EhEEEEEEEEEEEEm EE EEEEE'h - apps.dtic.mil .VLSI Design, CMOS, CMOS-PW, Pipelined Adder, Carry Look

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  • 7D-fiu55 043 DESIGN OF R'SIXTEEN IT PIPELINED

    RDDER USING COS BULK 1/2

    P-NELL TECNNOLOGY(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY

    Ch W R REID DEC 84

    UNCLASSIFIED F/G 9/i N

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  • NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOLMonterey, California

    DTICQELEC T E)

    THESISDESIGN OF A

    SIXTEEN BIT PIPELINED ADDERUSING CMOS BULK P-WELL TECHNOLOGY

    * by

    0. William R. Reid

    * LU December 1984

    Thesis Advisor: D. E. KirkApprc~ed for public release; distribution unlimited

    '85 5 22 014

  • SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Weuo lta ntered)

    READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEOR MPLETINORMBEF'oRE" COMPLE'TIG FORM1. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMIER

    4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYP OF REPORT a PERIOD COVEREDDesign of a Sixteen Bit Pipelined Master's Thesis;Adder Using CMOS Bulk P-Well Technology December 1984

    6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMIER

    0. 7. AUTHOR() 1. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMOER(s)

    William R. Reid

    S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADORESS I0. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK-,,% AREA & WORK UNIT NUMIERS

    Naval Postgraduate SchoolMonterey, California 93943

    II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE

    Naval Postgraduate School December 1984Monterey, California 93943 13. NUMBEROF PAGES

    11614. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & AOORESS(lf dllttm 1t. Controlling Ofie) 1. SECURITY CLASS. ol this report)

    UNCLASSIFIED

    ISm. OECL ASSIFICATION/ DOWNGRADINGSCH EDU L E

    16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report)

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited

    17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (o Rho abaract onto,.d In Block 20. II dIferent hfm Report)

    Is. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

    19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reor, side It necessary and Identl y by block number)

    VLSI Design, CMOS, CMOS-PW, Pipelined Adder, Carry LookAhead Addition, CAD Tools

    20. ABSTRACT (Confinue on teverse oldq I necesary onj id.nti y by qli.ck abt). i r-- The design of a sixteen-bit p mpelnel adder G_._-integratedcircuit is presented. The adder is designed to maximizethroughpuc and to provide for testability. Tutorial materialon CMOS design is also presented. . ,

    IIFORM143 oiooO sisOoiiI JAN 7 1473 EDITION OF I Nov 65 IS O8SOLETE

    S/N 0102. LF.014. 6601 1SECURITY CLASIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Dote Ent d)

    y...

  • Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

    Desin of aSixteen Bit Pipelined Adder

    Using CMOS Bulk P-Vell Technology

    by

    'William R. ReidLieutenant Commander, United States Navy

    B.S., Purdue University, 1975

    Submitted in partial fulfillment of the

    requirements for the degree of

    MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

    from the

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL

    '3 December 1984

    Author:____.?

    Approved b:_ _2-'.2

    8 , ep

    Electrical and Computer Engib.eering

    Dean of Science an Engineering9

    2

    'A. --.

    S**.? .. ~P.

  • ABSTRACT

    * The design of a sixteen-bit pipelined adder CflOS inte-grated circuit is presented. The adder is designed tomaximize throughput and to provide for testability.Tutorial material on CMOS design is also presented.

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  • TABLE OF CONTENITS

    I. INTRODUCTION .... . . . . . . ......... 8

    . CIRCUITS .10

    II COMoPARISON WIT"NMOr . ........... 10

    1. The Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    2. The NOR Gate and Transmission Gate . . . . 13

    B. CMOS DESIGN METHODOLCGIES . . . . . . . . . . 16

    C. CHOS IMPLEMENTATION TECHNOLOGIES . . . . . . . 20

    1. CMOS-SOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    2. CMOS-Bulk . . . . . . . ......... 21

    3. Twin-tub CHOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    D. CMOS TECHNOLOGY SELECTION . . . . . . . . . . 27

    III. DESIGN TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 29

    A. CAESAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Bo LYR . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3 1

    C. SIMULATION o . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . 321. SPICE . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . 332. RNL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    IV. DESIGN OF THE ADDER ............... 44

    A. LOGICAL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 44

    1. Zero level CLA logic . . . . . . . . . . . 48

    2. First level CLA logic . . .. . . . . 49

    3. Second Level CLA Logic . . . . . . . . . . 49

    B. DESIGN FOR TESTABILITY ......... . 53

    C. LAYOUT DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

    V. TEST PLAN .................... 63

    A. INPUTS AND OUTPUTS .............. 63

    .J4

    -. ~

  • B. TESTING FOB CORRECT CPERATION . . . . . . . . 66

    1. Intermediate results . . . . . . . . . . . 66

    C. TESTING FOE SPEED OF OPERATION ........ 67

    - VI. CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

    A. THE CMOS TECHNOLOGIES ...... . . . . . .72vk'B. CMOS CAD TOOLS . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 72

