphs as they really represent only one sound. The exceptions are "th", "sh", "ph", "th", "ch", and "wh".

3. Usually divide before a single middle consonant. When there is only one syllable, you usually divide in front of it, as in: "o/pen", "i/tem", "e/vil", and "re/port". The only exceptions are those times when the first syllable has an obvious short sound, as in "cab/in".

4. Divide before the consonant before an "-le" syllable. When you have a word that has the old-style spelling in which the "-le" sounds like "-el", divide before the consonant before the "-le". For example: "a/ble", "fum/ble", "rub/ble" "mum/ble" and "thi/stle". The only exception to this are "ckle" words like "tick/le".

5. Divide off any compound words, prefixes, suffixes and roots which have vowel sounds. Split off the parts of compound words like "sports/car" and "house/boat". Divide off prefixes such at "un/happy", "pre/paid", or "re/write". Also divide off suffixes as in the words "farm/er", "teach/er", "hope/less" and "care/ful". In the word "stop/ping", the suffix is actually "-ping" because this word follows the rule that when you add "-ing" to a word with one syllable, you double the last consonant and add the "-ing".

Accent RulesWhen a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is always a little louder than the others. The syllable with the louder stress is the accented syllable. It may seem that the placement of accents in words is often random or accidental, but these are some rules that usually work.

1. Accents are often on the first syllable. Examples: ba'/sic, pro'/gram.

2. In words that have suffixes or prefixes, the accent is usually on the main root word. Examples: box'/es, un/tie'.

3. If de-, re-, ex-, in-,po-, pro-, or a- is the first syllable in a word, it is usually not accented. Examples: de/lay', ex/plore'.

4. Two vowel letters together in the last syllable of a word often indicates an accented last syllable. Examples: com/plain', con/ceal'.

5. When there are two like consonant letters within a word, the syllable before the double consonants is usually accented. Examples: be/gin'/ner, let'/ter.

6. The accent is usually on the syllable before the suffixes -ion, ity, -ic, -ical, -ian, -ial, or -ious, and on the second syllable before the suffix -ate. Examples: af/fec/ta'/tion, dif/fer/en'/ti/ate.

7. In words of three or more syllables, one of the first two syllables is usually accented. Examples: ac'/ci/dent, de/ter'/mine. honics, Syllable and Accent Rules

Phonics Rules

The vowels are "a,e,i,o, and u"; also sometimes "y" & "w". This also includes the diphthongs "oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and many others. The consonants are all the other letters which stop or limit the flow of air from the throat in speech. They are: "b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,p,qu,r,s,t,v,w,x,y,z,ch,sh,th,ph,wh, ng, and gh".

1. Sometimes the rules don't work. There are many exceptions in English because of the vastness of the language and the many languages from which it has borrowed. The rules do work however, in the majority of the words.

2. Every syllable in every word must have a vowel. English is a "vocal" language; Every word must have a vowel.

3. "C" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "s". Examples: "cyst", "central", and "city".

4. "G" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "j". Example: "gem", "gym", and "gist".

5. When 2 consonants are joined together and form one new sound, they are a consonant digraph. They count as one sound and one letter and are never separated. Examples: "ch,sh,th,ph and wh".

6. When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel, that vowel is short. Examples: "fat, bed, fish, spot, luck".

7. When a syllable ends in a silent "e", the silent "e" is a signal that the vowel in front of it is long. Examples: "make, fete, kite, rope, and use".

8. When a syllable has 2 vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and the second is silent. Examples: "pain, eat, boat, res/cue, say, grow". NOTE: Diphthongs don't follow this rule; In a diphthong, the vowels blend together to create a single new sound. The diphthongs are: "oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and many others.

9. When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is usually long. Examples: "pa/per, me, I, o/pen, u/nit, and my".

10. When a vowel is followed by an "r" in the same syllable, that vowel is "r-controlled". It is not long nor short. "R-controlled "er,ir,and ur" often sound the same (like "er"). Examples: "term, sir, fir, fur." The /or/ as in "for" and /ar/ as in "car, art, and smart."

Basic Syllable Rules

1. To find the number of syllables: ---count the vowel sounds in the word, ---subtract any silent vowels, (like the silent "e" at the end of a word or the second vowel when two vowels a together in a syllable) ---subtract one vowel from every diphthong, (diphthongs only count as one vowel sound.) ---the number of vowels sounds left is the same as the number of syllables. The number of syllables that you hear when you pronounce a word is the same as the number of vowels sounds heard. For example: The word "came" has 2 vowels, but the "e" is silent, leaving one vowel sound and one syllable. The word "outside" has 4 vowels, but the "e" is silent and the "ou" is a diphthong which counts as only one sound, so this word has only two vowel sounds and therefore, two syllables.

2. Divide between two middle consonants. Split up words that have two middle consonants. For example: hap/pen, bas/ket, let/ter, sup/per, din/ner, and Den/nis. The only exceptions are the consonant digraphs. Never split up consonant digraphs as they really represent only one sound. The exceptions are "th", "sh", "ph", "th", "ch", and "wh".

3. Usually divide before a single middle consonant. When there is only one syllable, you usually divide in front of it, as in: "o/pen", "i/tem", "e/vil", and "re/port". The only exceptions are those times when the first syllable has an obvious short sound, as in "cab/in".

4. Divide before the consonant before an "-le" syllable. When you have a word that has the old-style spelling in which the "-le" sounds like "-el", divide before the consonant before the "-le". We call these final, stable, syllables. For example: "a/ble", "fum/ble", "rub/ble" "mum/ble."

5. Divide off any compound words, prefixes, suffixes and roots which have vowel sounds. Split off the parts of compound words like "sports/car" and "house/boat". Divide off prefixes such at "un/happy", "pre/paid", or "re/write". Also divide off suffixes as in the words "farm/er", "teach/er", "hope/less" and "care/ful". In the word "stop/ping", the suffix is actually "-ping" because this word follows the rule that when you add "-ing" to a word with one syllable, you double the last consonant and add the "-ing". Accent Rules

When a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is always a little louder than the others. The syllable with the louder stress is the accented syllable. It may seem that the placement of accents in words is often random or accidental, but these are some rules that usually work.

1. Accents are often on the first syllable. Examples: ba'/sic, pro'/gram.

2. In words that have suffixes or prefixes, the accent is usually on the main root word. Examples: box'/es, un/tie'.

3. If de-, re-, ex-, in-,po-, pro-, or a- is the first syllable in a word, it is usually not accented. Examples: de/lay', ex/plore'.

4. Two vowel letters together in the last syllable of a word often indicates an accented last syllable. Examples: com/plain', con/ceal'.

5. When there are two like consonant letters within a word, the syllable before the double consonants is usually accented. Examples: be/gin'/ner, let'/ter.

