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Running head: ENGAGING AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS ENGAGING AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS: COMPARING STUDENT ENGAGEMENT AND STUDENT SATISFACTION AT HISTORICAL BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SELF-IDENTIFIED PREDOMINANTLY WHITE PEER INSTITUTIONS Pu-Shih Daniel Chen Assistant Research Scientist Center for Postsecondary Research Indiana University Bloomington (812) 856-5824 [email protected]Ted N. Ingram Project Associate Center for Postsecondary Research Indiana University Bloomington Lowell Davis Project Associate Center for Postsecondary Research Indiana University Bloomington Center for Postsecondary Research Indiana University Bloomington 1900 East 10 Street Eigenmann Hall, Suite 419 Bloomington, IN 47406
Engaging African American Students ASHE - Center …cpr.indiana.edu/uploads/Engaging African American...Running head: ENGAGING AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS ENGAGING AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS:
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Table 1 Institutional Characteristics of HBCUs and PWIs HBCU PWI Number of Institutions 17 246 African American Student Percentage 89% 8% Average Full-time Enrollment (FTE) 3,872 5,695 Average Percentage of Faculty with Terminal Degree 67% 80% Average salary equated to 9-month contracts of full-time instructional faculty - all ranks
Carnegie Classifications (2000 version) Doctoral Extensive 0% 2% Doctoral Intensive 6% 10% Master’s 65% 39% Baccalaureate – Liberal Arts 0% 28% Baccalaureate – General 29% 20% Institutional Control Public 82% 55% Private 18% 45% Barron’s Selectivity Noncompetitive 6% 6% Less Competitive 41% 12% Competitive 53% 46% Very Competitive 0% 20% Highly Competitive 0% 13% Most Competitive 0% 4% Region New England 0% 9% Mid East 18% 18% Great Lakes 6% 15% Plains 0% 12% Southeast 65% 32% Southwest 6% 7% Rocky Mountains 0% 2% Far West 0% 6% Outlying Areas 6% 0% Locale Large City 24% 7% Mid-size City 29% 33% Urban Fringe of Large City 18% 18% Urban Fringe of Mid-size City 18% 9% Large Town 0% 5% Small Town 6% 24% Rural 6% 5%
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Table 2 African American Student Engagement and Satisfaction at HBCUs and PWIs
Gains Gain in General Education 74.71 74.75 .004 .947 <.001Gain in Personal and Social Development 64.62 54.01 144.41 <.001 .034Gain in Practical Competence 72.54 69.30 14.06 <.001 .003
Student SatisfactionOverall Satisfaction 66.20 69.92 10.25 .001 .002How would you evaluate the quality of academic advising you have received at your institution?
Excellent 23% 28.3% Good 40% 40.7% Fair 25.6% 22.7% Poor 11.3% 8.3% How would you evaluate your entire educational experience at this institution?
Excellent 25.2% 32.4% Good 54.3% 51.3% Fair 17.7% 14.6% Poor 2.8% 1.7% If you could start over again, would you go to the same institution you are now attending?
