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ELECTRONIC WARFARE IN OPERATIONS

Text of Electronic Warfare in OperationsELECTRONIC WARFARE IN OPERATIONS

  • FM 3-36 (Publication Date)

    ELECTRONIC WARFARE IN OPERATIONS (Final Approved Draft)

    DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

    Headquarters, Department of the Army

  • FM 3-36

    Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

    i

    Field Manual No. 3-36

    Headquarters Department of the Army

    Washington, DC, (Publication Date)

    Electronic Warfare in Operations (Final Approved Draft)

    Contents

    PREFACE .............................................................................................................iv Chapter 1 ELECTRONIC WARFARE OVERVIEW ............................................................ 1-1

    Operational Environments.................................................................................. 1-1 Information and the Electromagnetic Spectrum................................................. 1-1 Divisions of Electronic Warfare .......................................................................... 1-4 Activities and Terminology ................................................................................. 1-7 Summary .......................................................................................................... 1-12

    Chapter 2 ELECTRONIC WARFARE IN FULL SPECTRUM OPERATIONS ................... 2-1 The Role of Electronic Warfare .......................................................................... 2-1 The Application of Electronic Warfare................................................................ 2-3 Summary ............................................................................................................ 2-7

    Chapter 3 ELECTRONIC WARFARE ORGANIZATION.................................................... 3-1 Organizing Electronic Warfare Operations......................................................... 3-1 Planning and Coordinating Electronic Warfare Activities................................... 3-4 Summary ............................................................................................................ 3-6

    Chapter 4 ELECTRONIC WARFARE AND THE OPERATIONS PROCESS.................... 4-1 Section IElectronic Warfare Planning......................................................... 4-1 The Military Decisionmaking Process ................................................................ 4-2 Decisionmaking in a Time-Constrained Environment ........................................ 4-9 The Integrating Processes and Continuing Activities....................................... 4-10 Employment Considerations ............................................................................ 4-15 Section IIElectronic Warfare Preparation................................................. 4-19 Section IIIElectronic Warfare Execution................................................... 4-19 Section IVElectronic Warfare Assessment .............................................. 4-20 Summary .......................................................................................................... 4-21

  • Contents

    Chapter 5 COORDINATION, DECONFLICTION, AND SYNCHRONIZATION..................5-1 Coordination and Deconfliction...........................................................................5-1 Synchronization ..................................................................................................5-5 Summary.............................................................................................................5-5

    Chapter 6 INTEGRATION WITH JOINT AND MULTINATIONAL OPERATIONS.............6-1 Joint Electronic Warfare Operations ...................................................................6-1 Multinational Electronic Warfare Operations ......................................................6-4 Summary.............................................................................................................6-6

    Chapter 7 ELECTRONIC WARFARE CAPABILITIES.......................................................7-1 Service Electronic Warfare Capabilities..............................................................7-1 External Support Agencies and Activities ...........................................................7-1 Summary.............................................................................................................7-3

    Appendix A THE ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT................................................... A-1 Appendix B ELECTRONIC WARFARE INPUT TO OPERATION PLANS AND ORDERS. B-1 Appendix C ELECTRONIC WARFARE RUNNING ESTIMATE........................................... C-1 Appendix D ELECTRONIC WARFARE-RELATED REPORTS AND MESSAGES............. D-1 Appendix E ARMY AND JOINT ELECTRONIC WARFARE CAPABILITIES...................... E-1 Appendix F TOOLS AND RESOURCES RELATED TO ELECTRONIC WARFARE...........F-1 GLOSSARY.......................................................................................... Glossary-1 REFERENCES.................................................................................. References-1

    Figures

    Figure 1-1. The electromagnetic spectrum......................................................................1-2 Figure 1-2. Electromagnetic spectrum targets.................................................................1-3 Figure 1-3. The three subdivisions of electronic warfare.................................................1-4 Figure 1-4. Means versus effects ..................................................................................1-12 Figure 2-1. Electronic warfare weight of effort during operations....................................2-2 Figure 3-1. Electronic warfare coordination organizational framework ...........................3-2 Figure 4-1. The operations process.................................................................................4-1 Figure 4-2. Example of analysis for an enemy center of gravity......................................4-3 Figure 4-3. Course of action development.......................................................................4-5 Figure 4-4. Course of action comparison.........................................................................4-8 Figure 4-5. Integrating processes and continuing activities...........................................4-10 Figure 4-6. Electronic warfare support to intelligence preparation of the battlefield .....4-11 Figure 4-7. Electronic warfare in the targeting process .................................................4-13 Figure 5-1. Spectrum deconfliction procedures...............................................................5-3 Figure 6-1. Joint frequency management coordination ...................................................6-3 Figure 6-2. Electronic warfare support request coordination...........................................6-4 Figure A-1. The electromagnetic spectrum..................................................................... A-2

    ii FM 3-36 (Final Approved Draft) (Publication date)

  • Contents

    Figure B-1. Appendix 4 (Electronic Warfare) to annex P (Information Operations) instructions...................................................................................................B-2

    Figure C-1. Example of an electronic warfare running estimate .....................................C-2 Figure C-2. Sample update information to the electronic warfare running estimate.......C-3 Figure E-1. Guardrail common sensor ............................................................................E-2 Figure E-2. Aerial common sensor (concept)..................................................................E-2 Figure E-3. Prophet (vehicle-mounted) ...........................................................................E-3 Figure E-4. AN/MLQ-36A mobile electronic warfare support system .............................E-5 Figure E-5. EA-6B Prowler ..............................................................................................E-6 Figure E-6. EC-130H Compass Call ...............................................................................E-8 Figure E-7. RC-135V/W Rivet Joint.................................................................................E-9 Figure E-8. Navy EA-6B Prowler...................................................................................E-10 Figure E-9. EA-18 Growler ............................................................................................E-11

    Tables

    Table 2-1. Two Army information tasks: command and control warfare and information protection .................................................................................. 2-4

    Table 2-2. Electronic warfare support to two Army information tasks............................. 2-5 Table 3-1. Functions of electronic warfare working groups ............................................ 3-3 Table 4-1. Sample input to synchronization matrix ......................................................... 4-7 Table A-1. Radio and radar designators and frequency bands ......................................A-3 Table E-1. Army and joint electronic warfare capabilities .............................................E-13 Table E-2. Electronic warfare systems and platforms resources..................................E-14

    (Publication date) FM 3-36 (Final Approved Draft) iii

  • Preface

    PURPOSE FM 3-36 provides Army doctrine for electronic warfare (EW) planning, preparation, execution, and assessment in support of full spectrum operations. Users of FM 3-36 must be familiar with full spectrum operations established in FM 3-0; the military decisionmaking process established in FM 5-0; the operations process established in FMI 5-0.1; commanders visualization described in FM 6-0; and electronic warfare described in JP 3-13.1.

    SCOPE FM 3-36 is organized into seven chapters and six appendixes. Each chapter addresses a major aspect of Army EW operations. The appendixes address aspects of EW operations that complement the operational doctrine. A glossary contains selected terms.

    Chapter 1 discusses the nature and scope of electronic warfare and the impact of the electromagnetic environment on Army operations.

    Chapter 2 offers a discussion of EW support to full spectrum operations, combat power, the warfighting functions, and information tasks.

    Chapter 3 introduces the organizational framework for command and control of EW operations. Chapter 4 describes how commanders integrate EW operations throughout the operations process. Chapter 5 discusses the coordination required to synchronize and deconflict EW operations

    effectively. Chapter 6 provides the baseline for integrating EW operations into joint and multinational

    operations. Chapter 7 discusses the enabling activities that support EW operations, such as command and

    control, intelligence, logistics, technical support and EW training. Appendix A discusses the electromagnetic environment. Appendix B illustrates an EW appendix to an operation order. Appendix C illustrates an EW running estimate. Appendix D discusses EW related reports and messages. Appendix E offers a reference guide to Army and joint EW capabilities. Appendix F discusses EW-related tools and resources.

    APPLICABILITY FM 3-36 provides guidance on EW operations for commanders and staffs at all echelons. This FM serves as an authoritative reference for personnel who

    Develop doctrine (fundamental principles and tactics, techniques, and procedures), materiel, and force structure.