6. The accent is usually on the syllable before the suffixes -ion, ity, -ic, -ical, -ian, -ial, or -ious, and on the second syllable before the suffix -ate. Examples: af/fec/ta'/tion, dif/fer/en'/ti/ate.

7. In words of three or more syllables, one of the first two syllables is usually accented. Examples: ac'/ci/dent, de/ter'/mine.

BackGlossary accentthe syllable receiving the primary stress in a word

brevea coding mark used to indicate a vowel's short sound

cedillaa coding mark on the letter c to indicate its soft sound

codeto mark a word with symbols (such as a breve, macron, etc.) to give information about how to pronounce the word

combinationtwo letters that come together to make an unexpected sound

derivativea root word with something added to it (e.g., a suffix or prefix)

digraphtwo letters that come together to make one sound

diphthongtwo vowel sounds that come together so quickly that they are considered one syllable

finalthe last sound or letter(s) in a word

final silent ean e in the final position of an English root word, usually silent

final, stable syllablea nonphonetic syllable that occurs in the final position frequently enough to be considered stable

floss rulea spelling rule stating that the letters f, l,and s are doubled after a short vowel in a one-syllable root word

initialthe first sound or letter(s) in a word

k-backa vertical line on the back of a c that represents the |k| sound

macrona coding mark used to indicate a vowel's long sound

medialthe middle sound(s) or letter(s) in a word

possessive san apostrophe s added to a word to show ownership

quadrigraphfour letters that come together to make one sound

regular for readingthe sound that a letter or group of letters makes at least 85% of the time

regular for spellingthe spelling that occurs for a particular sound at least 85% of the time

root worda word with no prefix or suffix added

schwaa code mark placed over a vowel to indicate the short u sound

sight worda word of which all or part does not follow phonetic rules

sneaky ethe e that makes the vowel say its long sound

suffixa letter or group of letters added to a root word that changes the meaning or usage of the word

syllablea word or part of a word that contains only one vowel sound and is made by one impulse of the voice

syllable divisionthe breaking of a word into separate syllables to make decoding (pronunciation) easier

trigraphthree letters that come together to make one sound

voiced sounda sound that requires use of the vocal cords; a vibration is felt

voice linea horizontal line through the middle of a letter, representing a voiced sound

vowel rulesrules that determine a vowel's sound in a given situation in a syllable: 1. a vowel followed by a consonant is short;2. a vowel that is open and accented is long;3. vowel-consonant-e, where the silent e makes the vowel long

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* Words with asterisks are sight words and must be memorized!

Spoken EnglishPersuading PERSUADINGPATTERNS1. Please let me.2. Wont you let me.3. Why dont you?4. Just this once, please.5. Are you sure you cant/wont 6. I think youd do well to 7. But the most sensible thing to do would be to .8. Are you sure that you wont reconsider ..?9. Have you considered everything?10. Are you sure you have taken everything into account?PRACTICE/ DIALOGUEBetween friendsA: Usha. What are you doing this afternoon? How about a movie?B: Which one?A: Theres a good English movie at Chanakya.B: You know I dont like English movies.A: Oh, come on. Ill sure youll enjoy this one.B: I dont enjoy English movies. I cant follow the conversation fully.A: So what? Were not Englishmen. Most of us are not able to follow the conversation fully. But there are so many other things you can enjoy.B: Thats true.A: Then why dont you come?B: All right. Ill be at Chanakya at 2.30. Is that OK?A: Fine. See you at 2.30.B: See you.At a collegeL: Good morning sir. May I come in?P: Good morning, Mr. Sullan. Do come in and take your seat.L: Thank you. Sir. Im thinking of leaving the college.P: But why? Arent you happy here?L: Of course, I am. Its really a pleasure working here.P: Then whats the matter now?L: Ive been selected as an officer in the Reserve Bank.P: And you want to accept that?L: I am thinking of accepting it. As you know, sir, a bank officer gets much more than a lecturer.P: I know that. In terms of salary, it is an attractive job for you. But is money the only consideration? Do you think youll be happy working in a bank? Youre a M.A. in English Literature, youve a flair for writing and the students like your classes.L: Well, what you say is true. Still .P: I dont want to stand in your way. But do you think you have considered everything? With your talents, do you think youll enjoy working on debits, credits and balance sheets? I think youll do well to reconsider your decision. On your part, we are very happy with your work. Well be sorry if you decide to leave.L: All right, sir. Ill think about it once again.

COMPLIMENTING/ CONGRATULATINGPATTERNS1. What a nice / smart/wonderful/beautiful..!2. That is/was a nice/smart 3. You look really smart/gorgeous/great/wonderful.4. It was nice/great to hear that.5. Congratulations!6. Well done! How nice!/Fantastic!/ Terrific!7. Id like to congratulate you on ..8. Allow me to offer my (warmest/heartiest) congratulations.9. May I say how elegant/enchanting you look?PRACTICE/ DIALOGUEBetween friendsA : Hi, Suman. That is a nice dress. You look wonderful in that.B : Thanks, Lalit. I like this, too. My aunt brought this from Bombay.A : Is that so? I must say you aunt knows what suits you best.B : Naturally. She is a fashion desighner.A : No wonder then that it suits so well. You wont have any idea how much this cost?B : No. Lalit. How could I ask her?At homeF : How was your day at school, Vivek?S : It was a wonderful day, Daddy. Its a day Id like to remember.F : Oh, is it? What makes the day so important, my son?S : I have been made the chairman of the School Literary Society.F : That is great! Congratulations!S : Thank you, Daddy.F : But how did you become the chairman of the society? Did the Principal nominate you?S : No Daddy. There was a competition. A very stiff one. There were fourteen candidates. There was an elocution competition and I stood first.F : Thats really nice. You stood first in the examination and now you have won the chairmanship of the literary Society. Im proud of you, my son.S : Thank you, Daddy.At the officeA : May I come is, sir?B : Please do come is, Ms Shalu.A : The consolidated statement of the tenders is ready, sir.B : Is it? Fantastic! That was real fast work, Ms. Shalu.A : Thank you. Sir, .B : Yes, Ms. Shalu.A : If I may so, your speech last evening was really inspiring.B : Were you present there?A :Yes, sir. And I really enjoyed listening to you.B : Thank you, Ms. Shalu.A : Thank you, sir.

