Text of English language teaching For use with Chapter 9 of: Galloway, N. and Rose, H. (2015). Introducing...
English language teaching For use with Chapter 9 of: Galloway, N. and Rose, H. (2015). Introducing Global Englishes. Routledge. Dr. Heath Rose and Dr. Nicola Galloway
Review of Lecture 8 (1) Attitudes are complex. Attitudes are influenced by many factors: culture, familiarity, vitality and prestige, pedagogical context, race, proficiency, and motivation. Language attitudes are subject to change. There is a need for both short- and long-term studies. Research into the attitudes of learners can provide teachers with an awareness of their learners beliefs, help inform curriculum development, increase self- awareness among the learners, foster autonomous learning, and encourage them to think critically about the language.
Review of Lecture 8 (2) Studies reveal that NE is highly valued and many in the education context prefer to follow a NES model. However, many of the studies have limitations regarding methodology and very few investigate the possible reasons for attitudes. Can they be used to justify the dominance of the NE model? Do learners need more choice? More studies are needed. Lecture 6 looked at influence of GE instruction on attitudes and attitudes towards English teachers.
Overview The native English speaker Global Englishes language teaching (GELT) Barriers to innovations in ELT Relevant research studies
Introductory activities Look at the job advertisements (Figure 9.1) in the introduction to Chapter 9, then discuss the questions below. 1.What is your reaction to the job advertisement in Figure 9.1? A re they typical of job advertisements for English teachers in your home country? Why do some institutions value the nativeness of a teachers English over formal qualifications? 2.Think of English language teachers in a context you are familiar with. What qualifications are needed to teach in this context? Is there a divide between native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) and non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs)? If so, why does this divide exist? 3.Why are some native varieties of English preferred over others, from an English teaching standpoint? Why do you think these varieties are preferred? 4.In Chapter 2, it was shown that English speakers in NES countries tend to adhere to a standard English ideology for written English, but attach identity and pride in the diversity of spoken Englishes. Why, then, does the English language teaching profession in NNES countries promote a standard language ideology that speakers should aim to emulate the certain types of native English speakers (namely standard American and British RP)?
The native English speaker Part 1
The native English speaker in ELT Positive attitudes towards NE in relation to ELT (Lecture 5). The uncrowned king of linguistics (Mey, 1981, p. 73). Traditionally, theories about language learning have posited the NES as the goal: Chomskys (1965) use of the expression native speaker as the ideal speaker-listener. Even when the focus shifted from the Chomsky-inspired idea of linguistic competence to the Hymesian notion of communicative competence, the NES continued to serve as the yardstick for comparison, even if that was not the original intention.
Current hiring practices perpetuate stereotypes that NE is correct and that English should be learned from a NEST Native English speaker and university degree required (education preferred) (Japan, ohayosensei.com) Native Speaker of English with a neutral accent (Poland, TransitionsAbroad) Native English speakers with a neutral native dialect (China, Pearson Longman School) English teachers from the Outer and Expanding Circles have never filled teaching positions in well- established private schools, colleges and universities in the GCC (Ali, 2009, p. 36) India's teachers face native-only bar (Guardian Weekly, 10 April 2012) On a global level, the ELT profession is perhaps the worlds only occupation in which the majority faces discrimination (Ali, 2009, p. 37)
Figure 9.1: Job advertisements
NE ownership is further perpetuated in ELT materials and examinations The Cambridge Grammar of English (Carter and McCarthy, 2006) has error warning symbols. The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary notes that You cannot say discuss about something. Practical English Usage (Swan, 2005) has a section called Dont say it which outlines 130 common mistakes. A Native English Speaker Would Say it This Way (Williamson and Katsuki, 2005). How Your English Sounds to Native Speakers (Thayne and Koike, 2008).
Are things changing? Despite their dominance, the idealistic notion of the NES prevalent in the 1960s has been called into question in recent years: Are new goals required? Is a native accent more intelligible? Why is a native accent no longer relevant? What exactly is a native accent and who is a native speaker? There is a need to explore attitudes and stereotypes in depth (Lecture 5): Cook (1999, p. 196) this acceptance of the native speaker model does not mean these attitudes are right. Holliday (2009) how far would students preferences be provided for if, for instance, they requested male or white teachers? The prevalence of NES norms are evidently complex, yet this complexity should not act as a deterrent for a critical examination of current ELT practice. A possible decline in importance is evident in the three areas shown on the following slide.
Figure 9.2: The demise of the native English speaker
1. Terminology problems (1) Problematic definitions A substantial body of literature exists on what defines a NS, and many scholars have attempted to provide a workable and rational distinction between a NES and a NNES: Paikeday (1985) the NS exists only as a figment of a linguists imagination, preferring the term proficient user. Rampton (1990, 1995) in addition to language expertise (the main criterion), the concept of a NS includes language affiliation and language inheritance. Davies (1991, 2003) five defining features of a NS, although these are neither necessary nor present in all average NESs. No exact definition of a NS to which everyone subscribes and distinctions are blurry (Lecture 1). Some studies also reveal that many self-ascribed NNESs can pass for NESs in certain situations (Inbar-Lourie, 2005), and that self-ascribed NESs can be taken for NNESs by their students (Moussu, 2006). If we cannot define a native speaker, then can we define a non-native speaker of English?
Legitimacy problems Ascribes power to NESTs while presenting the NNESTs as lacking something (Holliday, 2005)? Perpetuates stereotypes? A life-long apprenticeship for the L2 speaker (Tollefson, 1995) that has negative effects on SLA? Cook (1999) refers to Labovs (1969) classic argument that one group should not be measured against the norm of another. Unrepresentative Implies homogeneity (Seidlhofer, 2003, p. 183)? Lectures have shown that most NESs dont speak a standardized version and monolingualism is no longer the norm: The concepts native speaker and mother tongue speaker make little sense in multilingual societies where it may be difficult to single out someones mother tongue (Kirkpatrick, 2007, p. 9). Can we label speakers based on their mother tongue? 1. Terminology problems (2)
2. Teaching competence Phillipsons (1992a) native speaker fallacy the belief that the ideal teacher of English is a native speaker: NS abilities could be instilled in NNS through teacher training. NNSs have undergone the process of learning a (second) language and are therefore better qualified to teach the language. Language teaching is no longer synonymous with the teaching of culture, and thus could be taught by teachers who did not share the same culture as the language they taught. As highlighted in Lecture 5, Dorneyi has revisited the notion of integrative motivation, and it is clear that the target English-speaking community is now difficult to define. Research suggests that NE is not necessarily most intelligible (Jenkins, 2006) e.g. BELF training for NESs (Lecture 4). Kim and Elders (2009) study of air traffic controllers and NES/NNES pilot communications in Seoul NNESs easier to understand and experience was found to be more important than English use or experience. The NES episteme may still dominate, but it is becoming increasingly clear that NESs may not necessarily provide the best model.
3. Growing awareness of GE Despite the spread of English, lectures have highlighted that NE still dominates and NNE continues to be seen as inferior and illegitimate by many. As introduced in Lectures 3 and 4, the issue of expecting near-native proficiency has also been heavily discussed in relation to the WE and ELF research paradigms. Are new competencies required to make English more relevant for ELF usage? Does the NES model fail to equip students for real-world uses of English, at least for those who do not require English for NES contexts? The unquestioned assumption that the language norms and practices associated with native-speaker varieties should be regarded as automatically relevant and legitimate has been considerably lessened (Leung and Street, 2012, p. 88). Although many students and teachers still cling to NES norms (Lecture 5), a number of proposals have been put forward for change and it is a popular topic.