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Effect of Start-Up Conditions on Nitrification Rates: Ammonia · PDF file 2020-02-12 · 9th International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture 217 ! Figure 1.Nitrification rates

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  • 9th International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture

    216

     

    Effect of Start-Up Conditions on Nitrification Rates: Ammonia Concentrations and Salinity

    Ingrid Masaló and Joan Oca

    Departament d’Enginyeria Agroalimentària i Biotecnologia (DEAB),

    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC-BARCELONATECH) (Spain)

    Correspond to: [email protected] Abstract Biological filters are commonly used in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) to oxidize ammonia to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate. The start-up period will take from a few days to several weeks depending on the source of water (fresh or marine), temperature (Nijhof and Bovendeur, 1990), and the use of seeding material (Carmignani and Bennett, 1977; Bowen and Turner, 1981). Many authors observed higher nitrification rates and shorter start-up periods for fresh water biofilters. Nijhof and Bovendeur (1990) proposed to adapt fresh water biofilters to higher salinities in order to minimize start-up periods for sea-water; in contrast, Bowen and Turner (1981) observed a bacterial shock when filtering material from a freshwater facility was transferred to a marine water biofilter. In this work, two experiments were carried out in order to study 1) the effect of increasing salinity in filters started-up with fresh water and 2) the effect of TAN concentration during filter start-up on nitrification rates. Four 3L filter prototypes were used, three of them with fresh water (F) and three with marine water (M, salinity 37%). A plastic filter medium with a specific surface of 500 m2/m3 was used, and added up to a specific area of 0.36 m2 (including prototype wall surface). DO concentration was maintained over 6 mg/l with air diffusers, which maintained the medium in constant agitation. Temperature was maintained at 22ºC. Prototypes where continuously supplied during 17 weeks by a peristaltic pump with a controlled flow of fresh/marine water (5 L/day) enriched with a nutrient solution containing ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and other nutrients (Zhu and Chen, 2002). Two filters were maintained at an average concentration of 2 mg TAN/L (Higher: F1H and M1H) and two filters at 0.4 mg TAN /l (Lower: F1L and M1L). In experiment 1, salinity was increased in filters started-up with fresh water up to 37%. The nitrification rate (R) dropped to 20% after 5 days. Nevertheless, 10 days after the salinity change, the nitrification rate was about 60% of initial value, and it reached 100% after 15 days (Figure 1).

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    Figure 1. Nitrification rates (mg/h/m2) in filters started-up with fresh (F) and marine (M) water, and with TAN about 2 ppm (H), and 0.4 ppm (L). In this experiment filters started-up with fresh water were adapted to 37% salinity (F1H and F1L).

    In experiment 2, once the filter started-up with fresh water had been adapted to a salinity of 37%, the continuous supply of water was stopped, and filters were fed every 48 hours with a pulse of nutrient solution to reach 2 mgTAN/L. Samples were withdrawn every two hours during a period of 10 hours and nitrification rates calculated. After four weeks, the highest nitrification rate was observed in the filter started-up with marine water and higher TAN concentration (M1H), and the lowest in filters started-up with lower concentrations (F1L and M1L) (Figure 2). R values in prototypes started-up with low concentration (F1L and M1L) were about 70% than the ones obtained in prototypes started-up with higher concentrations (F1H and M1H), showing that higher TAN concentrations during starting-up period provide higher nitrification rates.

    Figure 2. Evolution of nitrification rate of marine water filter (RM1H) and fresh water after salinity change (RF1H*).

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    Acknowledgments This work was funded by Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (AGL2009-11655). References Bowen, C.E.; Turner, D.T. (1981) Accelerated nitrification in new seawater culture systems: effectiveness of commercial additives and seed media from established systems. Aquaculture 24:1-9. Carmignani, G.M.; Bennett, J. P. (1977) Rapid start-up of a biological filter in a closed aquaculture system. Aquaculture 11:85-88. Nijhof, M.; Bovendeur, J. (1990) Fixed film nitrification characteristics in Sea-Water Recirculation fish culture systems. Aquaculture 87:133-143. Oca, J.; Duarte, S. (2011) Comparación de las tasas de nitrificación en filtros biológicos con agua dulce y agua marina a bajas concentraciones de TAN. Book of abstracts XIII Congreso Nacional de Acuicultura 2011:302-303. Zhu, S.; Chen, S. (2002) The impact of temperature on nitrification rate in fixes film biofilters. Aquacultural Engineering 26:221-237.