Expressing SYMPATHYPATTERNS1. Im sorry.2. Im so sorry to learn that..3. Im awfully/dreadfully sorry.4. Its terrible.5. Its really upsetting.6. I know how you feel.7. You have my/our deepest sympathy.8. Please accept my/our condolences.PRACTICE/ DIALOGUEBetween friendsA : Hello, Nitin. How are you? You look depressed. Has anything gone wrong?B : Yes, Balu, I have and a terrible misfortune.A : What happened?B : I had deposited all money I had in a private banking company. Now the company has been liquidated.A : How terrible! Isnt there any way you can get back your money?B : Im trying. But Im not very hopeful.A : You must be terribly upset. But please dont lose hope.At the SchoolA : Good morning, teacher.B : Good morning, Mrs.Sindhu. Anil has been absent for the last two days. Is he unwell?A : He has had an accident.B : Oh, no! I hope its nothing serious.A : It is bad. He was hit by a scooter while crossing the road. His right leg is fractured.B : How unfortunate! Is he in a hospital?A : No, hes at home. But he has to remain in bed for a month. So I came to give his leave application.B : You must be really upset about it. Please dont worry about the classes. Anil is a very bright boy. He can easily make up for the classes he misses. Hell be all right very soon. Please give him my love.A : Ill do that. Thank you, teacher.Between friendsA : Hello, Rahim. How have you done your exams?B : I thought I had done well.A : Has something gone wrong?B : This morning I came to know that I have got only a second class. I was expecting a first class.B : Hard luck. But dont lose heart. You can make up next year.A : I hope soCOMPLAININGPATTERNS1. Im sorry to bring this up, but .2. Im sorry to say/to have to say this, but3. Ive got a bit of a problem here, you see 4. Im afraid Ive got a complaint to make ..5. I wish you would/wouldnt ..6. Would you please not..?7. Im not quite sure how to put this, but 8. I wish to complain in the strongest terms about.9. Im not at all satisfied with..10. I really must object to..11. I take strong exception to .At a hotel/restaurantC : Excuse me, Im sorry to bring this up, but no one seems to attend to able No. 14.M : Im sorry. Ill send someone at once. Please be seated.C : Thank you.At the officeO. : Im sorry to have to say this, but you seem to make too many spelling mistakes in all the letters.T. : Im really sorry, sr. I shall be more careful.O : You ought to be.At a departmental storeA : Good evening. Ive a bit of a problem here. You see this electric iron I bought a month ago doesnt work now.B : Let me have a look at it.A : Certainly. Here you are.B : Please sit down. Ill have it examined by our electrician in a few minutes.APOLOGISINGPATTERNSA: Apologizing1. Im sorry.2. Im sorry, that was (entirely) my fault.3. Excuse me/Pardon me (for.)4. I feel bad about.5. Please accept my apologies for.6. I cant tell you how sorry I am (for)7. Please allow me to offer my apologies.B: Accepting an apology1. Thats (quite) alright / OK.2. Not at all.3. Please dont worry.4. It doesnt matter at all.5. Please dont feel bad about it.6. Thats really not necessary.

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEAmong neighborsX :Mr. Rajini, I feel bad about what happened this morning. I ought not to have spoken so. Im extremely sorry.Z : Theres no need to apologies at all. I could quite understand your feelings.(At a corner, A accidentally bumps into B.)B : Oops!A : Im so sorry. I hope youre not hurt.B : No, its alright.Between neighboursA : Good morning.B : Good morning.A : I heard that my son misbehaved with you last evening. Im ashamed of what he did. I came to apologies to you.B : Theres no need for an apology. Its true that he used some bad words. But I didnt take it seriously. Lets forget about it.A : Ill certainly warn him.B : Please dont be very harsh with him. Im sure hell realize his mistake.MAKING SUGGESTIONSPATTERNS1. May I suggest .?2. You may/might like to ..?3. Have you considered/thought of ..?4. Would you care to .?5. Why dont we/you ..?6. Why not ?7. How about .?8. What about ..?9. Lets / Let me ..10. Shall we ..?11. Ill tell you what. Well ..

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEAt the officeX : The All-India Conference begins in Delhi on Monday next. We have to send someone as our representative.Z : Lets ask Sunil to attend it.X : Ah, no. Sunil is away in Bangalore and wont be back before next Wednesday.Y : How about Dsouza?X : Well, hed have been the right person. But you know its unreasonable to ask him to go to Delhi when his father is in critical condition.Y : Oh, Im sorry. I didnt know that.O : Why not Mrs. Sindhu?X : Yes, she can, if she is willing to.Z : What about George? He seems to be relatively free these days.X : All right. Lets ask both George and Sindhu.At homeA : Usha wants to go to here aunt in Chennai-Tamil Nadu in during holidays. Why dont we let her go?B : But how does she go? She cant make it all alone, can she?A : You know Mrs.Shakeela and family are going to Kodambakkam. How about sending Usha with them?B : She already has five children to manage. Itll be cruel to ask her to take care of one more.A : Could we let her go alone? After all its only an overnight journey.B : No, I cant agree with that.C : Ill tell you what. Let me fly to Chennai. Kamal come to the airport and take me home.A : Thats a good idea.B : The idea is good. Do we have enough money?A : Oh come on. Lets make use of the bonus you got a week ago.B : Well, if you all agreeWARNING SOMEONEPATTERNS1. Be careful.2. Mind your3. Watch out.4. Look out.5. Youd better not.6. I think youre making a mistake.7. You must be mad/crazy/out of your mind.8. I dont think thats very wise/advisable.9. I wouldnt do that if I were you.10. It doesnt sound like a good idea to me.11. On no account should we..12. I warn you .

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEWhile driving a carA : Look out. Theres a tree across the road.B : Oh! We had it. I almost drove over it. Luckily there are people already working on it. Let me see.A : Watch out. The electric wire has snapped. Youd better not go anywhere near it.B : Dont worry. Im not going that far.A : its drizzling. Be careful you dont get wet. You might catch a cold.B : Oh, its a light drizzle.Between friendsA : Mind your purse. There are a lot of pickpockets in the city.B : Oh, none can reach my pocket.A : Youd better not carry large sums on you.B : I know this city very well.A : I should be careful, if I were you.At the officeK : Mr. Prakash, who typed this letter?P : I did it, sir.K : There are many mistakes in this letter.P : Im sorry. I typed it in a hurry. I shall be more careful.K : You ought tStarting conversation with a strangerPATTERNS1. Excuse me, ..?2. Excuse my asking, but .?3. Sorry to trouble you, but.?4. I hope you dont mind my asking, but .5. Terribly hot/windy/cold, isnt it?6. Hi! Great party/music, isnt it?7. Forgive me for asking, but .?

