Effective Persuasion Developing Persuasive Documents

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  • Effective Persuasion Developing Persuasive Documents
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  • Overview This presentation will cover: The persuasive context The role of the audience What to research and cite How to establish your credibility
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  • What is Persuasive Writing? Definition: persuasive writing seeks to convince its readers to embrace the point-of-view presented by appealing to the audiences reason and understanding through argument and/or entreaty.
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  • Persuasive Genres You encounter persuasion every day. TV Commercials Letters to the Editor Junk mail Magazine ads College brochures Can you think of other persuasive contexts?
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  • Steps for Effective Persuasion Understand your audience Support your opinion Know the various sides of your issue Respectfully address other points of view Find common ground with your audience Establish your credibility
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  • When to Persuade an Audience Your organization needs funding for a project Your boss wants you to make recommendations for a course of action You need to shift someones current point of view to build common ground so action can be taken
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  • Understanding Your Audience Who is your audience? What beliefs do they hold about the topic? What disagreements might arise between you and your audience? How can you refute counterarguments with respect?
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  • Understanding Your Audience What concerns does your audience face? For example: Do they have limited funds to distribute? Do they feel the topic directly affects them? How much time do they have to consider your document?
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  • Understanding Your Audience Help your audience relate to your topic Appeal to their hearts as well as their minds. Use anecdotes when appropriate Paint your topic in with plenty of detail Involve the readers senses in these sections
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  • Researching an Issue Become familiar with all sides of an issue. -find common ground -understand the history of the topic -predict the counterarguments your audience might make -find strong support for your own perspective
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  • Researching an Issue Find common ground with your audience For example: Point of Opposition: You might support a war, whereas your audience might not. Common ground: Both sides want to see their troops come home.
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  • Researching an Issue Predict counterarguments Example: Your Argument: Organic produce from local Farmers Markets is better than store-bought produce. The Opposition: Organic produce is too expensive.
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  • Researching an Issue One Possible Counterargument: Organic produce is higher in nutritional value than store-bought produce and is also free of pesticides, making it a better value. Also, store-bought produce travels thousands of miles, and the cost of gasoline affects the prices of food on supermarket shelves.
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  • Support Your Perspective Appeal to the audiences reason Use statistics and reputable studies Cite experts on the topic Do they back up what you say? Do they refute the other side?
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  • Cite Sources with Some Clout Which source would a reader find more credible? The New York Times http://www.myopinion.com Which person would a reader be more likely to believe? Joe Smith from Fort Wayne, IN Dr. Susan Worth, Prof. of Criminology at Purdue University
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  • Establish Credibility Cite credible sources Cite sources correctly and thoroughly Use professional language (and design) Edit out all errors
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  • Cite Sources Ethically Dont misrepresent a quote or leave out important information. Misquote: Crime rates were down by 2002, according to Dr. Smith. Actual quote: Crime rates were down by 2002, but steadily began climbing again a year later, said to Dr. Smith.
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  • Tactics to Avoid Dont lecture or talk down to your audience Dont make threats or bully your reader Dont employ guilt trips Be careful if using the second person, you
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  • Have More Questions? Visit us at the Writing Lab Heavilon Hall 226 4-3723 http://owl.english.purdue.edu/writinglab Visit us online at the OWL http://owl.english.purdue.edu
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  • RESEARCH PAPER RUBRIC AND METHODOLOGY Now what do I do?
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  • Methodology First find a speech, then read and annotate. Analyze the style of the speaker. This rhetorical Analysis must be part of the research paper. It May also answer why the world changed because of the speech. Second, read the speech again and find an Interesting fact to research. EX: The speech May discuss a war, a battle, a specific crisis or Social issue. Third, find information from credible sources On that fact mentioned in the speech. Read the ENTIRE source, taking detailed notes.
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  • Methodology ORGANIZE your notes as you go. Color is great! Assign a color to a source. Take notes in that color and write citations in that color. FIND sources on ALL sides of the issue. There Are never just 2 sides. Keep in your mind that You are trying to find out how the speech CHANGED the course of events in the world. DECIDE what you think about that change. SYNTHESIZE your thoughts and sources. Form a thesis. This speech caused the world to CHANGE how?
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  • Methodology Form an outline. Decide on your strategy for organization. Multiple drafts. Write a bit, then ask a question, dont waste time rewriting the exact same information over and over. Write in sections according to outline. Ask opinions. Let people read your writing. Fill the holes. Let people ask questions. Do MORE research when you have those opinions in order to address holes in your research!
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  • Methodology Keep track of sources all the way through your research in MLA format. USE COLOR! NOTES write down where you found info, works referenced/research log OUTLINE write down what you used DRAFTS - in text citations FINAL works cited
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  • RUBRIC METHODOLOGY COLORFUL NOTES 15%, 2.5% for each source MULTIPLE VALID sources/works referenced 15% 6 sources 2.5% for each source COLORFUL OUTLINE 20% MULTIPLE DRAFTS OF OUTLINE-20% Final Draft with works cited and in-text citations 30% Must be typed in MLA format
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  • RUBRIC Colorful Notes Each source is assigned a color, notes are taken in that color, source citation is written in correct format on the first page of the notes for that source. Keep track of what page you are on. When you change source, Change color and Write the new source citation in the correct Format. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Hobbit. New York:Ballentine, 1937. P19 Gloin tells Bilbo that he can call himself an expert treasure hunter instead of a burglar in order to make Bilbo feel better about the Situation and his own image of himself. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Lord of the Rings. NewYork: Ballentine, 1942. P235 Frodo tells Bilbo that he lost the ring in order to make Bilbo feel better about not having it, while not destroying Bilbo with the truth. This protects Bilbos image and confidence.
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  • Rubric Multiple Valid Sources TO START One online source AMERICAN RHETORIC.com One encyclopedia NOT ONLINE One non-fiction book NOT A CHILDRENs BOOK TO FINISH One online source -.edu,.gov,.mil,.org One more primary source One secondary source 6 minimum sources
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  • RUBRIC OUTLINE Thesis is its own section of the outline. Should be sophisticated : multiple views in one section/paragraph Color coded by source MLA in-text citation for *Q Revised organization order should be appropriate for purpose Thorough, including thesis and topic sentences Your thoughts should be evident, not just topic *Quotes should be included
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  • RUBRIC Drafts Work in sections according to outline. Each section must be peer edited. Do not move forward without teacher approval. Make sure to check at each stage if more research is needed
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  • RUBRIC After the outline and drafts are completed, TYPE your paper in MLA format. If you use Easybib or Noodle tools, you will have to change the format. It is not automatic. ALSO GIGO (garbage in, garbage out) Turn in EVERYTHING in a manila envelope. Turn an electronic copy in by email.
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  • Notes: February 7 th 1 st draft Outline: February 13 th 1 st section draft: February 18 th Subsequent drafts must be peer edited and teacher approved before moving on. All drafting must be completed: March 1 st Electronic and Final Draft Due: March 7 th
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  • MLA CITATION "Bill of Sale, Cobb Powder Horn and the Star Spangled Banner." History Detectives. PBS. KBPT, Midland, TX, 08 Jan. 2013. History Detectives. PBS, 08 Jan. 2013. Web. 09 Jan. 2013. Star Spangled Banner
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  • Helpful Research Information http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/technique/historical-research-checklist/ What do professional researchers do?: http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/technique/dos-and-donts/ http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/technique/written-items-checklist/ http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/technique/printed-items/ http://www.pbs