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Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems Indian Religions Chinese Philosophies Judaism Christianity Islam

Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

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Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems. Indian Religions Chinese Philosophies Judaism Christianity Islam. Indian Religions Hinduism Brahmins (priests) – meditations Reincarnation & karma Religious tradition more than a religion Incorporates many traditions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

• Indian Religions• Chinese Philosophies• Judaism• Christianity• Islam

Page 2: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

• Indian Religions–Hinduism

•Brahmins (priests) – meditations•Reincarnation & karma•Religious tradition more than a religion

•Incorporates many traditions•Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu – principle gods

•Goal – to achieve inner perfection & become part of the world soul

Page 3: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

Brahma –Brahma –god of god of creationcreation Shiva – god Shiva – god

of of destructiondestruction

Vishnu – Vishnu – Supreme Supreme godgod

Page 4: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

•Vedas – primary sacred texts•Upanishads – elaborate on how the soul

(atman) can be united with the Brahman•Puranas – history of the universe from

creation to destruction

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~– Caste system (social rank)

•Brahmin – highest (priests)•Kshatriyas – rulers & warriors•Vaisyas – merchants & professionals•Sudras – workers & servants•Untouchables

Page 5: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

–Buddhism•Siddhartha Gautama (563-483)

–Protected from the outside world–Decided to seek a path to enlightenment

•Search for the meaning of life–To escape cycle of birth and death–Achieve state of spiritual understanding (nirvana)

Page 6: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

•Became the “Buddha” (Enlightened One)

•To attain enlightenment & enter nirvana–Middle Way – avoid uncontrolled satisfaction & desire

–Eightfold Path – means of achieving a

cessation of suffering

Page 7: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems
Page 8: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems
Page 9: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

• Chinese Philosophies– CONFUCIANISM - Confucius (Kong Fuzi)

•Searching for the key to solving China’s

problem of disorder

•How to achieve the ideal way of life & social harmony

•Unequal relationships– Superior to Inferior (father to son; king to

subject)–Ren – goodness, benevolence, nobility of

heart»Essential ingredient of a tranquil society

•Education as the key to moral betterment

Page 10: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

•Importance of History– Desire to restore a past golden age– By making use of superior talents

•Led to opportunity for social mobility

•Defined Chinese culture– Family became model for political life

– Filial piety of utmost importance»Honoring one’s ancestors»Women as submissive to husband/fathers

Page 11: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

• Confucian Wisdom:– Be not ashamed of mistakes and thus make them crimes

–Everything has beauty, but not everyone sees it.

–Forget injuries, never forget kindnesses.

–Respect yourself and others will respect you.

–Our greatest glory is not in never failing, but in getting up everytime we do.

Page 12: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems
Page 13: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

– TAOISM•Laozi (Lao-tzu) – mythical “founder”

•A way of life in which one should seek to live in balance with the flow of natural events

•Tao – mystical source of and ideal of all existence

•Goal of life – achieving harmony with the Tao

Page 14: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

• Judaism– Origins

• Abraham• Sumerian• Small, nomadic tribe• Settled in Canaan (Israel) around 1950BC

– Hebrew Religion & Bible • Monotheistic • Chosen people – covenant with God

– As long as followed God’s laws, would have protection

• Yahweh – Ethical, forgiving God– Creator of everything

Page 15: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

– History of the Jewish People•Time of Famine – fled to Egypt (~1700BC)

– Forced into slavery

•Exodus – Moses led them (1250-1225BC)

•Ten Commandments•Development of an advanced civilization

– Saul - first Hebrew king»Gained full control of Israel

– David»Made Jerusalem the capital»Ark of the Covenant

Page 16: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems

– Solomon»Built first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem»Other improvements to Jerusalem»Palace for himself»Increased trade & alliances w/ other

peoples

•Kingdom divided into two halves– North – Kingdom of Israel– South – Kingdom of Judah

•Attacks by other people (Diaspora)– 722 BC -- Assyrians under Sargon II invaded

Israel – 597 BC -- Nebuchadnezzar overran Jerusalem

»Babylonian Captivity– 538 BC Persians freed them

Page 17: Emergence & Spread of Belief Systems