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEIn an auditoriumA : Its very hot in here, isnt it?B : True. Its like a summer afternoon.A : Is it alright if I sit here?B : Perfectly. Help yourself.A : Thank you. By the way, Im Gobal Naidu.B : Im Beem Boi. Nice to meet you. What do you do, Mr. Gobal Naidu?A : Im an officer in the State Bank of India.B : Oh, I see. Which branch?A ; Im at the head office. How about you, Mr. Boi?B : I teach at the Govt. Arts College.A : Oh, do you? Thats nice. Whats your subject?B : I teach Mathematics.On the roadA : Excuse me, could you tell me where the bus station is?B : Sorry, Im a stranger here.A : Thats all right. ( to another person): Just a moment please. I wanted to go to the bus station.B : There are two bus stations here, one for the city buses and another for the long-distance busses. Where do you want to go?A : The one for the long-distances busses.B : Im afraid it is about five kilometers from here. From that bus stop over there you can take bus No.6A. It will take you to the bus station.A : Thank you very much.B : Welcome.In a busK : Excuse me for asking, but are you related to Reshma ?L : Yes. Im her cousin. Do you know Reshma?K : Very well. We were classmates. I think we met once at Reshmas house.L : Did we? Er.. Youre the boy who used to play the piano?K : Exactly. My Name is Rakesh.L : Im Bossh. What are you doing now, Mr. Rakesh.K : Im with Loyola Computers. How about you?L : Im regional manager of Saritha Pharmaceuticals.K : Are you? My brothers Suja is alos Saritha Pharma. Hes at Kodambakkam now.L : Oh, youre Sujas brother? Hes a very good friend of mine.o be. Mind your spelling more than anything

Ending a conversationPATTERNSEnding a conversation1. Im afraid I must go now.2. I hope you dont mind my leaving.3. I must really be going.4. Im sorry, but I have a meeting at three oclock.5. Im sorry, but I am expecting an important visitor now.6. Excuse me. I have to catch a train.7. Its been very nice talking to you, but I must leave now.8. Goodbye /bye / Bye-bye9. See you later/tomorrow/next week.

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEIn a collegeStudent: Good morning, sir. May I come in?Professor: Good morning. Do come in. Sit down.Student: Sir. We have to prepare a project report as part of our course. If you could give me some guidelines on how to do itProfessor: Whats your area of research?Student: The role of mass media in English Language teaching.Professor: Ah, the role of mass media, is it? Now, let me see Why dont you make a study of how the English educational programmes broadcast by AIR are being used by the schools?Student: Ill do that.Professor: Select one particular series of programmes. Study them well. Prepare a questionnaire with the help of your supervisor. Then you can go to some schools and ask the children who listen to the programmes to answer the questionnaire.Student: How many schools should I approach, sir?Professor: About half a dozen, I should think.Student: Okay, sir. There was something else I wanted to discuss with you.Professor: Can we do that later? I have a class at 3.Student: Yes, sir. Thank you very much for the help.Professor: its all right.At the enquiry counters in a railway stationA : Hi, Vijaya. Nice to see you. Been away or something?B : Yes, I had been to my grandmothers for two weeks.A : It mustve been lovely. How did you like you stay there?B : It was enjoyable. Oh, my God. Its 1.45. The banks close at two, dont they? I must really hurry. See your later.A : See you.Between friendsA : That was good adventure you had.B : Those moments were terrible. I dont know how we lived through them. But now that I am back home I can think about it and laugh.C : Well. I suppose it is nice to have things to remember.B : It also shows how helpful the people there are. We were total strangers and still they trusted us and came forward to help us.A : Exactly. Jim, I really enjoyed talking to you and sharing your experience. But now I must leave. I have to catch the 8.30 local.C : Cant you stay a little longer? Theres another train at 9.15.A : Im sorry, but I have to catch this one.B : Well, if you insist. Thank you for the company. Good night.C : Good night, Sunil.A : Good night.Asking for Information Asking for informationPATTERNSA. Asking for information1. Can you tell me , please?2. Could you tell me , please?3. Do you know .?4. Do you happen to know ?5. Can you help me ?6. Id like to know .7. I wonder if you someone could tell me ..8. I should be interested to know 9. I hope you dont mind my asking, but ,,,,,10. Any clue ..?11. Any idea..?

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEAt the OfficeOfficer: Good morning, Mr. Rao.Clerk: Good morning, sir.Officer: Can you tell me where the purchase records are kept?Clerk: They are with the Superintendent, sir.Officer: Oh, I see. Do you know what action has been taken on the proposal to buy a typewriter?Clerk: The order getting typed, sir.Officer: We are moving rather slowly, arent we?Clerk: In a way, yes. I hope you dont mind my asking, but have you read the Unions report on the working of the office?Officer: I havent yet been able to read it fully, but I think there are some useful suggestions in it.At the enquiry counters in a railway stationA : Excuse me. Could you tell me what time the Tamil Nadu Express arrives?B : The scheduled time is 6.30. But Im afraid its late by one hour today.A : So the train will arrive at 7.30 in the evening?B : Yes. But please check around seven.A : Okay, Ill do that. I also wanted to know the second class fare from here to Madras.B : Just a minute, please. Yes, it is one hundred and twelve rupees.A : Thank you.Between friendsMagesh: Hi, Sutha, How are you?SuthaK: Hi! Im fine. And you?Magesh: So so.SuthaK: What are you doing this evening? How about a movie?Magesh: Which one?SuthaK: The Platoon is showing at Royal.Magesh: Fine. Lets go. Any idea what time the picture begins?SuthaK: I think its at 6.30. Shall we meet there at six?Magesh: All right, see you at six.SuthaK: See you.Asking for someones opinionPATTERNSA. Asking for someones opinion1. What do you think/feel about 2. Whats your opinion/reaction?3. How do you see..?4. How would you react to .?5. What would you say to ..?B. Giving your opinion1. I think/feel/believe ..2. It seems to me.3. From my point view ..4. The way I see it .5. Dont you think 6. If you ask me, 7. Its my considered opinion that C. Saying you have no opinion1. I really dont have any opinion about..2. I dont know what to say ..3. Ive no strong feelings about4. Ive nothing to say in particular.5. I dont know.

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEAt a meetingA : As you know, gentlemen, the management has agreed to most of the major demands put forward by the unions. Still they have decided to go on a strike form the 24th of this month. Could I have your opinion or reaction to this move by the unions?B : In my opinion, the management must not yield to any further demands at present. It has been made clear that the remaining demands will be considered sympathetically after a few months. So I dont see any justification for a strike at all.C : To my mind, the major point of difference appears to be the issue of overtime wages. Hence Id say that we should reconsider the issue if we are keen on averting the strike.A : How would you react that, Mr.D?D : It seems to me that there is much substance in what Mr.C says. Its from our point of view that we have agreed to most of the major demands. As Mr. C rightly put it, the question of overtime wages is the most important issue for them. To be frank about it, I am more inclined support Cs view than anyone elses.A : Have you got any comments on that, Mr. E?E : Ive nothing to say in particular. But Id also endorse the view that we should reconsider the overtime wage issue and resolve the deadlock.A : Well, if most of you feel so, lets have further discussion on that.Among friendsA : What do you say to the proposal to go on hiking expedition next Sunday?B : I think its an excellent idea.A : But dont you think the season is not right for hiking? Cant we wait till the monsoon is over? I believe it is rather risky going up hills during the season.B : But then dont you also agree that there is an element of risk in any adventure?C : Of course. As far as Im concerned, Ill be glad to join. I was only expressing my viewAsking if someone is surePATTERNSA. Asking if someone is sure about something1. Are you (quite) sure (about) ?2. Are you certain (about) ?3. Are you sure? / Definitely? / Really?4. Is there any doubt about..?5. Perhaps I misunderstand, but are quite sure.?B. Saying you are sure1. Im sure/certain.2. Ive no doubt (about)3. Im a hundred per cent certain.4. I dont think there can be any doubt about5. There is no/very little doubt in my mind..6. There cant be any doubt.C. Saying you are not sure1. Sorry, Im not sure 2. I cant decide.3. Im in two minds (about) .4. I cant say for certain.5. One cant say with any certainty.6. Theres still an element of doubt.7. Theres surely some doubt about