    Cover Title Page Table of Contents Fish Health & Biosecurity in Recirculating Aquaculture Session Test and Implementation of Easily Degradable Aquaculture Sanitizers Reconsidering Treatment Approaches in RAS Facilities Comparing the Health, Welfare, and Post-Stocking Performance of Juvenile SteelheadOncorhynchus mykiss Raised in a Surface Water-Fed Reuse System Versus a Flow-Through Raceway Rainbow Trout (Onchoryhincus mykiss) Endurance Physiology in Recirculating CultureSystems Monitoring for Disease: An Important Part of a Recirculating System Biosecurity Plan

    Water Quality in RAS Session Steroids in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems The Chronic Impact of Nitrate on Production Performance and Health of a Marine FishSpecies (Psetta maxima) Water Quality Criteria for Salmonids in Intensive Fish Farming with Focus on CarbonDioxide Evidence of Chronic Nitrate Nitrogen Toxicity and the Impact on Rainbow TroutOncorhynchus mykiss Cultured in Low Exchange Recirculating Aquaculture Systems The Effects of Swimming Speed and Dissolved Oxygen Concentration on the Performanceand Health of Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar

    Quality Assurance/Off-Flavor Session Preliminary Studies on the Depuration of Common Off-Flavors from Fish Raised inRecirculating Aquaculture Systems The Removal of Fine Particulates and Dissolved Organic Matter Including the Off-FlavorCompounds Geosmin and 2-Methylisoborneol from a Commercial RecirculatingAquaculture Facility Automated Fish Weight Estimation by Statistical Learning Techniques and ComputerVision Quantification of Off-Flavor Producing Streptomycete Bacteria by PCR in RecirculatedSystems Production, Marketing, Shipping, and Sensory of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeusvannamei) Raised in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems

    Feeds and Hatchery Volunteered Session Mitigation of Shock Loading in Ornamental Fish Hatcheries Operational and Performance Criteria of an Automated Rotifer Growth System Isolation, Optimum Growth Conditions and Culture of Three Diatom Species (Skelatonemacostatum, Chaetoceros calcitrans and Detonulla confervacea) and Their Utilization as Feedfor Marine Penaeid Shrimp Larvae Can Water Phosphorus Level in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) Compensate forLow Dietary Phosphorus Level in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)?

    Animal Health/Fish Cultured Volunteered Session Isolation and Identification of Ichthyophonus Hoferi from Cultured Fish Bioengineering Palm Fish (Seriolella violacea) Data and Its Application Towards a PilotLand-Based RAS Design Immunostimulatory Effects of Vitamin C L-Ascorbate 2-Triphosphate Calcium on Growth,Hematolgy, Biochemical Blood Profile and Liver Ultrastructure of Common Carp Cyprinuscarpio RAS Design and Operation for Seriola lalandi Broodstock Maintenance

    Marketing Products from RAS Session Establishing Local Market Opportunities for Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei)Produced in RAS Consumer Evaluations of Cobia After Cooking and Eating the Fish at Home Processing Costs and Market Opportunities for Tilapia Fillets from US RAS Commercialization of Farm Raised Black Sea Bass Building Public Demand for Recirculating Aquaculture Systems in the Stockholm Region

    Shrimp Culture in RAS Part I Session In-situ and Ex-situ Biofloc Technology for Shrimp Culture Standard Operating Procedure for Litopenaeus vannamei Production in a Shallow WaterSuper-Intensive Stacked Raceway System Management Optimization for the Production of Juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei in aShallow Water System Using Zero/ Reduced Water Exchange Indoor Shallow Water Tank System for Evaluation of Growth and Survival of Pacific WhiteShrimp L. vannamei Present Status of Biofloc Technology Shrimp Culture System Research in Southern Brazil

    Production Technologies Volunteered Session Economic and Power Efficient Oxygen Generation for Aquaculture Recirculation Systems Rectangular Airlift Pump Design Practical Use of Airlifts in Large Scale Tilapia Production Systems A Multi-Trophic Approach to Managing Marine Recirculating Aquaculture System EffluentUsing Geotextile Bags New Feed Concept for Recirculation Aquaculture Systems

    Liquid and Solid Waste Management Session Effects of Cleaning Devices on Nutrient (N, P, O) Balances and Removal in a Small Scale,Partially Recirculating Trout Farm Using Geotextile Bags with Flocculant-Aids for Solid Waste Capture from RecirculatingAquaculture Systems Effluent Streams Water Discharge Estimation and Minimization: A Precursor to Permitting of a PolyGeyser®RAS Facility Bioenergy Production through the Solid Waste Treatment in Fully Contained RecirculatingAquaculture System (RAS) The Application of Algae Production as an Advanced Waste Management Technology inRecirculating Aquaculture Systems Reducing Nitrate Emission fro

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