Definitely yes 33.6% 36.5% Probably yes 37.9% 39.3% Probably no 18.9% 17.1% Definitely no 9.6% 7.1%
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Table 3 NSSE Item Correlations with Overall Satisfaction
NSSE Items Spearman’s
r Mean ANCOVA
HBCU PWI F p-value ηp2
8a. Relationship with other students .354 5.78 5.51 25.61 <.001 .0068b. Relationship with faculty
members .449 5.35 5.42 2.61 .106 .001
8c. Relationship with administrative personnel and offices
.400 4.21 4.89 168.27 <.001 .038
10b. Institution emphasizes in providing the support you need to help you succeed academically
.446 2.90 2.96 1.16 .283 <.001
10c. Institution emphasizes in encouraging contact among students from different economic, social, and racial or ethnic backgrounds
.344 2.45 2.45 .57 .450 <.001
10e. Institution emphasizes in providing the support you need to thrive socially
.346 2.36 2.22 18.16 <.001 .004
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NSSE Measurement Scales and Internal Consistency Index The following internal consistency indices (coefficient alpha) were calculated from 4,570 randomly selected seniors African American students at 263 U.S. 4-year colleges and universities. Level of Academic Challenge (11 items; α = .73)
Number of assigned textbooks, books, or book-length packs of course readings Number of written papers or reports of 20 pages or more Number of written papers or reports between 5 and 19 pages Number of written papers or reports of fewer than 5 pages Analyzing the basic elements of an idea, experience, or theory, such as examining a
particular case or situation in depth and considering its components Synthesizing and organizing ideas, information, or experiences into new, more complex
interpretations and relationships Making judgments about the value of information, arguments, or methods, such as
examining how others gathered and interpreted data and assessing the soundness of their conclusions
Applying theories or concepts to practical problems or in new situations Worked harder than you thought you could to meet an instructor's standards or
expectations Preparing for class (studying, reading, writing, doing homework or lab work, analyzing
data, rehearsing, and other academic activities) Spending significant amounts of time studying and on academic work
Active and Collaborative Learning (7 items; α = .7)
Asked questions in class or contributed to class discussions Made a class presentation Worked with other students on projects during class Worked with classmates outside of class to prepare class assignments Tutored or taught other students (paid or voluntary) Participated in a community-based project (e.g., service learning) as part of a regular
course Discussed ideas from your readings or classes with others outside of class (students,
Discussed grades or assignments with an instructor Discussed ideas from your readings or classes with faculty members outside of class Talked about career plans with a faculty member or advisor Received prompt feedback from faculty on your academic performance (written or oral) Worked with faculty members on activities other than coursework (committees,
orientation, student life activities, etc.) Work on a research project with a faculty member outside of course or program
Had serious conversations with students who are very different from you in terms of their religious beliefs, political opinions, or personal values
Had serious conversations with students of a different race or ethnicity than your own Encouraging contact among students from different economic, social, and racial or
ethnic backgrounds Participating in co-curricular activities (organizations, campus publications, student
government, social fraternity or sorority, intercollegiate or intramural sports, etc.) Used an electronic medium (listserv, chat group, Internet, instant messaging, etc.) to
discuss or complete an assignment Practicum, internship, field experience, co-op experience, or clinical assignment Participate in a learning community or some other formal program where groups of
students take two or more classes together Community service or volunteer work Foreign language coursework Study abroad Independent study or self-designed major Culminating senior experience (capstone course, thesis, project, comprehensive exam,
Providing the support you need to thrive socially Providing the support you need to help you succeed academically Helping you cope with your non-academic responsibilities (work, family, etc.) Relationships with: Other Students Relationships with: Faculty Members Relationships with: Administrative Personnel and Offices
Higher-Order Learning (4 items; α = .86)
Analyzed the basic elements of an idea, experience, or theory, such as examining a particular case or situation in depth and considering its components
Synthesized and organized ideas, information, or experiences into new, more complex interpretations and relationships
Made judgments about the value of information, arguments, or methods, such as examining how others gathered and interpreted data and assessing the soundness of their conclusions
Applied theories or concepts to practical problems or in new situations Integrative Learning (5 items; α = .72)
Worked on a paper or project that required integrating ideas or information from various sources
Included diverse perspectives (different races, religions, genders, political beliefs, etc.) in class discussions or writing assignments
Put together ideas or concepts from different courses when completing assignments or
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during class discussions Discussed ideas from your readings or classes with faculty members outside of class Discussed ideas from your readings or classes with others outside of class (students,
Examined the strengths and weaknesses of your own views on a topic or issue Tried to better understand someone else's views by imagining how an issue looks from
his or her perspective Learned something that changed the way you understand an issue or concept
Gain in Practical Competence (5 items; α = .82)
Acquiring job or work-related knowledge and skills Working effectively with others Using computing and information technology Analyzing quantitative problems Solving complex real-world problems
Gain in Personal and Social Development (7 items; α = .89)
Developing a personal code of values and ethics Understanding people of other racial and ethnic backgrounds Understanding yourself Learning effectively on your own Developing a deepened sense of spirituality Contributing to the welfare of your community Voting in local, state (provincial), or national (federal) elections
Gain in General Education (4 items; α = .86)
Writing clearly and effectively Speaking clearly and effectively Acquiring a broad general education Analyzing quantitative problems
Overall Satisfaction (2 items; α = .76)
How would you evaluate your entire educational experience at this institution? If you could start over again, would you go to the same institution you are now