    C. DESIGN OF THE ADDER . . . . . . 73

    APPENDIX A: SPICE MODEL CARDS FOR 3-MICRON CMOS-PW

    DEVICES .... 74

    APPENDIX B: UNIX MANUAL ENTRY FOR RULEC ........ 77

    APPENDIX C: PRESIM USER'S GUIDE . . . . . . . ..... 78

    APPENDIX D: ADDER SIMULATION .............. 82

    APPENDIX E: LAYOUTS ................. 102

    APPENDIX F: TEST VECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

    U' LIST OF REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

    BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................... 115

    - INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

    S.

    5

    .-.. --.- -. - *U *~'~.el

  • TLIST OF UBLES

    1. Lyra Error Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322. First Level CIA logic for a 16-bit Sum . . . . . . 49

    3. Register Serial Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

    , 4. PT.A Evaluation Sequences . . . . 69

    i

    76

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  • LIST OF FIGURES

    2.1 CMOS Transistor Symbols .............. 11

    2.2 (a) NMOS Inverter (b) CMOS Inverter . . 12

    2.3 Minimum Dimension Inverters ......... . 14

    2.4 2-input Nor Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 15

    2.5 CMGS Transmission Gate . . . . . . . . . .... . 16

    2.6 NMOS-Like CMOS Static Gate [Ref. 6] . . . .... 17

    2.7 Dynamic NAND Gates [Ref. 6] . . . . . . . .... 18

    2.8 Dcmino CMOS Structure [Ref. 6] . . . . . . .... 19

    2.9 Circuit Difficult to Implement in Domino CMOS . . . 20

    2.10 P-Well Process, Top View [Ref. 6] ..... . 23

    2.11 P-Well Process, Side View [Ref. 9] . . . . .... 24

    2.12 Bipolar Transistors in CMCS-Bulk [Ref. 6] ... 25

    2.13 The Latchup Circuit [Ref. 6] . . . . . ..... . 25

    2.14 Grounding of the P-Well . . . . . . ................ 26

    3.1 CMOS Exclusive OR [Ref. 6] . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

    3.2 CMOS Latch Design [Ref. 6] ..... . .. . 39

    4.1 CMOS Output Loading Model ... . . . . . . . . 46

    4.2 Preliminary Chip Floorplan . . . . . . . . 55

    4.3 Dual Mode Latch . . . . . . . 56

    4.4 AND Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

    4.5 OR Gate . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

    4.6 Exclusive OR Gate ... . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

    4.7 PLA Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    4.8 Final Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

    5.1 Charge Sharing in a PLA ............ 68

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  • I. INTRODUCTION

    For several years the ability of systems engineers to

    design custom digital integrated circuits has been growing.

    The Mead and Conway design methodology described in

    Introduction to VLSI Systems [Ref. 1], permits the systems

    engineer to be his own logic circuit designer. A prolifera-

    tion of computer-aided design (CAD) systems such as the

    MacPitts silicon compiler [Ref. 2], the chip layout language

    (CLL) [Ref. 3], the graphics editor Caesar (Ref. 4], and the

    Burlap hierarchical layout language [Ref. 5] make it

    possible for the engineer to rapidly carry the Mead and

    Conway design methodclogy through to a final design. This

    includes iterative simulation and redesign to provide justi-

    fiable confidence in the final design submitted for

    fabrication.

    Many of the technigues utilized in the dead and Conway

    U- methodology and most of the CAD 'tools are based on havingthe final design implemented in a technology that uses only

    one type of doping for the semiconductor material in the

    active region of the transistors. Because of their higher

    W- switching speed, negatively doped metal oxide semiconductor(NMOS) transistor technologies are generally used.

    Selection of an NMOS implementation technology does

    provide the systems engineer with a complete and proven

    methodology for the design of a very large scale integrated

    (VLSI) circuit and allows the use of many extensively tested

    CAD tools. Like any other design decision, selection of

    . lNMOS isplementation brings with it some limitations. There

    are two primary problems associated with NAOS digital

    circuits.

    8

    .

  • The first is the ultimate switching speed limitation.

    Though many NM!OS VLSI circuits operate at clock rates in the

    8 to 10 M~Hz range, there are many applications requiring

    higher clock rates. The second problem is the dissipation

    of the