    Develop institutional and unit training. Develop standing operating procedures for unit operations. Conduct planning, preparation, execution and assessment of electronic warfare.

    FM 3-36 applies to the Active Army, Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States, and U.S. Army Reserve.

    iv FM 3-36 (Final Approved Draft) (Publication date)

  • Preface

    ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION Headquarters, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, is the proponent for this publication. The preparing agency is the U.S. Army Electronic Warfare Proponent, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center. Send written comments and recommendations on a DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) to Commander, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center and Fort Leavenworth, ATTN: ATZL-CSB-EW (FM 3-36), 950 Bluntville Lane, Building 391, Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-2337; by e-mail to [email protected]; or submit an electronic DA Form 2028. The FM 3-36 writing team chief also may be contacted at commercial (913) 684-9464.

    (Publication date) FM 3-36 (Final Approved Draft) v

  • Chapter 1

    Electronic Warfare Overview

    This chapter provides an overview of electronic warfare and the conceptual foundation that leaders require to understand the electromagnetic environment and its impact on Army operations.

    OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS 1-1. An operational environment is a composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of capabilities and bear on the decisions of the commander (JP 3-0). An operational environment includes physical areasthe air, land, maritime, and space domains. It also includes the information that shapes the operational environment as well as enemy, adversary, friendly, and neutral systems relevant to a joint operation. Joint planners analyze operational environments in terms of six interrelated operational variables: political, military, economic, social, information, and infrastructure. To these variables Army doctrine adds two more: physical environment and time. (See FM 3-0 for additional information on the operational variables). Army leaders use operational variables to understand and analyze the broad environment in which they are conducting operations.

    1-2. Army leaders use mission variables to synthesize operational variables and tactical-level information with local knowledge about conditions relevant to their mission. They use mission variables to focus analysis on specific elements that directly affect their mission. Upon receipt of a warning order or mission, Army tactical leaders narrow their focus to six mission variables known as METT-TC. They are mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available and civil considerations. The mission variables outline the situation as it applies to a specific Army unit.

    1-3. Commanders employ and integrate their units capabilities and actions within their operational environment to achieve a desired end state. Through analyzing their operational environment, commanders understand how the results of friendly, adversary, and neutral actions may impact that end state. During military operations, both friendly and enemy commanders depend on the flow of information to make informed decisions. This flow of information depends on the electronic systems and devices used to communicate, navigate, sense, store, and process information.

    INFORMATION AND THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM 1-4. Commanders plan for and operate electronic systems and the weapon systems that depend on them in an intensive and nonpermissive electromagnetic environment. They ensure the flow of information required for their decisionmaking. (Appendix A further discusses the electromagnetic environment.) Within the electromagnetic environment, electronic systems and devices operate in the electromagnetic spectrum. (See figure 1-1, page 1-2.)

    1-5. The electromagnetic spectrum has been used for commercial and military applications for over a century. However, the full potential for its use as the primary enabler of military operations is not yet fully appreciated. New technologies are expanding beyond the traditional radio frequency spectrum. They include high-power microwaves and directed-energy weapons. These new technologies are part of an electronic warfare (EW) revolution by military forces. Just as friendly forces leverage the electromagnetic spectrum to their advantage, so do capable enemies use the electromagnetic spectrum to threaten friendly force operations. The threat is compounded by the growth of a wireless world and the increasingly sophisticated use of commercial off-the-shelf technologies.

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  • Chapter 1

    Figure 1-1. The electromagnetic spectrum

    1-6. Adversaries and enemies, from small and single actors to large state, multinational, and nonstate actors, use the most modern technology. Such technology is moving into the cellular and satellite communications area. Most military and commercial operations rely on electromagnetic technologies and are susceptible to the inherent vulnerabilities associated with their use. This reliance requires Army forces to dominate the electromagnetic spectrum (within their operational environment) with the same authority that they dominate traditional land warfare operations. Emerging electromagnetic technologies offer expanded EW capabilities. They dynamically affect the electromagnetic spectrum through delivery and integration with other types of emerging weapons and capabilities. Examples are directed-energy weapons, high-powered microwaves, lasers, infrared, and electro-optical and wireless networks and devices.

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  • Electronic Warfare Overview

    1-7. In any conflict, commanders attempt to dominate the electromagnetic spectrum. They do this by locating, targeting, exploiting, disrupting, degrading, deceiving, denying, or destroying the enemys electronic systems that support military operations or deny the spectrums use by friendly forces. The increasing portability and affordability of sophisticated electronic equipment guarantees that the electromagnetic environment in which forces operate will become even more complex. To ensure unimpeded access to and use of the electromagnetic spectrum, commanders plan, prepare, execute, and assess EW operations against a broad set of targets within the electromagnetic spectrum. (See figure 1-2.)

    Figure 1-2. Electromagnetic spectrum targets

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  • Chapter 1

    DIVISIONS OF ELECTRONIC WARFARE 1-8. Electronic warfare is defined as military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. Electronic warfare consists of three divisions: electronic attack, electronic protection, and electronic warfare support (JP 3-13.1). (See figure 1-3.)

    Figure 1-3. The three subdivisions of electronic warfare

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  • Electronic Warfare Overview

    ELECTRONIC ATTACK 1-9. Electronic attack is a division of electronic warfare involving the use of electromagnetic energy, directed energy, or antiradiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability and is considered a form of fires (JP 3-13.1). Electronic attack includes

    z Actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemys effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as jamming and electromagnetic deception.

    z Employment of weapons that use either electromagnetic or directed energy as their primary destructive mechanism (lasers, radio frequency weapons, particle beams).

    z Offensive and defensive activities including countermeasures. 1-10. Common types of electronic attack include spot, barrage, and sweep electromagnetic jamming. Electronic attack actions also include various electromagnetic deception techniques such as false target or duplicate target generation. (See paragraphs 1-23 to 1-31 for further discussion of electronic attack activities.)

    1-11. Directed energy is an umbrella term covering technologies that relate to the production of a beam of concentrated electromagnetic energy or atomic or subatomic particles (JP 1-02). A directed-energy weapon uses directed energy primarily as a direct means to damage or destroy an enemys equipment, facilities, and personnel. In addition to destructive effects, directed-energy weapon systems support area denial and crowd control. (See appendix A for more information on directed energy.)

    1-12. Examples of offensive electronic attack include z Jamming enemy radar or electronic command and control systems. z Using antiradiation missiles to suppress enemy air defenses (antiradiation weapons use radiated

    energy emitted from the target as their mechanism for guidance onto targeted emitters). z Using electronic deception techniques to confuse enemy intelligence, surveillance, and

    reconnaissance systems. z Using directed-energy weapons to disable an enemys equipment or capability.

    1-13. Defensive electronic attack uses the electromagnetic spectrum to protect personnel, facilities, capabilities, and equipment. Examples include self-protection and other protection measures such as use of expendables (flares and active decoys), jammers, towed decoys, directed-energy infrared countermeasure systems, and counter-radio-controlled improvised-explosive-device systems. (See JP 3-13.1 for more discussion of electronic attack.)

    ELECTRONIC PROTECTION 1-14. Electronic protection is a division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability (JP 3-13.1). For example, electronic protection includes actions taken to ensure friendly use of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as frequency agility in a radio, or variable pulse repetition frequency in radar. Electronic protection should not be confused with self-protection. Both defensive electronic attack and electronic protection protect personnel, facilities, capabilities, and equipment. However, electronic protection protects from the effects of electronic attack (friendly and enemy), while defensive electronic attack primarily protects against lethal attacks by denying enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum to guide or trigger weapons.