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEDuring a police enquiryA : Who do you think would have stolen the ornaments?B : I just dont find any clue to this mystery.A : How about your maid servant?B : I dont think shed ever do that.A : Are you quite sure about it?B : Whenever she was in need of money she used to ask us. Moreover, she has no children nor any relatives. I dont see any possibility of her doing it. I dont think there can be any doubt about it.A : What about your gardener?B : Oh, you can be sure about his integrity. Hes been with me for the past twenty years. Hes more than a member of the family and its quite certain that hed never attempt anything of this kind.A : Are you quite sure that he wouldnt take anything even f he finds valuable lying here and there in the house?B : Definitely not. There were several occasions when my wife had forgotten her gold chain and ear rings in the bathroom. On most occasions it was he who noticed them and brought them to us.Between friendsA : Did you hear this? Were in for another hike in petrol prices?B : Really?A : This is not a confirmed report, of course. But, you know, this is how it always begins-with an unconfirmed report and up comes the Government announcement in two days.B : Do you mean to say that a hike is certain?A : I cant say for certain, but it looks quite likelyAsking someone to say something againPATTERNSA. Asking someone to say something again1. Pardon?2. Im sorry I didnt catch/hear .3. Im sorry, what was that word/his name, etc.?4. Would/Could you repeat what you said/that name/the last word, etc, please?5. Im sorry, would you/mind repeating., please?6. I beg your pardon?B. Saying something again1. I said .2. I was just saying/remarking ..3. What I said was .4. I was just/merely expressing the view.5. I was pointing out the fact that6. I was just wondering/enquiring

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEIn a crowded busA : Excuse me, you are standing on my foot.B : Im sorry, what did you say?A : I said you are standing on my foot.B : (takes off his foot) Oh, Im terribly sorry. I didnt realize it, you see.A : Its all right. Thank you.At the departmental storeA : Good evening. Can I help you?B : Evening. Ive a complaint to make. You see, I bought this electric iron just a month ago, but A : Sorry? When did you say you bought it?B : A month ago and its not working now. Id like to have it repaired or replaced.A : Where did you buy it from?B : At Rosy Electricals.A : Could you repeat that name, please?B : ROSY ELECTRICALSA : Im afraid theyre not our authorized dealers. Anyway, do you have the guarantee card for this?B : Sorry? What card did you say?A : The guarantee card wherein youre given a guarantee by the company to repair any manufacturing defect noticed within a period of six months.B : I dont think I ever got one.A : Im afraid in that case we cant repair it free of charge. However, if you agree to pay for it, we can ask our electrician to do the repair.B : Well, if thats the only choice for me, I think Ill pay the necessary charges.A : All right. You can leave it with us and collect it tomorrow at the same time.B : Thank you.A : Youre welcomeAsking someone to say something again Asking someone to say something againPATTERNSA. Asking someone to say something again1. Pardon?2. Im sorry I didnt catch/hear .3. Im sorry, what was that word/his name, etc.?4. Would/Could you repeat what you said/that name/the last word, etc, please?5. Im sorry, would you/mind repeating., please?6. I beg your pardon?B. Saying something again1. I said .2. I was just saying/remarking ..3. What I said was .4. I was just/merely expressing the view.5. I was pointing out the fact that6. I was just wondering/enquiring

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEIn a crowded busA : Excuse me, you are standing on my foot.B : Im sorry, what did you say?A : I said you are standing on my foot.B : (takes off his foot) Oh, Im terribly sorry. I didnt realize it, you see.A : Its all right. Thank you.At the departmental storeA : Good evening. Can I help you?B : Evening. Ive a complaint to make. You see, I bought this electric iron just a month ago, but A : Sorry? When did you say you bought it?B : A month ago and its not working now. Id like to have it repaired or replaced.A : Where did you buy it from?B : At Rosy Electricals.A : Could you repeat that name, please?B : ROSY ELECTRICALSA : Im afraid theyre not our authorized dealers. Anyway, do you have the guarantee card for this?B : Sorry? What card did you say?A : The guarantee card wherein youre given a guarantee by the company to repair any manufacturing defect noticed within a period of six months.B : I dont think I ever got one.A : Im afraid in that case we cant repair it free of charge. However, if you agree to pay for it, we can ask our electrician to do the repair.B : Well, if thats the only choice for me, I think Ill pay the necessary charges.A : All right. You can leave it with us and collect it tomorrow at the same time.B : Thank you.A : Youre welcomeChecking that you have Understand Checking that you have UnderstoodPATTERNSA. Checking that you have understood1. Does that / Do you mean.?2. If I understand right, 3. So, I am right in saying..?4. Im sorry if Im being stupid, but Im not sure I understand.5. Are you trying to say that .?6. The implication seems to be7. If Ive got it right/ If Ive followed you, then B. Checking that someone has understood you1. Do you see what I mean?2. I hope thats clear?3. Thats clear, isnt it?4. Do you understand .?5. Do you see? / Right? / O.K.? / Yeah?/ Get it? / Got it?6. Know what Im getting/hinting/driving at?7. If theres anything you havent understood, please say so.

