England and France DevelopAs the kingdoms of England and France began to develop into nations, certain democratic traditions evolved.
Anglo-Saxon KingdomsBy the early 800s, small Anglo-Saxon kingdoms covered the former Roman province.The Anglo-Saxons were a result of years of invaders from Denmark and Germany. England or Angles were a result of German tribes.
The Norman ConquestNormandy was a land in Northern France that had been invaded by Vikings.
In 1066 King Edward of England dies without an heir.
His cousin, William the Conqueror from Normandy claims the English crown and invades England.
On October 14, 1066, The Battle of Hastings is a battle between the Normans and Saxons over control of England.
Victory belongs to William and he claims all of England as his own personal property. He grants fiefs to 200 Norman lords and sets foundations for a centralized government.
Invasion of EnglandThe Normans
English King Marries French QueenThis brings lots of land
Eleanor marries twice: Louis VII of France and Henry Plantagenet of England
Henry and Eleanor have four sons including two kings of England: John and Richard (the lion-hearted)
Henry is a good ruler and introduced many concepts:
Royal judges collect taxes, settle land suits and punish crimesIntroduces the use of a jury systemFacilitates Common Law
The Good and The BadKing Henry is succeeded by Richard (the Crusades guy)
When Richard dies, John rules from 1199-1216
John loses all lands in France and fails as a military leader
John was a mean king and is always trying to squeeze the lords for more juice.
After trying to raise taxes to finance his wars, the lords revolt.
On June 15, 1215, the lords force John to agree to the most celebrated document in English history: The Magna Carta
The Magna CartaThe magna carta guaranteed certain basic political rights
Its main purpose was to safeguard lords feudal rights and limit the kings powers
In time it allows English people of all classes to argue that it applies to every citizen
Guaranteed rights included:
No taxation without representationA jury trialThe protection of the law
The Model ParliamentIn order to hang on to the last remaining lands in France, King Edward I summons two burgesses from every borough and two knights from every county to serve on Parliament in order to raise taxes for the military campaign.
This is called the Model Parliament because it represented a new model for later kings (commoners and lords)
Eventually the two groups form what is now known as the House of Commons and the House of Lords
This system under King Edward I eventually weakens the power of the Lords
Capetian Rule in FranceHugh Capet becomes monarch in 987
Feudal lords are not threatened by his rule
Hugh and his heirs (Capetians) slowly increase their power. He does this by:
Making the throne hereditaryPlaying nobles against one anotherDeveloping a system of tax collection
Capetians rule France from 987 to 1328
Paris becomes pivotal as the center of power
Phillip II Powerful CapetianMost powerful of Hughs heirs was Philip II or Philip Augustus
Main goal: to recover lands lost to England
Philip was a crafty, unprincipled and willing-to- do anything-necessary-to-accomplish-his-goal leader
He is successful against King John of England earning the name Augustus (Latin for majestic)
Recovering land from England, he triples the land holding and for the first time becomes the most powerful French king over his vassals
In addition to the power he establishes a stronger central government. Creates the post of bailiff, a royal official that travels throughout the kingdom enforcing the kings court and tax collection system
Capetian HeirsTakes on the control of the Catholic church in France
Demanded that the church priests pay taxes and the Pope refuses
Seeks to expand the support of his decisions by including commoners in his court meetings
Expands the Estates-General to include a third estate
First Estate The church leadersSecond Estate Lords and NoblesThird Estate Commoners that mainly included artisans, tradesman, merchants. Eventually become known as the Bourgeoisie. This group centuries later help overthrow the French Monarch in the French Revolution.
State of TurmoilIn the 14th century there is much turmoil.
This threatens the fragile achievement of England and France and sets the stage for an ongoing conflict between these two emerging and powerful nations.
Decides who can build castlesForces vassals to obey themEstablish common lawCollects records of who owns landMake throne hereditaryBecome allies w/ the churchOrganize armyTake French lands from English KingsKings of EnglandKings of FranceAdd to their landsSet up organized govt.Collect taxesCreate a royal treasurySet up royal courts and royal law