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  • Chapter 1

    1-15. During operations, electronic protection includes, but is not limited to, the application of training and procedures for countering enemy electronic attack. Army commanders and forces understand the threat and vulnerability of friendly electronic equipment to enemy electronic attack and take appropriate actions to safeguard friendly combat capability from exploitation and attack. Electronic protection measures minimize the enemys ability to conduct electronic warfare support (electronic warfare support is discussed in paragraphs 1-18 to 1-20) and electronic attack operations successfully against friendly forces. To protect friendly combat capabilities, units

    z Regularly brief force personnel on the EW threat. z Ensure that electronic system capabilities are safeguarded during exercises, workups, and

    predeployment training. z Coordinate and deconflict electromagnetic spectrum usage. z Provide training during routine home station planning and training activities on appropriate

    electronic protection active and passive measures. z Take appropriate actions to minimize the vulnerability of friendly receivers to enemy jamming

    (such as reduced power, brevity of transmissions, and directional antennas).

    1-16. Electronic protection also includes spectrum management. The spectrum manager works for the G-6 or S-6 and plays a key role in the coordination and deconfliction of spectrum resources allocated to the force. Spectrum managers or their direct representatives participate in the planning for EW operations.

    1-17. The development and acquisition of communications and electronic systems includes electronic protection requirements to clarify performance parameters. Army forces design their equipment to limit inherent vulnerabilities. If electronic attack vulnerabilities are detected, then units must review these programs. (See DODI 4650.01 for information on the spectrum certification process and electromagnetic compatibility.)

    ELECTRONIC WARFARE SUPPORT 1-18. Electronic warfare support is a division of electronic warfare involving actions tasked by, or under the direct control of, an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition, targeting, planning, and conduct of future operations (JP 3-13.1).

    1-19. Electronic warfare support systems are a source of information for immediate decisions involving electronic attack, electronic protection, avoidance, targeting, and other tactical employments of forces. Electronic warfare support systems collect data and produce information or intelligence to

    z Corroborate other sources of information or intelligence. z Conduct or direct electronic attack operations. z Initiate self-protection measures. z Task weapon systems. z Support electronic protection efforts. z Create or update EW databases. z Support information tasks.

    1-20. Electronic warfare support and signals intelligence missions use the same resources. The two differ in the detected informations intended use, the degree of analytical effort expended, the detail of information provided, and the time lines required. Like tactical signals intelligence, electronic warfare support missions respond to the immediate requirements of a tactical commander. Signals intelligence above the tactical level is under the operational control of the National Security Agency and directly supports the overarching national security mission. Resources that collect tactical-level electronic warfare support data can simultaneously collect national-level signals intelligence. See FM 2-0 for more information on signals intelligence.

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  • Electronic Warfare Overview

    ACTIVITIES AND TERMINOLOGY 1-21. Although new equipment and tactics, techniques, and procedures continue to be developed, the physics of electromagnetic energy remains constant. Hence, effective EW activities remain the same despite changes in hardware and tactics. Principal EW activities are discussed in the following paragraphs.

    PRINCIPAL ACTIVITIES 1-22. Principal EW activities support full spectrum operations by exploiting the opportunities and vulnerabilities inherent in the use of the electromagnetic spectrum. The numerous EW activities are categorized by the EW subdivisions with which they are most closely associated: electronic attack, electronic warfare support, and electronic protection. JP 3-13.1 discusses these principal activities in detail.

    Electronic Attack Activities 1-23. Activities related to electronic attack are either offensive or defensive and include

    z Countermeasures. z Electromagnetic deception. z Electromagnetic intrusion. z Electromagnetic jamming. z Electromagnetic pulse. z Electronic probing.

    Countermeasures

    1-24. Countermeasures are that form of military science that, by the employment of devices and/or techniques, has as its objective the impairment of the operational effectiveness of enemy activity (JP 1-02). They can be deployed preemptively or reactively. Devices and techniques used for EW countermeasures include electro-optical-infrared countermeasures and radio frequency countermeasures.

    1-25. Electro-optical-infrared countermeasures consist of any device or technique employing electro-optical-infrared materials or technology that is intended to impair or counter the effectiveness of enemy activity, particularly with respect to precision guided weapons and sensor systems. Electro-optical-infrared is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum between the high end of the far infrared and the low end of ultraviolet. Electro-optical-infrared countermeasures may use laser and broadband jammers, smokes/aerosols, signature suppressants, decoys, pyrotechnics/pyrophorics, high-energy lasers, or directed infrared energy countermeasures (JP 3-13.1).

    1-26. Radio frequency countermeasures consist of any device or technique employing radio frequency materials or technology that is intended to impair the effectiveness of or counter enemy activity, particularly with respect to precision guided weapons and sensor systems (JP 3-13.1).

    Electromagnetic Deception

    1-27. Electromagnetic deception is the deliberate radiation, reradiation, alteration, suppression, absorption, denial, enhancement, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner intended to convey misleading information to an enemy or to enemy electromagnetic-dependent weapons, thereby degrading or neutralizing the enemys combat capability (JP 3-13.4). Among the types of electromagnetic deception are the following:

    z Manipulative electromagnetic deception involves actions to eliminate revealing, or convey misleading, electromagnetic telltale indicators that may be used by hostile forces.

    z Simulative electromagnetic deception involves actions to simulate friendly, notional, or actual capabilities to mislead hostile forces.

    z Imitative electromagnetic deception introduces electromagnetic energy into enemy systems that imitates enemy emissions.

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  • Chapter 1

    Electromagnetic Intrusion

    1-28. Electromagnetic intrusion is the intentional insertion of electromagnetic energy into transmission paths in any manner, with the objective of deceiving operators or of causing confusion (JP 1-02).

    Electromagnetic Jamming

    1-29. Electromagnetic jamming is the deliberate radiation, re-radiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy for the purpose of preventing or reducing an enemys effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum, with the intent of degrading or neutralizing the enemys combat capability (JP 1-02).

    Electromagnetic Pulse

    1-30. Electromagnetic pulse is the electromagnetic radiation from a strong electronic pulse, most commonly caused by a nuclear explosion that may couple with electrical or electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges (JP 1-02).

    Electronic Probing

    1-31. Electronic probing is the intentional radiation designed to be introduced into the devices or systems of potential enemies for the purpose of learning the functions and operational capabilities of the devices (JP 1-02). This activity is coordinated through joint or interagency channels and supported by Army forces.

    Electronic Warfare Support Activities 1-32. Activities related to electronic warfare support include

    z Electronic reconnaissance. z Electronic intelligence. z Electronics security.

    Electronic Reconnaisance

    1-33. Electronic reconnaissance is the detection, location, identification, and evaluation of foreign electromagnetic radiations (JP 1-02).

    Electronic Intelligence

    1-34. Electronic intelligence is technical and geolocation intelligence derived from foreign noncommunications electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear detonations or radioactive sources (JP 1-02).

    Electronics Security

    1-35. Electronics security is the protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from their interception and study of noncommunications electromagnetic radiations, e.g., radar (JP 1-02).

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  • Electronic Warfare Overview

    Electronic Protection Activities 1-36. Activities related to electronic protection include

    z Electromagnetic hardening. z Electromagnetic interference. z Electronic masking. z Electronic warfare reprogramming. z Emission control. z Spectrum management. z Wartime reserve modes. z Electromagnetic compatibility.

    Electromagnetic Hardening

    1-37. Electromagnetic hardening consists of action taken to protect personnel, facilities, and/or equipment by filtering, attenuating, grounding, bonding, and/or shielding against undesirable effects of electromagnetic energy (JP 1-02).

    Electromagnetic Interference

    1-38. Electromagnetic interference is any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effective performance of electronics and electrical equipment. It can be induced intentionally, as in some forms of electronic warfare, or unintentionally, as a result of spurious emissions and responses, intermodulation products and the like (JP 1-02).

    Electronic Masking

    1-39. Electronic masking is the controlled radiation of electromagnetic energy on friendly frequencies in a manner to protect the emissions of friendly communications and electronic systems against enemy electronic warfare support measures/signals intelligence, without significantly degrading the operation of friendly systems (JP 1-02).

    Electronic Warfare Reprogramming

    1-40. Electronic warfare reprogramming is the deliberate alteration or modification of electronic warfare or target sensing systems, or the tactics and procedures that employ them, in response to validated changes in equipment, tactics, or the electromagnetic environment. These changes may be the result of deliberate actions on the part of friendly, adversary, or third parties; or may be brought about by electromagnetic interference or other inadvertent phenomena. The purpose of electronic warfare reprogramming is to maintain or enhance the effectiveness of electronic warfare and target sensing system equipment. Electronic warfare reprogramming includes changes to self-defense systems, offensive weapons systems, and intelligence collection systems (JP 3-13.1).