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEAt the OfficeA : Did you read this report about your department in todays newspaper?B : Yes, I did. Thats only the tip of the iceberg.A : Are you trying to say that all that is written is true and there is more of it?B : Exactly. It is a known fact that you can get any work done by the department if you approach the right person. You know what I mean?A : In other words, one has to shed a few hundreds in order to get the work done. Is that what you are hinting at?B : If not in cash, you make it in kind. You make a complaint and meet the right person and do whats needed. They attend to your complaint the same day while someone who had made a complaint ten days ago or a month ago still waits for his turn. Does that make things clear to you?A : I dont think I ever knew about these things. I just cant believe it.At the StoreA : Can you tell me how to use this camera?B : This is a totally automatic camera.A : Do you mean to say that I dont have to do anything but click it?B : Exactly. All you have to do is to aim and shoot. Before you do this load the camera with a cartridge of film. At the bottom of the camera you find a slide. Push it to the side where the arrow points to O.K.? This is where you put the cartridge. Hold the cartridge with these two heads pointing away from you and insert in this slot. Now the camera is loaded. Do you follow me?A : Yes.B : Now slide the lid backward and the camera is ready for use. Wind the film till No.1 appears in the screen behind the camera. Then aim and shoot. After every shot the lens gets locked.A : That means the same film wont get exposed twice, right?B : Thats right. Push the release button before you shoot next. If you need a flash light just press this and the flash gets released. That clear now, isnt it?A : I think so.Asking whether someone knows or not Asking whether someone knowsPATTERNSA. Asking whether someone knows1. Excuse me. Do you know .?2. Can you help me? Do you happen to know anything about .?3. Do you realize .?4. Did you hear about .?5. Are you aware about ., dont you?6. Could you give me any information about ..?7. I wonder if you could let me know B. Saying you know1. I know. Thank you.2. Yes, Ramu/Leela/ someone told me about it.3. I heard so. But thanks for the call.4. I am quite aware of5. I have it on good authority that.C. Saying you do not know1. Im sorry, I dont know about ..2. Im sorry, I cant help you there.3. Sorry, Ive no idea ..4. I wish I knew 5. Im afraid I dont have much information about ..6. I have to admit. I dont know much about..

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEBetween friendsA :Hi, Ravi. You look tired. Are you all right?B : Im quite all right. Only overworked. I had a real hectic day in the office.A : Oh, I see. How about some coffee? Thatll refresh you.B : Thats good idea. Lets go.A : Did you hear about the latest political developments?B : No, I didnt hear anything. What happened?A : Two ministers have resigned from the State Cabinet. Rumours say some more will be out soon.B : Who are the ones whove resigned?A : The Home Minister and the Education Minister.B : But the Education Minister was supposed to be close to the Chief Minister. Did they leave on their own or were they asked quit?A : Its not clear yet. The radio news was brief. It just said that two ministers have resigned. There were some rumours about differences between the Home Minister and the C.M. Do you know anything about that?B : Well, not the exact details. But I had heard that the C.M. was unhappy about some postings in the Police Department.At a travel AgencyCustomer: Can you help me? Do you know whether there is a train to Trivandrum today?Official: Im afraid there is no direct train to Trivandrum from here. Youll have to go to Chennai or Bangalore and then take a train from there.Customer: But I dont have that much time. I want to reach Trivandrum fast. Is there any flight?Official: Let me see. Today is Thursday. Yes, theres a direct flight to Trivandrum, at 2.30 this afternoon.Customer: Oh, I see. That is good news. Could you arrange a ticket for me, please? Itll be a great help.Official: Let me try. Itll take at least fifteen minutes.Customer: Ill wait. But do you happen to know how much the airfare to Trivandrum is?Official: Its about twelve hundred rupees.Customer: Thank you. Now Ill wait. Please try for the ticket.Asking whether someone knows or not Asking whether someone knowsPATTERNSA. Asking whether someone knows1. Excuse me. Do you know .?2. Can you help me? Do you happen to know anything about .?3. Do you realize .?4. Did you hear about .?5. Are you aware about ., dont you?6. Could you give me any information about ..?7. I wonder if you could let me know B. Saying you know1. I know. Thank you.2. Yes, Ramu/Leela/ someone told me about it.3. I heard so. But thanks for the call.4. I am quite aware of5. I have it on good authority that.C. Saying you do not know1. Im sorry, I dont know about ..2. Im sorry, I cant help you there.3. Sorry, Ive no idea ..4. I wish I knew 5. Im afraid I dont have much information about ..6. I have to admit. I dont know much about..

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEBetween friendsA :Hi, Ravi. You look tired. Are you all right?B : Im quite all right. Only overworked. I had a real hectic day in the office.A : Oh, I see. How about some coffee? Thatll refresh you.B : Thats good idea. Lets go.A : Did you hear about the latest political developments?B : No, I didnt hear anything. What happened?A : Two ministers have resigned from the State Cabinet. Rumours say some more will be out soon.B : Who are the ones whove resigned?A : The Home Minister and the Education Minister.B : But the Education Minister was supposed to be close to the Chief Minister. Did they leave on their own or were they asked quit?A : Its not clear yet. The radio news was brief. It just said that two ministers have resigned. There were some rumours about differences between the Home Minister and the C.M. Do you know anything about that?B : Well, not the exact details. But I had heard that the C.M. was unhappy about some postings in the Police Department.At a travel AgencyCustomer: Can you help me? Do you know whether there is a train to Trivandrum today?Official: Im afraid there is no direct train to Trivandrum from here. Youll have to go to Chennai or Bangalore and then take a train from there.Customer: But I dont have that much time. I want to reach Trivandrum fast. Is there any flight?Official: Let me see. Today is Thursday. Yes, theres a direct flight to Trivandrum, at 2.30 this afternoon.Customer: Oh, I see. That is good news. Could you arrange a ticket for me, please? Itll be a great help.Official: Let me try. Itll take at least fifteen minutes.Customer: Ill wait. But do you happen to know how much the airfare to Trivandrum is?Official: Its about twelve hundred rupees.Customer: Thank you. Now Ill wait. Please try for the ticket.Possibility - Simple Sentences Asking about PossibilityPATTERNSA. Asking about possibility1. Is it going to .?2. Do you think it is possible / probable / likely / unlikely 3. Could/ can he be ?4. Can you/we rule out/exclude the possibility of ..?B. Expressing possibility1. I think its going to 2. Its quite possible / probable / likely ..3. Theres a good chance/every possibility4. I/We cant rule out/exclude the possibility 5. In all probability/ likelihood .6. I wont be surprised if ..C. Expressing impossibility1. I dont think .2. Its quite impossible / improbable/unlikely .3. I dont think/suppose ..4. Im afraid theres very little likelihood of ..5. Its very doubtful..6. I think we can rule out the possibility of ..

