Effective PersuasionDeveloping Persuasive Documents
OverviewThis presentation will cover:
The persuasive contextThe role of the audienceWhat to research and citeHow to establish your credibility
What is Persuasive Writing?Definition: persuasive writing
seeks to convince its readers to embrace the point-of-view presented by appealing to the audiences reason and understanding through argument and/or entreaty.
Persuasive GenresYou encounter persuasion every day.
TV CommercialsLetters to the Editor Junk mailMagazine adsCollege brochures
Can you think of other persuasive contexts?
Steps for Effective PersuasionUnderstand your audienceSupport your opinion Know the various sides of your issueRespectfully address other points of view Find common ground with your audienceEstablish your credibility
When to Persuade an AudienceYour organization needs funding for a projectYour boss wants you to make recommendations for a course of actionYou need to shift someones current point of view to build common ground so action can be taken
Understanding Your AudienceWho is your audience?What beliefs do they hold about the topic?What disagreements might arise between you and your audience?How can you refute counterarguments with respect?
Understanding Your AudienceWhat concerns does your audience face?
For example:Do they have limited funds to distribute?Do they feel the topic directly affects them?How much time do they have to consider your document?
Understanding Your AudienceHelp your audience relate to your topicAppeal to their hearts as well as their minds.
Use anecdotes when appropriate Paint your topic in with plenty of detailInvolve the readers senses in these sections
Researching an IssueBecome familiar with all sides of an issue.
-find common ground-understand the history of the topic-predict the counterarguments your audience might make-find strong support for your own perspective
Researching an IssueFind common ground with your audience
Point of Opposition: You might support a war, whereas your audience might not.
Common ground: Both sides want to see their troops come home.
Researching an IssuePredict counterarguments
Your Argument: Organic produce from local Farmers Markets is better than store-bought produce.
The Opposition: Organic produce is too expensive.
Researching an IssueOne Possible Counterargument:
Organic produce is higher in nutritional value than store-bought produce and is also free of pesticides, making it a better value. Also, store-bought produce travels thousands of miles, and the cost of gasoline affects the prices of food on supermarket shelves.
Support Your PerspectiveAppeal to the audiences reasonUse statistics and reputable studiesCite experts on the topicDo they back up what you say?Do they refute the other side?
Cite Sources with Some CloutWhich source would a reader find more credible?The New York Timeshttp://www.myopinion.com
Which person would a reader be more likely to believe?Joe Smith from Fort Wayne, INDr. Susan Worth, Prof. of Criminology at Purdue University
Establish CredibilityCite credible sources Cite sources correctly and thoroughlyUse professional language (and design)Edit out all errors
Cite Sources EthicallyDont misrepresent a quote or leave out important information.
Misquote: Crime rates were down by 2002, according to Dr. Smith.
Actual quote: Crime rates were down by 2002, but steadily began climbing again a year later, said to Dr. Smith.
Tactics to AvoidDont lecture or talk down to your audienceDont make threats or bully your readerDont employ guilt tripsBe careful if using the second person, you
Have More Questions?Visit us at the Writing Lab Heavilon Hall 2264-3723http://owl.english.purdue.edu/writinglab
Visit us online at the OWLhttp://owl.english.purdue.edu
RESEARCH PAPER METHODOLOGYNow what do I do?
MethodologyORGANIZE your notes as you go. Color is great!Assign a color to a source. Take notes in that color and write citations in that color.FIND sources DECIDE what you think.SYNTHESIZE your thoughts and sources.FORM a thesis.
Form an outline. Decide on your strategy for organization.Multiple drafts. Write a bit, then ask a question, dont waste time rewriting the exact same information over and over. Write in sections according to outline.Ask opinions. Let people read your writing.Fill the holes. Let people ask questions.Do MORE research when you have those opinions in order to address holes in your research!
MethodologyKeep track of sources all the way through your research in MLA format. USE COLOR!NOTES write down where you found info, works referenced/research logOUTLINE write down what you usedDRAFTS - in text citationsFINAL DONT use color on the best copy.
USE COLOR!!!Colorful Notes Each source is assigned a color, notes are taken in that color, source citation is written in correct format on the first page of the notes for that source. Keep track of what page you are on. When you change source, Change color and Write the new source citation in the correct Format. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Hobbit. New York:Ballentine, 1937. Gloin tells Bilbo that he can call himself an expert treasure hunter instead of a burglar in order to make Bilbo feel better aboutthe Situation and his own image of himself.
Tolkien, J.R.R. The Lord of the Rings. NewYork: Ballentine, 1942. Frodo tells Bilbo that he lost the ring in order to make Bilbofeel better about not having it, while not destroying Bilbo with the truth. This protects Bilbos image and confidence.
Thesis is its own section of the outline.Should be sophisticated : multiple views in one section/paragraphColor coded by source Revised organization order should be appropriate for purposeThorough, including thesis and topic sentencesYour thoughts should be evident, not just topic*Quotes should be included
RUBRICDrafts Work in sections according to outline.Each section must be peer edited. Do not move forward without teacher approval.Make sure to check at each stage if more research is needed
RUBRICAfter the outline and drafts are completed,
TYPE your paper in MLA format.
If you use Easybib or Noodle tools, you will have to change the format. It is not automatic.ALSO GIGO (garbage in, garbage out)
Turn an electronic copy in by email.
Helpful Research Informationhttp://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/technique/historical-research-checklist/
What do professional researchers do?:http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/technique/dos-and-donts/
*Rationale: Welcome to Effective Persuasion: Developing Persuasive Documents. This presentation is designed to introduce your students to a variety of factors that contribute to strong, effective, and ethical persuasion in their writing. The eighteen slides presented here are designed to aid the facilitator in an interactive presentation of the elements of persuasive writing and include examples and questions. This presentation is ideal for any course in which students will be required to write a persuasive document.
This presentation may be supplemented with an OWL handout, Using Rhetorical Strategies for Persuasion (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/04/)
Directions: Each slide is activated by a single mouse click
Writer and Designer: Dana Bisignani, 2007Contributors: Muriel Harris, Karen Bishop, Bryan Kopp, Matthew Mooney, David Neyhart, and Andrew KunkaDeveloped with resources courtesy of the Purdue University Writing LabGrant funding courtesy of the Multimedia Instructional Development Center at Purdue University Copyright Purdue University, 2000, 2006*The following slides will cover the following topics. Well start by discussing the persuasive context, and then focus primarily on the role of the audience in the development of a persuasive document. Next, well discuss how to effectively research your topic and various ways to establish your credibility.*First, lets establish what we mean by persuasive writing. *You encounter persuasion every day in many forms. Have you recently been persuaded by something? Have you been on a web site and been tempted to click on an advertisement or article? What drew you in?*In order to create an effective persuasive document, you should consider these important steps. Well go over how to accomplish each of these. Lets start with audience.*Here are some circumstances you might encounter in which you would need to persuade someone. Have you ever needed to persuade someone? What did you persuade your audience to do? Were you successful?*Here are some questions you should ask yourself at the start of any persuasive writing project.
Its important to know something about what your audience believes. For example, you might use different tactics to persuade an audience who knows little about a topic versus an audience who already has strong beliefs on a topic. If you understand where your audience is coming from, you can predict how they might react and what kinds of arguments they might find convincing.
*Here are some more questions you might ask yourself about your audience. You might also think of other questio