    Emission Control

    1-41. Emission control is the selective and controlled use of electromagnetic, acoustic, or other emitters to optimize command and control capabilities while minimizing transmissions for operations security: a. detection by enemy sensors; b. mutual interference among friendly systems; and/or c. enemy interference with the ability to execute a military deception plan (JP 1-02).

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  • Chapter 1

    Electromagnetic Spectrum Management

    1-42. Electromagnetic spectrum management is planning, coordinating, and managing joint use of the electromagnetic spectrum through operational, engineering, and administrative procedures. The objective of spectrum management is to enable electronic systems to perform their functions in the intended environment without causing or suffering unacceptable interference (JP 6-0).

    Wartime Reserve Modes

    1-43. Wartime reserve modes are characteristics and operating procedures of sensors, communications, navigation aids, threat recognition, weapons, and countermeasures systems that will contribute to military effectiveness if unknown to or misunderstood by opposing commanders before they are used, but could be exploited or neutralized if known in advance. Wartime reserve modes are deliberately held in reserve for wartime or emergency use and seldom, if ever, applied or intercepted prior to such use (JP 1-02).

    Electromagnetic Compatibility

    1-44. Electromagnetic compatibility is the ability of systems, equipment, and devices that utilize the electromagnetic spectrum to operate in their intended operational environments without suffering unacceptable degradation or causing unintentional degradation because of electromagnetic radiation or response. It involves the application of sound electromagnetic spectrum management; system, equipment, and device design configuration that ensures interference-free operation; and clear concepts and doctrines that maximize operational effectiveness (JP 1-02).

    APPLICATION TERMINOLOGY 1-45. EW capabilities are applied from the air, land, sea, and space by manned, unmanned, attended, or unattended systems. Units employ EW capabilities to achieve the desired lethal or nonlethal effect on a given target. Units maintain freedom of action in the electromagnetic spectrum while controlling the use of it by the enemy. Regardless of the application, units employing EW capabilities must use appropriate levels of control and protection of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this way, they avoid adversely affecting friendly forces. (Improper EW actions must be avoided because they may cause fratricide or eliminate high-value intelligence targets.)

    1-46. In the context of EW application, units use several terms to facilitate control and protection of the electromagnetic spectrum. Terms used in EW application include control, detection, denial, deception, disruption and degradation, protection, and destruction. The three subdivisions of EWelectronic attack, electronic protection, and electronic warfare supportare specified within the following descriptions.

    Control 1-47. In the context of EW, control of the electromagnetic spectrum is achieved by effectively coordinating friendly systems while countering enemy systems. Electronic attack limits enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum. Electronic protection secures use of the electromagnetic spectrum for friendly forces, and electronic warfare support enables the commanders accurate assessment of the situation. All three are integrated for effectiveness. Commanders ensure maximum integration of communications; intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; and information tasks.

    Detection 1-48. In the context of EW, detection is the active and passive monitoring of the operational environment for radio frequency, electro-optic, laser, infrared, and ultraviolet electromagnetic threats. Detection is the first step in EW for exploitation, targeting, and defensive planning. Friendly forces maintain the capability to detect and characterize interference as hostile jamming or unintentional electromagnetic interference.

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  • Electronic Warfare Overview

    Denial 1-49. In the context of EW, denial is controlling the information an enemy receives via the electromagnetic spectrum and preventing the acquisition of accurate information about friendly forces. Degradation uses traditional jamming techniques, expendable countermeasures, destructive measures, or network applications. These range from limited effects up to complete denial of usage.

    Deception 1-50. In the context of EW, deception is confusing or misleading an enemy by using some combination of human-produced, mechanical, or electronic means. Through use of the electromagnetic spectrum, EW deception manipulates the enemys decision loop, making it difficult to establish accurate situational awareness.

    Disruption and Degradation 1-51. In the context of EW, disruption and degradation techniques interfere with the enemys use of the electromagnetic spectrum to limit enemy combat capabilities. This is achieved with electronic jamming, electronic deception, and electronic intrusion. These enhance attacks on hostile forces and act as force multipliers by increasing enemy uncertainty, while reducing uncertainty for friendly forces. Advanced electronic attack techniques offer the opportunity to nondestructively disrupt or degrade enemy infrastructure.

    Protection 1-52. In the context of EW, protection is the use of physical properties; operational tactics, techniques, and procedures; and planning and employment processes to ensure friendly use of the electromagnetic spectrum. This includes ensuring that offensive EW activities do not electronically destroy or degrade friendly intelligence sensors or communications systems. Protection is achieved by component hardening, emission control, and frequency management and deconfliction. Frequency management and deconfliction include the capability to detect, characterize, geolocate, and mitigate electromagnetic interference that affects operations. Protection includes other means to counterattack and defeat enemy attempts to control the electromagnetic spectrum. Additionally, organizations such as a joint force commanders EW staff or a joint EW coordination cell enhance electronic protection by deconflicting EW efforts.

    Destruction 1-53. Destruction, in the context of EW, is the elimination of targeted enemy systems. Sensors and command and control nodes are lucrative targets because their destruction strongly influences the enemys perceptions and ability to coordinate actions. Various weapons and techniques ranging from conventional munitions and directed energy weapons to network attacks can destroy enemy systems that use the electromagnetic spectrum. Electronic warfare support provides target location and related information. While destroying enemy equipment can effectively deny the enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum, the duration of denial will depend on the enemys ability to reconstitute. (See JP 3-13.1.)

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  • Chapter 1

    MEANS VERSUS EFFECTS 1-54. EW means are applied against targets to create a full range of lethal and nonlethal effects. (See figure 1-4.) Choosing a specific EW capability depends on the desired effect on the target and other considerations, such as time sensitivity or limiting collateral damage. EW capabilities provide commanders with additional options for achieving their objectives. During major combat operations there may be circumstances where commanders want to limit the physical damage on a given target. Under such circumstances, the EW staff articulates clearly to the commander the lethal and nonlethal effects EW capabilities can achieve. For example, a target might be enemy radar mounted on a fixed tower. Two EW options to defeat the radar could be to jam the radar or destroy it with antiradiation missiles. If the commander desired to limit damage to the tower, an electronic attack jamming platform would be preferred. In circumstances where commanders cannot sufficiently limit undesired effects such as collateral damage, they may be constrained from applying physical force. The EW staff articulates succinctly how EW capabilities can support actions to achieve desired effects and provide lethal and nonlethal options for commanders.

    Figure 1-4. Means versus effects

    SUMMARY 1-55. As the modern battlefield becomes more technologically sophisticated, military operations continue to be executed in an increasingly complex electromagnetic environment. Therefore, commanders and staffs need to thoroughly understand and articulate how the electromagnetic environment impacts their operations and how friendly EW operations can be used to gain an advantage. Commanders and staffs use the terminology presented in this chapter to describe the application of EW. This ensures a common understanding and consistency within plans, orders, standing operating procedures, and directives.

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  • Chapter 2

    Electronic Warfare in Full Spectrum Operations

    Information technology is becoming universally available. Most enemies rely on communications and computer networks to make and implement decisions. Radios remain the backbone of tactical military command and control architectures. However, most communications relayed over radio networks are becoming digital as more computers link networks through transmitted frequencies. Therefore, the ability to dominate the electromagnetic spectrum is central to full spectrum operations. This chapter describes how commanders apply electronic warfare capabilities to support full spectrum operations.

    THE ROLE OF ELECTRONIC WARFARE 2-1. Army electronic warfare (EW) operations seek to provide the land force commander with capabilities to support full spectrum operations. Full spectrum operations consist of the purposeful, simultaneous combination of offense, defense, and stability or civil support. The goal of full spectrum operations is to change the operational environment so that peaceful processes are dominant. Nonetheless, operational environments are complex; commanders must conduct operations across the entire spectrum of conflict. The Army maintains flexible forces with balanced capabilities and capacities. These flexible and balanced forces remain able to conduct major operations while executing other day-to-day smaller-scale operations. (See FM 3-0.)