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEOn the parkA : Whats happening? Getting dark so soon?B : No, its cloudy.C : Oh! Is it going to rain?B : It is quite likely.A : I dont think so. Its only partly cloudly. Perhaps it may not rain at all.B : Theres a good chance of at least a drizzle, if not a heavy rain.At the hospitalA : Im afraid theres been too long a delay in bringing him. The patient is in a critical condition.B : Do you think it is possible to operate upon him?A : Quite impossible in this condition. In all probability we might be able to do it at the earliest after a week.B : Isnt it more probable that his condition will improve with all those antibiotics?A : Well, it is possible.Between friendsA : Where is my watch?B : It ought to be in bedroom.A : But it isnt there. I dont remember where I left it.B : Could you have left it in your office?A : Impossible. I remember I had it on my own wrist while I was in the club.B : Did you remove it while playing tennis?A : Oh yes; I remember to have given it to one of the boys in the club.B : Do you think you are going to get it back?A : I bet. I will.B : Good luck to you.Asking about Preference Asking about PreferencePATTERNSA. Asking about preference 1. Do you prefer or .?2. Would you like/rather have/prefer ..?3. Which would you prefer, .. or ?4. We can . Or What do you say?5. The choice is yours, . Or .6. Which appeals more, or ..B. Saying what you prefer1. Id prefer . (if possible)2. My choice/preference would always be .3. If you dont mind, Id 4. If its all the same to you 5. If its up to me, Id ..6. Perhaps itd be better if 7. . Appeals to me more than .

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEAt the hotel receptionReception: Good morning. Can I help you?Customer: Id like to book a double room.Reception: Would you like a room with shower or one with bath?Customer: Id refer one with shower.Receptionist: Would you prefer a room with a view or a quiet one?Customer: Id prefer a quiet room if possible.Receptionist: Of course, you can have one.At the travel agentsT.Agent: Good morning. Can I help you?Traveler: Id like to book a round trip Delhi-Bangkok-Delhi.T.Agent: Yes, sir. When are you planning to travel?Traveler: In June.T.Agent: How do you want to travel?Traveler: Id like to travel at the cheapest rate. Its in the name of Mr.Oberai.T.Agent: Do you have any preference for seating?Traveler: Id prefer an aisle seat at the back of the plane.T.Agent: We have a morning flight leaving at 8.30 and a night flight at 10. which do you prefer?Traveler: My choice ould always be the night flight.Travel agent: Thats fine. Well arrange the tickets.Over TelephoneReceiver: Good morning. Parklane Hotel.Caller: Good morning. Id like to book a table for 8.00 this evening.Receiver: yes, of course. For how may people?Caller: For two.Receiver: Do you have any preference in seating?Caller: Yes, Id prefer a table in a quiet corner in a non-smoking section.Receiver: Yes, of course, sir. In what name?Caller: The names Robert.Asking if someone is able to do somethingPATTERNSA. Asking if someone is able to do something1. Can you ..?2. Do you know how to ?3. Is he any good at .?4. Do you feel capable of.?5. Would you say you were capable of ..?6. Do you have the ability/qualification/experience necessary .?B. Saying you are able to do something1. I can / I know / I know how to.2. I know something about 3. Its not too difficult to 4. Sure/Yes. No problem.5. Im pretty good at6. I feel able toC. Saying you are not able to do something1. No, I dont know how to 2. Im not sure I can/know how to..3. Ive no idea how to .4. I dont think I can manage5. Im afraid I cant cope with .

PRACTICE / DIALOGUEAt the ClubSolai: I dont know what happened to my T.V. set. Last night when we were watching the movie, the picture suddenly went off.Raja: Its possible that the fuse has burnt out.Solai: Well. I dont know anything about T.V. sets. Here comes Kumana. Lets ask him. Hes an electrical engineer. Hello Kumana, how are you?Kumana: Oh, fine. Thank you. Why are you both looking at the T.V. set.Solai: The picture suddenly went off while we were watching the movies last night. Do you think you can set it right?Kumana: I dont think I know much about T.V sets and their components. I think you better call in the service engineer.Solai: Strangely my radio too went silent yesterday. I dont know whats wrong. Do you know how to repair radios?Kumana: well, I might be able to. I know something about radio repairing.Solai: Then why dont you have a look at it?Over telephoneVijay: Hello, is that the Golden Motor Works?Ajith: Yes. What can I do for you, sir?Vijay: Well, my car has developed some starting trouble. Could you send your mechanic? I am in 116, Bank Street, Kodambakkam.Ajith: Im sorry, our mechanic just left to attend to another complaint. Im afraid hell be back only after an hour. I can send one of our trainees if the problem isnt anything very serious.Vijay: Do you think he is good at repairing motor cars?Ajith: I think hell be able to help you if it isnt anything serious. Anyway let him have a look at it first. He can ask for more help necessary.Vijay: Thats fine. Do you think he knows anything about electric motors?Ajith: I dont think he has the faintest idea of repairing electric motors. Hes an automobile mechanic.Vijay: Oh, thats all right.Asking if someone agreesPATTERNSA. Asking if someone agrees1. O.K.?/Right? / Yeah?2. Is that all right with you / O.K with you?3. Do you agree?4. Dont you think/feel ..?5. Would you agree that/ with ?6. I wonder if youd agree with .?B. Agreeing1. Youre right.2. Yes, I agree.3. Thats quite right/true.4. Oh, exactly/definitely/absolutely/totally/quite, etc.5. I think so too.6. I dont think anyone could/would disagree with .C. Disagreeing1. Never! / Not at all / Oh surely not.2. You dont mean it.3. Thats not true.4. Not really.5. I disagree (Im afraid)6. I see things rather differently myself.7. Personally, I tend to agree with .

PRACTICE DIALOGUETeacher & StudentsTeacher: Well Children, weve decided to hold your summer camp at Kodaikanal. Is that O.K. with you?Students: Thats lovely.Teacher: As usual, the camp will be for three weeks. Those who would like to take part in this camp must give me their names by tomorrow evening O.K.?Students: But, sir, we need time to write to our parents and get permission.Teacher: In that case, youll give me your willingness latest by the 10th of next month. Is that all right with you all?Students: Quite all right, sir.Between friendsRavananeswaran: So well meet at the Regal Cinema at 5.30. O.K.?Raman: But isnt it too early? The show begins only at 6.30.Anjaneyer: Thats right, but we might have to stand in the queue to get tickets. So its better to meet at 5.30.Ravaneswarn: All right.Raman: Okay. Can one of you pick me up from my house?Anjaneyar: A lives somewhere near your house. Yeah?Ravaneswaran: Well, not very near but not far.Anjaneyar: So why dont you bring him along?Raman: Youre right.Ravaneswaran: Okay. I shall meet you at your place at 5.20 O.K?Raman: Fine.Asking if you are Obliged to do something-Dialogue Sample Asking if you are Obliged to do something PATTERNSA. Asking if you are obliged to do something1. Do I (really) have/need to.?2. Need I / must I ..?3. Have I got to .?4. Is it necessary to ..?5. I suppose I have got to .?6. Are we obliged to / required to .?7. Are we under any obligation to ?B. Saying someone is obliged to do something1. I think you have to .2. Im afraid youll have to .3. Youll be required to .4. Theyll make you 5. Youre expected/supposed to ..C. Saying someone is not obliged to do something1. You dont have to2. I dont think youll have to .3. Theres no need to ..4. Youre under no obligation to ..5. No one can force you to .

