Effective Teaching Strategies
Session ObjectivesContent ObjectivesUNDERSTAND the key connection between effective instruction and student learningKNOW research-based effective teaching strategiesEXPERIENCE and reflect on specific effective teaching strategiesLanguage ObjectiveDEFINE words related to effective teaching strategies such as similarities, differences, comparing, classifying, metaphor, and analogy.
*Lets begin with the end in mind..What will I do to develop effective lessons which incorporate our planned use of effective strategies? Art and Science, p. 174
* Scientifically Research-Based Interventions (SRBI)
* Coordinating our efforts Making Standards Work Common Formative AssessmentsData Driven Decision Making/Data Teams
Effective Teaching Strategies(What to teach)
(How to teach)
(How to meet individual student needs)(How to know it is working)
* Coordinating our efforts What to teach; standards,mandates, student interestMonitor learning Provide feedbackIndividual student needs and learning styles
How to teach it
Synthesis of StudiesMarzano, Pickering, and Pollock, Classroom Instruction That Works (2001)Reeves, Accountability in Action, 2nd Edition (2004)Reeves, Accountability for Learning (2004)Mendler, Motivating Students Who Dont Care (2000)White, Show Me the Proof! (2005)The jury standard
Cooperative LearningCues, Questions and Advance OrganizersEffort and RecognitionGenerating & Testing HypothesesHomework and PracticeNonfiction WritingNonlinguistic RepresentationSetting Objectives & Providing FeedbackSimilarities and DifferencesSummarizing and Note TakingWhat DOES Work: Top Ten Effective Teaching Strategies
Why Are These Effective Strategies?10. Non-fiction Writing NOTE: This strategy was identified by Dr. Douglas Reeves and his colleagues after Classroom Instruction That Works was published
Category:Achievement Gain(Percentiles)1. Identifying Similarities and Differences 452. Summarizing and Note Taking343. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition 294. Homework and Practice 285. Nonlinguistic Representations 276. Cooperative Learning277. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback 238. Generating and Testing Hypothesis239. Questions, Cues and Advance Organizers22
*What Does Effective Mean?The reflective process is at the very heart of accountability. It is through reflection that we distinguish between the popularity of teaching techniques and their effectiveness. The question is not, Did I like it? but rather, Was it effective? (Reeves, D. B., Accountability for Learning, 2004, p. 52)
And..how do you know?
*Most Effective Teaching Strategies?EFFECTIVE: Actions of the teacher that elevate or lift cognition of learnersThe simple question is, Is it working for you and your students as evidenced by learning outcomes?
Similarities and Differences
Similarities and DifferencesKey premisesBasic to human thoughtCore of all learning and thinkingStrategies/TechniquesCompareClassifyMetaphorAnalogy
CompareExamine information for similarities and differencesFocus on important details and characteristics of informationDevelop process thinking skillsApply tools/formats (Venn, matrix, double-cluster)
Identifying Similarities & DifferencesExample of Comparing using a Comparison Matrix
Grade 3 - 5 Number Sense
.Key wordsadd, plusminus, subtract, take awaytimesdivideRelationshipsMethods
*Example of Comparing using a Comparison Matrix
*Math Fraction Relationships Example of Comparing using a Comparison Matrix
One HalfOne FourthOne ThirdFraction 1/2 1/3Decimal.5.25.33Percent50%25%33%Parts of WholeParts of Set
DO : Create a Matrix
Physical Education Matrix
BaseballSoccerTennisBasketballFootball# on Team Equipment neededTime for gameScoring System Season
ClassifyOrganize information into groups based on categories (e.g., similar qualities, traits)Do after comparingSynonyms: sort, organize, group, categorizeApply tools/formats (e.g., T or column -chart)Develop process thinking skills
Identifying Similarities & DifferencesExample of Classifying using a -T- format or Columns
Science Basic food group classifications
Proteins Carbohydrates Fats
Metaphorsthe process of identifying a general or basic pattern in a specific topic and then finding another topic that appears to be quite different but has the same pattern.
carry meaning from one word, image or idea to another.*
Steps in Using Metaphor
Teach the target concept.Determine the comparing concept.Check background knowledge of new concept. How are the items similar?How are the two different?Create your own metaphor. Explain.What process did you use to create a metaphor?