    2-2. Figure 2-1 (page 2-2) shows the weight of effort for using EW during operations. This figure adapts the elements of full spectrum operations (offense, defense, and stability or civil support) as described in FM 3-0. Overseas, Army forces conduct full spectrum operations (offensive, defensive, and stability) simultaneously as part of a joint force. Within the United States, Army forces conduct homeland defense and civil support operations as part of homeland security. Army electronic warfare (EW) operations seek to provide the land force commander with capabilities to support full spectrum operations. As noted in figure 2-1, statutory law limits the use of EW capabilities in support of civil support operations.

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    Figure 2-1. Electronic warfare weight of effort during operations

    2-3. Full spectrum operations involve more than executing all elements of operations simultaneously. They require that commanders and staffs consider their units capabilities and capacities relative to each of the elements of full spectrum operations. Commanders consider how much can be accomplished simultaneously, how much can be phased, and what nonorganic resources may be available to solve problems. The same applies to EW in support of full spectrum operations. Commanders and staffs determine which resident and joint force EW capabilities to leverage in support of each element of full spectrum operations. Weighting the EW focus of effort within each of the elements assists commanders and their staffs in visualizing how EW capabilities can support their operations. Commanders combine offensive, defensive, and stability or civil support operations to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative. As they apply the appropriate level of EW effort to support these elements, commanders can seize, retain, and exploit the initiative within the electromagnetic environment.

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    THE APPLICATION OF ELECTRONIC WARFARE 2-4. To support full spectrum operations and achieve the goal of electromagnetic spectrum dominance, commanders fully integrate EW capabilities and apply them across the elements of combat power. Leadership and information are applied through, and multiply the effects of, the other six elements of combat power. Paragraphs 2-5 through 2-16 discuss the elements of combat power and how EW capabilities can support them.

    IN SUPPORT OF LEADERSHIP 2-5. Leadership initiates the conditions for success. Commanders balance the ability to mass the effects of lethal and nonlethal systems with the requirements to deploy and sustain the units that employ those systems. Generating and maintaining combat power throughout an operation is essential. Todays operational environments require leaders who are competent, confident, and informed in using and protecting combat capabilities that operate within the electromagnetic spectrum. Commanders plan, prepare, execute, and assess EW operations to dominate the electromagnetic spectrum within their operational environment. To accomplish this domination, commanders effectively apply and integrate EW operations across the warfighting functions.

    IN SUPPORT OF INFORMATION TASKS AND CAPABILITIES 2-6. Information is the element of combat power consisting of meaningful facts, data, and impressions used to develop a common situational understanding, to enable battle command, and to affect the operational environment. (See FM 3-0 for a discussion of combat power.) In modern conflict, gaining information superiority has become as important as lethal action in determining the outcome of operations. Information superiority is the operational advantage derived from the ability to collect, process, and disseminate an uninterrupted flow of information while exploiting or denying an adversarys ability to do the same (JP 3-13). To achieve this operational advantage, Army commanders direct efforts that contribute to information superiority. These efforts fall into four primary areas: Army information tasks; intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; knowledge management; and information management. (See FM 3-0 for a discussion of information superiority.)

    2-7. The Army information tasks are used to shape a commanders operational environment. These tasks are information engagement, command and control warfare, information protection, operations security, and military deception. Information capabilities can be used to produce both destructive and constructive effects. For example, destructive actions use information capabilities against the enemys command and control system and other assets to reduce their combat capability. Constructive actions use information capabilities to inform or influence a particular audience or as a means to affect enemy morale. Although applicable to all elements of full spectrum operations, EW capabilities play a major role in enabling and supporting the execution of the command and control warfare and information protection tasks.

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    2-8. Command and control warfare is the integrated use of physical attack, electronic warfare, and computer network operations, supported by intelligence, to degrade, destroy, and exploit an enemys or adversarys command and control system or to deny information to it (FM 3-0). It includes operations intended to degrade, destroy, and exploit an enemys or adversarys ability to use the electromagnetic spectrum and computer and telecommunications networks. Information protection is active or passive measures that protect and defend friendly information and information systems to ensure timely, accurate, and relevant friendly information. Information protection denies enemies, adversaries, and others the opportunity to exploit friendly information and information systems for their own purposes (FM 3-0). Table 2-1 shows capabilities, intended effects, staff responsibilities, and functional cells for the command and control warfare and information protection tasks. (For further information on the information tasks, refer to FM 3-0.)

    Table 2-1. Two Army information tasks: command and control warfare and information protection

    2-9. To support these information tasks, commanders ensure EW is coordinated, integrated, and synchronized with all other tasks. This occurs within the operations process through the various functional and integrating cells. Table 2-2 illustrates EW capabilities, actions, and objectives that support the command and control warfare and information protection tasks.

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    Table 2-2. Electronic warfare support to two Army information tasks

    IN SUPPORT OF THE WARFIGHTING FUNCTIONS 2-10. EW capabilities support each of the six warfighting functions. Examples of specific supporting capabilities are given in the following paragraphs.

    Movement and Maneuver 2-11. The movement and maneuver warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that move forces to achieve a position of advantage in relation to the enemy. Direct fire is inherent in maneuver, as is close combat (FM 3-0). EW capabilities that enable the movement and maneuver of Army forces include

    z Suppression and destruction of enemy integrated air defenses. z Denial of enemy information systems and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance sensors. z Target designation and range finding. z Protection from effects of friendly and enemy EW. z Lethal and nonlethal effects against enemy combat capability (personnel, facilities, and

    equipment). z Threat warning and direction finding. z Use of the electromagnetic spectrum to counter improvised explosive device operations. z Electromagnetic spectrum obscuration, low observability, and multispectral stealth.

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    Intelligence 2-12. The intelligence warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that facilitate understanding of the operational environment, enemy, terrain, and civil considerations (FM 3-0). It includes tasks associated with intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. EW capabilities that enable the intelligence warfighting function include

    z Increased access for intelligence collection assets (systems and personnel) by reducing antiaccess, antipersonnel, and antisystems threats.

    z Increased capability to search for, intercept, identify, and locate sources of radiated electromagnetic energy in support of targeting, information tasks, and future operations.

    z Increased capability in providing threat recognition and threat warning to the force. z Indications and warning of threat emitters and radar. z Denial and destruction of counter-intelligence, -surveillance, and -reconnaissance systems.

    Fires 2-13. The fires warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that provide collective and coordinated use of Army indirect fires, joint fires, and command and control warfare, including nonlethal fires, through the targeting process (FM 3-0). It includes tasks associated with integrating command and control warfare. EW capabilities that enable the fires warfighting function include

    z Detection and location of targets radiating electromagnetic energy. z Disruption, degradation, and destruction options for servicing targets. This includes information

    systems, targets requiring precision strike (such as minimal collateral damage and minimal weapons signature), hard and deeply buried targets, weapons of mass destruction, and power generation and infrastructure targets.

    z Control, dispersion, or neutralization of combatant and noncombatant personnel with nonpersistent effects and minimum collateral damage (scalable and nonlethal).

    z Area denial capabilities against vehicles, vessels, and aircraft.

    Sustainment 2-14. The sustainment warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that provide support and services to ensure freedom of action, extend operational reach, and prolong endurance (FM 3-0). EW capabilities that enable the sustainment warfighting function include

    z Protection of sustainment forces from friendly and adversary use of EW in static or mobile environments.

    z Enhanced electromagnetic environment situational awareness through the interception, detection, identification, and location of adversary electromagnetic emissions and by providing indications and warnings. (This information can assist in convoy planning, asset tracking, and targeting of potential threats to sustainment operations.)

    z Countering improvised explosive devices to support ground lines of communication (includes counter-radio-controlled improvised-explosive-device systems and countering other threats triggered through the electromagnetic spectrum, such as lasers).

    z Spectrum deconfliction and emissions control procedures in support of sustainment command and control.

    z Electromagnetic spectrum obscuration, low-observability, and multispectral stealth (These capabilities provide protection during sustainment operations).

