Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2WHAT IS GRAMMAR? Grammar is a set of rules followed by native speakers of a language while using their language. Why is it important to learn? Word, being the unit of English language makes grammar learning more necessary for ESL students. Moreover, mastering grammar becomes even more significant language area for the non-native speakers of target language. Hence, learning grammar especially for academic purposes, is as important to master as a holy scripture to learn and practice a religion duly. If an ESL student makes innumerable grammatical errors in his speech (written/spoken) that will result into his failure in all grammarcentered tests. As grammar is directly or indirectly involved with almost all the other areas and skills in a languages, it becomes utmost significant to familiarize with grammatical rules, especially in English Language. Grammatical inaccuracy may change the meaning of the text altogether, So ESL students, especially those who are taught through GTM of teaching must be expert in using apt grammar.
SENTENCESA group of properly ordered words with complete sense is called a sentence. KINDS OF SENTENCES: (1) Assertive OR Declarative: This type of sentence makes a statement or assertion. E.g. Man is mortal. Grapes are not sour but sweet. Interrogative: This type of sentence asks a question. E.g. Who is this man? Why did not you come early?
Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2(3) Imperative: When a command or request is expressed in a sentence such sentence is called Imperative sentence. E.g. Please give me my MCAT book. Dont move (4) Exclamatory: A sentence that expresses strong feeling. Eg. What a pleasant weather. Its horrible. Optative: A sentence that expresses a wish or pray. E.g. may you live long! If only you had been present!
STRUCTURE OF SENTENCE: Remember that when we make a sentence; We refer to some person, thing action, quality, quantity or number. We say some thing about that person, thing Hence, it is clear that we must have a subject to speak about and we must have something to say about that subject. Every sentence has two parts: The part about which we speak is called SUBJECT, and what ever we speak about subject is called PREDICATE.1. 2.
Predicate (V + O)
OR: Subject +
Predicate Verb + Object
Verb + Object or anything else are the parts of predicate.
VERB TENSETense shows the time of a verbs action/sate of being. The table below defines and illustrates the tense forms for a regular verb in the active voice.
Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2PRESENT: Action that is occurring now, occurs habitually, or is generally true. Simple Present I +V1 You/we/they +V1 He/she/it/singular noun +V1 s/es PAST: Action that occurred before now. Simple Past I/he/she/it +V 2 You/we/they +V 2 FUTURE: Action that will occur in future. Simple Future I/you/he/she/it/they/we will + V1 PRESENT PERFECT: Action that began in the past and is linked to the present. Present Perfect I/we/you/they/plural nouns have + V3+.... He/she/it/singuar noun has +V3. PAST PERFECT: Action that was completed before another past action. Past Perfect I/you/he/she/it/we/they had+ V3 Present progressive I am +V ing You/we/they /plural nouns are +V ing He/she/it/singular noun is +V ing Past Progressive I/he/she/it was +V ing. You/we/they were +V ing. Future Progressive I/you/he/she/it/they will be+ V ing. Present Perfect Progressive I/we/you/they have been +V ing. He/she/it has been +V ing.
Past Perfect Progressive I/you/he/she/it/we/they had been +V ing
FUTURE PERFECT: Action that will be completed before another future action. Future Perfect Future Perfect Progressive I/you/he/she/it/we/they will have +V3 I/you/he/she/it/we/they will have been V ing.
Using the Present TenseThe present tense has several distinctive uses. 1) Action Occurring Now: She understands the problem. We define the problem differently.
Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 22) Habitual or Recurring Action: Banks regularly undergo audits. The audits monitor the banks activities. A General Truth: The elephant never forgets. The earth is round. Discussion of Literature, Film, and so on: Huckleberry Finn has adventures we all envy. In that article the author examines several causes of crime. Future Time: Next week we draft a new budget. Funding ends next week.
Using the Perfect TensesThe perfect tenses generally indicate action completed before another specific time or action. The present perfect tense also indicates action begun in the past and continued into the present. The dancer has performed here only once. (The action is completed at the time of the statement). Critics have written about the performance ever since. (The action began in the past and continues now.) The dancer had trained in Asia before his performance. (The action was completed before another past action.) NOTE: With the present perfect tense, the words since and for are followed by different information. After since give a specific point in time. We have been rehearsing for the play since Monday last. After for, give a span of time: We have been rehearsing for over a week now.
Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2Using the Progressive TensesThe progressive tenses indicate continuing action. The economy is improving. Last year the economy was stagnating. Economists will be watching for signs of growth. The government has been expecting an upturn. Various indicators had been suggesting improvement. By the end of this year, investors will have been watching markets nervously for nearly a decade. NOTE: Verbs that express unchanging states (especially mental states) rather than physical actions do not usually appear in the progressive tense. These verbs include adore appear believe belong care hate have hear know like love mean need own prefer remember see sound taste think understand want
FAULTY: She is wanting to study ethics. REVISED: She wants to study ethics.
Sequence of Verb TensesSequence of tenses means relation between the verb tense in a main clause and the verb tense in a subordinate clause or phrase. The tenses need not be identical as long as they reflect changes in actual or relative time: He had left before I arrived. (The verbs are in clear sequence) Here are some of the difficulties in the tense sequence.
Tense Sequence with the Past or Past Perfect TenseWhen the verb in the main clause is in the past or past perfect tense, the verb in the subordinate clause must also be past or past perfect. The researchers discovered that people varied widely in their knowledge of public events. The variation occurred because respondents had been born in different decades. None of them had been born when the play was first staged.
Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2EXCEPTION: Always use the present tense for a general truth: The earth is round. Most understood that popular presidents are not necessarily good presidents.
ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICEA sentence is in the active voice when the subject performs the action of the verb: Shakespeare wrote that play. A sentence is in the passive voice when the subject receives the action of the verb. The play was written by Shakespeare. A passive verb always consists of a form of be plus the past participle of the main verb. You may add a phrase beginning with by after the verb in a passive voice sentence.
Plays are performed by actors. Songs have been sung by performers.
Only a transitive verb (on that takes an object) may be used in the passive voice.
FORMULAE OF TENSESINDEFINITE TENSE Affirmative Present: S + V (1st + s, es, ies + O He eats an apple. Past: S + V (2) + O He ate an apple. Future: S + will/shall + V + (1st) + O He will eat an apple. Negative Present: S + do/does + not + V1 + O He does not eat an apple. Past: S + did + not + V1 + O He did not eat an apple.
Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2Future: S + will/shall + not + V1 + O He will not eat an apple. Interrogative Present: Do/does + S + V1 + O Does he eat an apple? Past: Did + S + V1 + O Did he eat an apple? Future: S + will/shall + not V1 + O Will he eat an apple? CONTINUOUS TENSE Affirmative Present: S + H/v (is, am, are) + V (4th) + O I am winding the clock. Past: S + H/v (was, were) + V (4th) + O I was winding the clock. Future: S + H/v (will be) + V (4th) + O I will be winding the clock. Negative Present: S + is, am, are + not + V (4th) + O I am not winding the clock. Past: S + was, were + not + V (4th) + O I was not winding the clock. Future: S + will + not + be + V (4th) + O I will n be winding the clock. Interrogative Present: Is, am, are + S + V (4th) + O Am I winding the clock? Past: Was, were + S + V (4th) + O Was I winding the clock? Future: Will + S + be + V (4th) + O Will I be winding the clock? PERFECT TENSE Present: S + H/v (has, have) + V (3rd) + O Past: S + H/v (had) + V (3rd) + O Future: S + H/v (will have) + V (3rd) + O PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Compiled by: Ghulam Muhammad 201 Abbasi 2Present: S + H/v (has been, have been) + V (4th) + O + Since/for Past: S + H/v (had been) + V (4th) + O + Since/for Future: S + H/v (will have been) + V (4th) + O SINCE shows the fixation of time. For example: morning, afternoon, night, evening, many, some, name of days or months. FOR shows the duration of time. For example: 5 minutes, 6 days, 2 hours, 3 weeks. OR Since is used for a specific time 1998, January, last week, one month ago. For is used for general periods of time 2 hours, 3 days, 1 month.
ACTIVE VOICE AND PASSIVE VOICEIn the active voice the subject acts.Subject = Actor The city Transitive verb in active voice Controls Direct object rents