Many types of metaphors (including simile and personification)
Identification of general or basic patterns/characteristics for topic, then comparing it to something that appears quite different but actually has a similar pattern/characteristic to express meaning
Literal to abstract based on relationship, then transferred
Love is a RoseWork with a partner to derive the meaning of this metaphor:Literal: about roseAbstract: generalization that doesnt mention rose or loveTransfer: about love
Love is a RoseLiteral- Rose The blossom is sweet to smell and pleasant to touch, but if you touch the thorns, they can stick you (literal).Abstract- Something is wonderful and you want to go near it, but if you get too close, you might get hurt (abstract).Literal- Love: The person you love can make you feel happy, but can end up hurting you (transfer).
Analogiesthe process of identifying the relationship between pairs of conceptsin other words, identifying the relationship between relationships.*
*Analogy Thought ProcessFin is to fish as beak is to _____receiptb. birdwing d. eel
1. A fin is part of a fish (an animal).2. A beak is part of what animal?3. Receipt and wing are not animals4. Bird and eel are animals, but eels dont have beaks.5. The correct answer is (b) bird.
Common Analogy relationshipsSynonym PERSUASIVE:CONVINCINGAntonym STARVATION:SATIATIONDescriptive BLUE : SKYDegree HOT:SCALDING:Cause and effect TORNADO:DESTRUCTIONPart to whole ARM : BODYItem to category MILK : BEVERAGEItem to what it does SCALPEL:SURGERY
Lets try a few
PERSUASIVE:CONVINCING :: WEALTHY:STARVATION:SATIATION :: WHITE:SynonymBLUE : SKY :: SNOW:AntonymHOT:SCALDING:: DAMP:
Summarizing and Note Taking
*Summarize Generalizations:Students need to analyze information to make decisions about what to:Keep (central information for understanding)Delete (remove extraneous details) Substitute(more general terms or more specific)Putting information in their own words also helps student make connections to material/content
Rule-Based Strategyadapted from Brown, Campione, Day (1981)Delete trivial material that is unnecessary to understandingDelete redundant materialSubstitute superordinate terms for lists (e.g., flowers for daisies, tulips, and roses.)Select a topic sentence, or invent one if one is missing
*Summary FrameA summary frame is a series of questions a teacher provides to studentsQuestions help students focus on elements for specific information
*Argumentation Frame Questions1.What is the basic statement or claim that is the focus of the article? CLAIM2. What information, examples or explanations are presented to support this claim? EVIDENCE3. What concessions are made about the claim? QUALIFIER
Note Taking Considered a work in progressUsed as study guidesStudents refer to and enhance notesMany approaches to taking notesTwo-column, Cornell, mixed, outline
Comparing Notes -DiscussionWhat skills does note taking require?What skills do you expect from students that enter your grade?Should there be a single, consistent template across a grade level? School? What factors would determine when you used note taking as a strategy in your classroom?Should notes be graded?
*Learning Cycle: Teaching, Assessing and Reflecting
*Planning and OrganizingWhat is the value of planning and organizing prior to instructing?
*Elements of Lesson PlansEffective lesson plans:Offer prompts or cues for actions, steps, etc.Support linear or non-linear flexible optionsAre like a framework or blueprint Consider each aspect of the learning cycle (teaching, assessing, reflecting)
ACTIVITY: Generate a list of must-have elements for your lesson plan
*ToolsTemplates/FormatsOrganize the approach to processGenerate ideasProvide focusDecrease stressSave time
ACTIVITY: Planning Template
*Revised Blooms Taxonomy
*Objectives and High Expectations
In examining 1500 K-12 classrooms, 24-7 consultants found that clear learning objectives were established in ____ classrooms or ____%.
*Research on Goals and ObjectivesNarrow the focus (Marzano)Not