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    Command and Control 2-15. The command and control warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that support commanders in exercising authority and direction (FM 3-0). EW capabilities that enable the command and control warfighting function include

    z Protection of friendly critical information systems and command and control nodes, personnel, and facilities from the effects of friendly and adversary EW operations.

    z Control of friendly EW systems through Frequency deconfliction. Asset tracking. Employment execution. Reprogramming of EW systems. Registration of all electromagnetic spectrum emitting devices with the spectrum manager

    (both prior to deployment and when new systems or devices are added to the deployed force).

    z The development of EW command and control tools to enhance required coordination between Army and joint EW operations.

    z EW operations integration, coordination, deconfliction, and synchronization through the EW working group (see chapter 3).

    z Increased commander situational understanding through improved common operational picture input of electromagnetic spectrum- and EW-related information.

    z EW operations monitoring and assessment.

    Protection 2-16. The protection warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that preserve the force so the commander can apply maximum combat power (FM 3-0). EW capabilities and actions that enable the protection warfighting function include

    z Enhanced electromagnetic spectrum situational awareness through the interception, detection, identification, and location of adversary electromagnetic emissions used to providing indications and warnings of threat emitters and radars.

    z Denial, disruption, or destruction of electromagnetic-spectrum-triggered improvised explosive devices and enemy air defense systems.

    z Deception of enemy forces. z Electromagnetic spectrum obscuration, low-observability, and multispectral stealth. z EW countermeasures for platform survivability (air and ground). z Area denial capabilities (lethal and nonlethal) against personnel, vehicles, and aircraft. z Protection of friendly personnel, equipment, and facilities from friendly and enemy electronic

    attack, including friendly information systems and information. (This includes the coordination and use of both airborne and ground-based electronic attack with higher and adjacent units.)

    SUMMARY 2-17. Army EW operations provide the land force commander capabilities to support full spectrum operations (offensive, defensive, and stability or civil support operations). EW supports full spectrum operations by applying EW capabilities to detect, deny, deceive, disrupt, or degrade and destroy enemy combat capability and by controlling and protecting friendly use of the electromagnetic spectrum. These capabilitieswhen applied across the warfighting functionsenable commanders to address a broad set of electromagnetic-spectrum-related targets to gain and maintain an advantage within the electromagnetic spectrum.

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  • Chapter 3

    Electronic Warfare Organization

    A flexible organizational framework and capable, proficient electronic warfare personnel enable the commanders electronic warfare capability on the battlefield. This chapter discusses a framework that ensures coordination, synchronization, and integration of electronic warfare into full spectrum operations. This electronic warfare organizational framework supports current operations and is adaptable for future operations.

    ORGANIZING ELECTRONIC WARFARE OPERATIONS 3-1. Operational challenges across the electromagnetic spectrum are expanding rapidly. As Army electronic warfare (EW) capabilities expand to meet these challenges, the organizational design required to coordinate, synchronize, integrate, and deconflict these capabilities must transform as rapidly. To meet current and future requirements, command and control of EW operations is built around the concept of EW working groups. Figure 3-1, page 3-2, illustrates the EW coordination organizational framework.

    ARMY SERVICE COMPONENT COMMAND, CORPS, AND DIVISION LEVELS 3-2. A working group is a temporary grouping of predetermined staff representatives who meet to coordinate and provide recommendations for a particular purpose or function (FMI 5-0.1). The EW working group, when established, is responsible to the G-3 through the fires cell. An EW working group usually includes representation from the G-2, G-3, G-5, G-6, and G-7. (Joint doctrine calls this organization the EW coordination cell.) The EW working groups depicted in figure 3-1 (page 3-2) facilitate the internal (Army) and external (joint) integration, synchronization, and deconfliction of EW actions with fires, command and control, movement and maneuver, intelligence, sustainment and protection warfighting functions. Normally, EW working groups do not add additional structure to an existing organization. As depicted in figure 3-1, working groups vary in size and composition based on echelon.

    3-3. Normally, the senior EW officer heads the EW working group and is accountable to the G-3 for integrating EW requirements. Working within the fires cell, the EW officer coordinates directly with the fire support coordinator for the integration of EW into the targeting process. This ensures EW capabilities are fully integrated with all other effects. Additional staff representation within EW working groups may include a fire support coordinator, a spectrum manager, a space operations officer, and liaison officers as required. Depending on the echelon, liaisons could include joint, interagency, and multinational representatives. When an Army headquarters serves as the headquarters of a joint task force or joint force land component command, the Army headquarters working group becomes the joint force EW coordination cell.

    3-4. When Army forces are employed as part of a joint or multinational force, they normally have EW representatives supporting higher headquarters EW coordination organizations. These organizations may include the joint force commanders EW staff or the information operations cell within a joint task force. Sometimes a component EW organization may be designated as the joint EW coordination cell. (Chapter 6 discusses joint electronic warfare operations in more detail.) The overall structure of the combatant force and the level of EW to be conducted determine the structure of the joint EW coordination cell. The organization to accomplish the required EW coordination and functions varies by echelon.

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    Figure 3-1. Electronic warfare coordination organizational framework

    3-5. Regardless of the organizational framework employed, EW working groups perform specific tasks. Table 3-1 (page 3-3) details the functions of the EW working groups by echelon from battalion to Army Service component command. There is no formal organizational framework for EW at the company level (see paragraph 3-9).

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    Table 3-1. Functions of electronic warfare working groups

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    BRIGADE LEVEL 3-6. At the brigade level, the EW officer heads the EW working group and is accountable to the S-3 for integrating EW requirements. Additional staff representation within EW working groups at the brigade combat team level may include the fire support coordinator, EW targeting technician, S-2, S-6, spectrum manager, S-7, and liaison officers as required.

    3-7. The EW working group at the brigade combat team coordinates with the higher echelon EW working groups. The brigade working group plays an important role in requesting and integrating joint air and ground EW support. It also manages the brigades organic EW fight within the fires cell. The EW officer works as part of the brigade combat team staff. In this position, the EW officer synchronizes, integrates, and deconflicts brigade combat team EW actions with the EW working group at division level. Although EW falls under the control of the S-3, EW officers are fully immersed in fires targeting and planning to ensure proper use and coordination of EW. See table 3-1, page 3-3, for an outline of the functions of the brigade combat team EW working group.

    BATTALION LEVEL 3-8. At the battalion level, the EW officer or noncommissioned officer leads the EW working group and is accountable to the S-3 for integrating EW requirements. Additional staff representation within EW working groups at the battalion level may include the S-2, S-6, fire support officer, and a joint terminal attack controller when assigned. The battalion EW working group coordinates battalion EW operations with the brigade combat team EW working group. See table 3-1, page 3-3, for an outline of the functions of the battalion EW working group.

    COMPANY LEVEL 3-9. At the company level, trained EW personnel holding an additional skill identifier of 1K (tactical EW operations) or 1J (operational EW operations) perform several tasks. They advise the commander on the employment of EW equipment, track EW equipment status, assist operators in the use and maintenance of EW equipment, and coordinate with higher headquarters EW working groups.

    PLANNING AND COORDINATING ELECTRONIC WARFARE ACTIVITIES

    3-10. Key personnel involved in the planning and coordination of EW activities are z G-3 and S-3 staff. z EW officer. z Fire support coordinator. z G-2 and S-2 staff. z G-6 and S-6 staff. z Electromagnetic spectrum manager. z Liaisons.

    G-3 OR S-3 STAFF 3-11. The G-3 or S-3 staff is responsible for the overall planning, coordination, and supervision of EW activities, except for intelligence. The EW officer is part of the G-3 or S-3 staff. The G-3 or S-3 staff

    z Plans for and incorporates EW into operation plans and orders, in particular within the fire support plan and the information operations plan (in joint operations).

    z Tasks EW actions to assigned and attached units. z Exercises control over electronic attack, including integration of electromagnetic deception

    plans.