PRACTICE DIALOGUEI. At the OfficeA: Sir, the Manager expects you to send your application through the Assistant Manager.

B: Do I really have to? We both are of the same rank. I dont think anybody can force me to route my application through the Assistant Manager.

C: Theyll make you do it, sir. Our previous Accounts Officer used to do so.

II. At the BankBank Clerk: Im afraid we cant accept this cheque. There are too many changes and corrections. Could you write out another cheque, please?

Customer: Do I really need to? I have initialed all the corrections.

Bank Clerk: Its true, but it appears rather shabby. Im afraid youll have to write out another cheque.

Customer: Well, if you insist.

III. At the railway station

Police officer: Would you mind opening these boxes?

Traveller: Well, they contain apples and mangoes. Is it necessary to open them.

Police Officer: Do you have the cash receipts for having bought these?

Traveller: Is one expected to carry the cash receipts of things bought here and produce them on demand?

Police Officer: Youre under no obligation to do so. But Im afraid youll have to open these boxes. Were acting under orders.

ing-Dialogue Sample Asking if you are Obliged to do something PATTERNSA. Asking if you are obliged to do something1. Do I (really) have/need to.?2. Need I / must I ..?3. Have I got to .?4. Is it necessary to ..?5. I suppose I have got to .?6. Are we obliged to / required to .?7. Are we under any obligation to ?B. Saying someone is obliged to do something1. I think you have to .2. Im afraid youll have to .3. Youll be required to .4. Theyll make you 5. Youre expected/supposed to ..C. Saying someone is not obliged to do something1. You dont have to2. I dont think youll have to .3. Theres no need to ..4. Youre under no obligation to ..5. No one can force you to .

PRACTICE DIALOGUEI. At the OfficeA: Sir, the Manager expects you to send your application through the Assistant Manager.

B: Do I really have to? We both are of the same rank. I dont think anybody can force me to route my application through the Assistant Manager.

C: Theyll make you do it, sir. Our previous Accounts Officer used to do so.

II. At the BankBank Clerk: Im afraid we cant accept this cheque. There are too many changes and corrections. Could you write out another cheque, please?

Customer: Do I really need to? I have initialed all the corrections.

Bank Clerk: Its true, but it appears rather shabby. Im afraid youll have to write out another cheque.

Customer: Well, if you insist.

III. At the railway station

Police officer: Would you mind opening these boxes?

Traveller: Well, they contain apples and mangoes. Is it necessary to open them.

Police Officer: Do you have the cash receipts for having bought these?

Traveller: Is one expected to carry the cash receipts of things bought here and produce them on demand?

Police Officer: Youre under no obligation to do so. But Im afraid youll have to open these boxes. Were acting under orders.

Describing Something-DialogueI. Describing an ExperienceA. Hello, Ajit. Congratulations! I learn that youve got a job with the ITDC.

B. Yes. Thank you, Paul. What I like about it is that Ive been posted to Kovalam.

A. Kovalam? Thats in Kerala, isnt it? Have you ever been there before?

B. Of course. Lots of times. You know I had studied at Trivandrum for a year. Then we used to go to kovalam for swimming almost every week.

A. Is Kovalam near Trivandrum?

C. Very near. Just about eight kilometers or so.

D. Tell me about the place.

E. Its a beautiful place with rocks jutting out into the sea. The sea is shallow and calm for quite some distance. So we can swim safely. But once I had a real frightening experience.

F. What happened?

G. I had gone there with a friend. But I swam into the sea alone. In fact, I went far out into the sea. I stopped only when I was breathless. Then I stopped and looked around. I could not see where the land was.

H. But why? Oh, yes, since you swim without your glasses, youll be shortsighted.

I. Exactly. I was exhausted and worried. I floated on the water for quite some time. I thought I was going to be lost in the sea.

J. That mustve been frightening.

K. Really.

L. Then what happened?

M. Then I noticed some movement on one side. I swam in that direction and soon saw land.

N. You couldve looked at the sun to know the direction.

O. No, it was cloudy day.

P. Where was your friend all this while?

Q. Hed just started worrying about me when I swam back.

II. Describing a person

Job: john, Im worried about this Bombay trip. Ive never been there before.

John: So what? There is a first time for everything.

Job: I know, but Im going there alone.

John: Dont worry, man. Ive written to Bobby. Hell meet you at the station.

Job: How does he dress?

John: Well, trousers and full-sleeved shirt. He wears glasses and always chooses odd-shaped frames for his glasses.

Job: Is he fair or dark?

John: Well, rather fair, I should say. Ive also given him a description of yours. It shouldnt be difficult for you to meet each other. By the way, dont shave off your beard. Bobbyll be looking for a bearded person.

Job: I wont. At least not until I meet Bobby

Unnecessary Use of PREPOSITIONS Part IIThere is a wide tendency among the users of English in India to add prepositions after verbs where their use is considered erroneous or at least unnecessary. In the sentences below, the highlighted prepositions are unnecessary. Try to avoid them in your speech and writing.Do you think we can find out another typist so soon?

He joined in our office as on ordinary clerk.

He is respected by everyone because he always keeps up his promises.

This television set lacks of clarity of picture.

She is still looking up for help.

They are waiting for an opportunity to make him as the chief co-ordinator of the project.

Could you mark out the books you need?

She married with her cousin.

Weve ordered for a more sophisticated machine.

Im afraid he might lose his job because of his tendency to pick up quarrels with anyone.

They have pinned down all their hopes on their leader.

We cannot but pity on him.

He seems to be not inclined to pursue for his studies.

The police reached to the site of the accident.

We regret for the delay in sending the parcel to you.

Theyve requested for immediate medical attention.

I have to return back the same day.

He resembles to his father.

He has succeeded in solving out the problem.

He is very tall and stout. You can easily spot him out in any crowd.

In her address she stressed on the importance of hard work.

The new doctor was transferred out in two months.

He visited to all the units to ascertain the truth.

They terminated in the contract just three months after signing it.

He entered into the building with caution.

Rajini has been appointed as manager here.

Unnecessary Use of PREPOSITIONS Part IThere is a wide tendency among the users of English in India to add prepositions after verbs where their use is considered erroneous or at least unnecessary. In the sentences below, the highlighted prepositions are unnecessary. Try to avoid them in your speech and writing.The management admires for our watchmans bravery.

The gatekeeper admitted him in.

We hope you would answer to our request soon.

He approached to me for help.

The manager asked to the typist why she was late.

The union leaders attacked on the chairmans views.

The inspector was awarded with a cash prize for his alertness.

The company could not bear up the burden of heavy taxes.

Computers have greatly benefited to the communication network in the country.

The management refused to bow down to the workers demands.

We propose to build up a small power plant for ourselves.

Whenever I see the model of our factory what comes u