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    z Directs electronic protection measures the unit will take based on recommendations from the G-6 or S-6, the EW officer, and the EW working group.

    z Coordinates and synchronizes EW training with other unit training requirements. z Coordinates and synchronizes EW training with other unit training requirements. z Issues EW support tasks within the unit intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance plan.

    These tasks are according to the collection plan and the intelligence synchronization matrices developed by the G-2 or S-2 and the collection manager.

    z Coordinates with the EW working group to ensure planned EW operations support the overall tactical plan.

    z Integrates electronic attack as a form of fires within the fires cell.

    ELECTRONIC WARFARE OFFICER 3-12. As a member of the G-3 or S-3 staff, the EW officer plans, coordinates, and supports the execution of EW. The EW officer

    z Leads the EW working group. z Plans, coordinates, and assesses EW offensive, defensive, and support requirements. z Supports the G-2 or S-2 during intelligence preparation of the battlefield. z Supports the fire support coordinator to ensure electronic attack fires are integrated with all

    other effects. z Plans, assesses, and implements friendly electronics security measures. z Prioritizes EW effects and targets with the fire support coordinator. z Plans and coordinates EW operations across functional and integrating cells. z Deconflicts EW operations with the spectrum manager. z Maintains a current assessment of available EW resources. z Participates in other cells and working groups (as required) to ensure EW integration. z Serves as EW subject matter expert on existing EW rules of engagement. z When designated, serves as the jamming control authority. z Prepares, submits for approval, and supervises the issuing and implementation of fragmentary

    orders for EW operations.

    G-2 OR S-2 STAFF 3-13. The G-2 or S-2 staff advises the commander and staff on the intelligence aspects of EW. The G-2 or S-2 staff

    z Provides threat data to support programming of unit EW systems and deconfliction of their use by the EW working group.

    z Ensures that electronic order of battle requirements are included in the intelligence collection plan.

    z Determines enemy EW organizations, disposition, capabilities, and intentions via collection and analysis.

    z Determines enemy EW vulnerabilities and high-value targets. z Assesses effects of friendly EW operations on the enemy. z Helps prepare the intelligence-related portion of the EW running estimate. z Provides input to the restricted frequency list by recommending guarded frequencies. z Provides updates on the rapid electronic order of battle. z Maintains appropriate threat EW databases. z Works with the EW working group to ensure that intelligence collection is synchronized with

    EW requirements and deconflicted with planned EW actions. Ensures that EW threat data is deconflicted with friendly electromagnetic spectrum needs.

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    NETWORK OPERATIONS OFFICER 3-14. The network operations officer (in the G-6 or S-6 staff) coordinates the communications network for the following services:

    z Preparing the electronic protection policy on behalf of the commander. z Assisting in preparing EW plans and orders. z Reporting all enemy electronic attack activity detected by friendly communications and

    electronics elements to the EW working group for counteraction. z Assisting the unit EW officer with resolving EW systems maintenance and communications

    fratricide problems.

    SPECTRUM MANAGER 3-15. The spectrum manager coordinates electromagnetic spectrum use for a wide variety of communications and electronic resources. The spectrum manager

    z Issues the signal operating instructions. z Provides all spectrum resources to the task force. z Coordinates for spectrum usage with higher echelon G-6 or S-6, and applicable host-nation and

    international agencies as necessary. z Coordinates the preparation of the restricted frequency list and issuance of emissions control

    guidance. z Coordinates frequency allotment, assignment, and use. z Coordinates electromagnetic deception plans and operations in which assigned communications

    resources participate. z Coordinates measures to reduce electromagnetic interference. z Coordinates with higher echelon spectrum managers for electromagnetic interference resolution

    that cannot be resolved internally. z Assists the EW officer in issuing guidance in the unit (including subordinate elements)

    regarding deconfliction and resolution of interference problems between EW systems and other friendly systems.

    z Participates in the EW working group to deconflict friendly electromagnetic spectrum requirements with planned EW operations and intelligence collection.

    SUMMARY 3-16. The organizational framework for EW coordination and functions varies by echelon. The necessity to form an EW working group is largely based on the overall structure of the combatant force and the level of EW to be conducted. During unified actions, other Service EW officers, signals intelligence officers, and EW asset representatives are invaluable to Army EW working groups in the planning, preparation, execution, and assessment of EW operations. As Army EW capabilities and concepts for employment continue to evolve, so do the organizational designs that ensure their effective command and control and execution in support of operations.

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    Electronic Warfare and the Operations Process

    The operations process consists of the major command and control activities performed during operations: planning, preparing, executing, and continuously assessing the operation. The commander drives the operations process (FM 3-0). These activities occur continuously throughout an operation, overlapping and recurring as required (see figure 4-1). The staff electronic warfare officer is actively involved in the operations process. Electronic warfare planning, preparation, execution, and assessment require collective expertise from operations, intelligence, signal, and battle command. The electronic warfare officerthrough the units electronic warfare working groupintegrates efforts across the warfighting functions. This ensures that electronic warfare operations support the commanders objectives.

    Figure 4-1. The operations process

    SECTION I ELECTRONIC WARFARE PLANNING

    4-1. Electronic warfare (EW) planning is based on three main considerations. The first is applying the military decisionmaking process (MDMP). EW planners understand and follow its seven steps. In a time-constrained environment they still follow all seven steps, abbreviating the MDMP process appropriately. Additionally, EW planners apply EW integrating processes. They understand how EW actions contribute to operations. They integrate and synchronize EW activities starting with planning and continuing throughout operations. Finally, EW planners apply EW employment considerations according to the characteristics of EW capabilities.

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    THE MILITARY DECISIONMAKING PROCESS 4-2. EW planning minimizes fratricide and optimizes operational effectiveness during execution. Therefore, EW planning occurs concurrently with other operational planning during the MDMP. The MDMP synchronizes several processes, including intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IBP) (see FM 34-130), the targeting process (see FM 6-20-10), and risk management (see FM 5-19). These processes occur continuously during operations.

    4-3. Depending on the organizational echelon, the staff EW officer leads EW planning through the EW working group. (The EW working group at echelons above brigade is sometimes referred to as an EW coordination cell.) An EW working group is normally supported by representatives from the G-2 or S-2, G-3 or S-3, G-6 or S-6, and other staff as required. Other staff representatives can include the fire support coordinator or fire support officer, spectrum manager, air liaison officer, space officer, and liaison officers. Paragraphs 4-5 through 4-33 outline key EW contributions to the processes and planning actions that occur during the seven steps of the MDMP. (FM 5-0 discusses the MDMP.)

    RECEIPT OF MISSION 4-4. Commanders begin the MDMP upon receiving or anticipating a new mission. During this first step, commanders issue their initial guidance and initial information requirements or commanders critical information requirements.

    4-5. Upon receipt of a mission, the staff EW officer alerts the staff members supporting the EW working group. The EW officer and support staff begin to gather the resources required for mission analysis. Resources might include a higher headquarters operation order or plan, maps of the area of operations, electronic databases, required field manuals and standing operating procedures, current running estimates, and reachback resources (see appendix F). The EW officer also provides input to the staffs initial assessment and updates the EW running estimate. As part of this update, the EW officer identifies all friendly EW assets and resources and their status. The EW officer also provides this information throughout the operations process. This includes monitoring, tracking, and seeking out information relating to EW operations to assist the commander and staff.

    MISSION ANALYSIS 4-6. Planning includes a thorough mission analysis. Both the process and products of mission analysis help commanders refine their situational understanding and determine their restated mission. (See FM 5-0 for more details.) The EW officer and supporting members of the EW working group contribute to the overall mission analysis by participating in IPB and through the planning actions discussed in paragraphs 4-7 through 4-14. (Paragraphs 4-35 to 4-40 discuss EW input to IPB during operations.)

    4-7. The EW officer and EW working group members z Convene the appropriate EW working group. z Determine known facts, status, or conditions of forces capable of EW operations as defined in

    the commanders planning documents, such as a warning order or operation order. z Identify EW planning support requirements and develop support requests as needed.

    4-8. The EW officer and EW working group members support the G-2 and S-2 in IPB by z Determining the threats dependence on the electromagnetic spectrum. z Determining the threats EW capability.

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    z Determining the threats intelligence system collection capability. z Determining which threat vulnerabilities relate to the electromagnetic spectrum. z Determining how the operational environment affects EW operations using the operational

    variables and mission variables as appropriate. z Initiating, refining, and validating information requirements and requests for information.

    4-9. The EW officer and EW working group members z Determine facts and develop necessary assumptions relevant to EW such as the status of EW

    capability at probable execution and time available. z Analyze the commanders mission and intent from an EW perspective. z Identify constraints relevant to EW

    Actions EW operations must perform. Actions EW operations cannot perform. Other constraints.

    z Analyze mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available and civil considerations from the EW perspective.

    4-10. The EW officer and EW working group members determine enemy and friendly centers of gravity and list their critical capabilities, requirements, and vulnerabilities from an EW perspective. (They determine how EW capabilities can best attack an enemys command and control system.) The center of gravity analysis process outlined in figure 4-2 helps identify and list the critical vulnerabilities of enemy centers of gravity. The EW officer and EW working group members also list the critical requirements associated with the identified command and control critical capability (or command and control nodes) and then identify the critical vulnerabilities associated with the critical requirements. Through this process, the EW officer and EW working group members help determine which vulnerabilities can be engaged by EW capabilities to produce a decisive outcome.

    Figure 4-2. Example of analysis for an enemy center of gravity

    4-11. Additionally, the EW officer and EW working group members determine how EW can help protect friendly centers of gravity. The center of gravity analysis process as outlined in figure 4-2 can also be used help identify critical vulnerabilities of friendly centers of gravity. The EW officer and EW working group members list the critical requirements associated with the identified friendly command and control critical capability. Then, the EW officer and EW working group members identify the critical vulnerabilities associated with the critical requirements. These vulnerabilities can help determine how to best use EW

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    capabilities to defend or protect friendly centers of gravity from enemy attack. Key to this portion of the analysis is to assess the potential impact of EW operations on friendly information systems such as electromagnetic interference.

    4-12. The EW officer and EW working group members identify and list z High-value targets that can be engaged by EW capabilities. z Tasks that EW forces perform according to EW subdivision (electronic attack, electronic

    warfare support, and electronic protection) in support of the warfighting functions. These include Determining specified EW tasks. Determining implied EW tasks.

    4-13. The EW officer and EW working group members z Conduct initial EW force structure analysis to determine if sufficient assets are available to

    perform the identified EW tasks. (If organic assets are insufficient, they draft requests for support and augmentation.)

    z Conduct an initial EW risk assessment and review the risk assessment done by the entire working group.

    z Provide EW perspective in the development of the commanders restated mission. z Assist in development of the mission analysis briefing for the commander.

    4-14. By the conclusion of mission analysis, the EW officer and EW working group members generate or gather the following products and information:

    z The initial information requirements for EW operations. z A rudimentary command and control nodal analysis of the enemy. z The list of EW tasks required to support the mission. z A list of assumptions and constraints related to EW operations. z The planning guidance for EW operations. z EW personnel augmentation or support requirements. z An update of the EW running estimate. z EW portion or input to the commanders restated mission.

    COURSE OF ACTION DEVELOPMENT 4-15. After receiving the restated mission, commanders intent, and commanders planning guidance, the staff develops courses of action (COAs) for the commanders approval. Figure 4-3 depicts the required input to COA development and identifies the key contributions made by the EW officer and EW working group members during the process and output stages (center and right of figure 4-3). The actions the EW officer and EW working group members perform to support COA development are discussed in more detail in paragraphs 4-16 through 4-20.

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    Figure 4-3. Course of action development

    4-16. The EW officer and EW working group members contribute to COA development through the following planning actions

    z Determining which friendly EW capabilities are available to support the operation, including organic and nonorganic capabilities for planning.

    z Determining possible friendly and enemy EW operations, including identifying friendly and enemy vulnerabilities.

    4-17. Additionally, the EW officer and EW working group members help develop initial COA options by

    z Identifying COA options that may be feasible based on their functional expertise (while brainstorming of COAs).

    z Providing options to modify a COA to enable accomplishing a requirement within the EW area of expertise.

    z Identifying information (relating to EW options) that may impact other functional areas and sharing that information immediately.

    z Identifying the EW-related tasks required to support the COA options. 4-18. The EW officer and EW working group members determine the forces required for mission accomplishment by

    z Determining the EW tasks that support each COA and how to perform those tasks based on available forces and capabilities. (Available special technical operations capabilities are considered in this analysis.)

    z Providing input and support to proposed deception options. z Ensuring the EW options provided in support of all possible COAs meet the established

    screening criteria.

    4-19. The EW officer and EW working group members identify EW supporting tasks and their purpose in supporting any decisive, shaping, and sustaining operations as each COA is developed. These EW tasks include those

    z Focused on defeating the enemy. z Required to protect friendly force operations.

    (Publication date) FM 3-36 (Final Approved Draft) 4-5

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    4-20. The EW officer and EW working group members assist in developing the COA briefing as required. By the conclusion of COA development, the EW officer and EW working group members generate or gather the following products and information:

    z A list of EW objectives and desired effects related to the EW tasks. z A list of EW capabilities required to perform the stated EW tasks for each COA. z The information and intelligence requirements for performing the EW tasks in support of each

    COA. z An update to the EW running estimate.

    COURSE OF ACTION ANALYSIS (WAR-GAMING) 4-21. The COA analysis allows the staff to synchronize the elements of combat power for each COA and to identify the COA that best accomplishes the mission. It helps the commander and staff to

    z Determine how to maximize the effects of combat power while protecting friendly forces and minimizing collateral damage.

    z Further develop a visualization of the battle. z Anticipate battlefield events. z Determine conditions and resources required for success. z Determine when and where to apply force capabilities. z Focus IPB on enemy strengths and weaknesses as well as the desired end state. z Identify coordination needed to produce synchronized results. z Determine the most flexible COA.

    Paragraphs 4-22 to 4-23 discuss actions the EW officer and EW working group members perform to support COA analysis. (See FM 5-0 for more information on war-gaming.)

    4-22. During COA analysis, the EW officer and EW working group members synchronize EW actions and assist the staff in integrating EW capabilities into each COA. The EW officer and EW working group members address how each EW capability supports each COA. They apply these capabilities to associated time lines, critical events, and decision points in the synchronization matrix (see table 4-1). During this planning phase, the EW officer and EW working group members aim to

    z Analyze each COA from an EW functional perspective. z Recommend any EW task organization adjustments. z Identify key EW decision points. z Provide EW data for synchronization matrix. z Recommend EW priority intelligence requirements. z Identify EW supporting tasks to any branches and sequels. z Identify potential EW high-value targets. z Assess EW risks created by telegraphing intentions, allowing time for enemy to mitigate effects,

    unintended effects of electronic attack, and the impact of asset or capability shortfalls.

    4-23. By the conclusion of COA analysis (war-gaming), the EW officer and EW working group members generate or gather the following products and information:

    z The EW data for the synchronization matrix. z The EW portion of the branches and sequels. z A list of high-value targets related to EW. z A list of commanders critical information requirements related to EW. z The risk assessment for EW operations in support of each COA. z An update to the EW running estimate.

    4-6 FM 3-36 (Final Approved Draft) (Publication date)

  • Electronic Warfare and the Operations Process

    Table 4-1. Sample input to synchronization matrix

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    COURSE OF ACTION COMPARISON 4-24. COA comparison starts with all staff members analyzing and evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of each COA from their perspectives. Staff members present their findings for the others consideration. Using the evaluation criteria developed during COA analysis, the staff outlines each COA, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages. Comparing the strengths and weaknesses of the COAs identifies their advantages and disadvantages with respect to each other. (See FM 5-0 for further discussion of COA comparison).

    4-25. During COA comparison, the EW officer and EW working group members compare COAs based on the EW-related advantages and disadvantages (see center of figure 4-4). Typically, planners use a matrix to assist in the COA comparisons. The EW officer may develop an EW functional matrix to compare the COAs or to use the decision matrix developed by the staff. Regardless of the m