EFFECT OF CASTING PARAMETERS ON MACROSTRUCTURE OF STEEL

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EFFECT OF CASTING PARAMETERS ON MACROSTRUCTURE OF STEEL

PROJECT AT:-VIZAG STEEL PLANT, VIZAGGUIDED BY:-P.V. BHUJANG RAO (AGM, QA & TD, SMS)PRESENTED BY:CHINTALA ABINASH-9420BOTU SURYA TEJA-9422MAJETY SREE VENKATA NITHIN-9399ANKAM JAYARAM-9421SARVASUDDI AKHILA-9423

CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the summer project report entitled Effect of casting parameters on macrostructure of steel is a bonafide record of work done by- CHINTALA ABINASH BOTU SURYA TEJA MAJETY SREE VENKATA NITHIN ANKAM JAYARAM SARVASUDDI AKHILAof National Institute of Technology pursuing B.TECH (2013-17), Metallurgy & Materials Engineering Course under the supervision of Mr. P.V. Bhujanga Rao (AGM, QA & TD, SMS) Visakhapatnam steel plant (VSP) in partial fulfillment of the academic requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering during the period of 14-12-15 to 26-12-15.

Mr. P.V. Bhujanga Rao AGM (QA&TD,SMS) VISAKHAPATNAM STEEL PLANT PLACE: VISAKHAPATNAM SIGNATURE OF THE PROJECT GUIDE DATE:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We have the honor submitting this mini project with utmost reverence to the almighty for his ever-loving benediction towards us. Our humble salutations to Visakhapatnam Steel Plant.

The satisfactions of the successful completion of any task would not be complete without the expression of gratitude to the people who made it possible. We would like to acknowledge gratefully the guidance and the encouragement of the people towards the successful completion of this project work.

We wish to sincerely thank our guide and LOKESH RAO, SARTHAK for their constructive suggestions and moral support throughout the project. We are in debt of gratitude to various members of faculty of their help.

ABSTRACT

A thorough experimental investigation of the effects of melt temperature and casting speed on the structure and defect formation during the continuous casting of steel In addition, the temperature and melt-flow distributions in the sump of billets cast at different melt temperatures are numerically simulated and used in the discussion on the experimental results. Apart from already known phenomena such as segregation of carbon, porosity with casting temperature, a few new observations are made. The inner structure of the continuously cast semis has a great importance from the point of view of further processing and application. The main reason for this is the very direct effect of the inner structures features (i.e. porosity, macro segregations, geometry of primary dendrites) on the technological characteristic features of the semis during further processing (i.e. crack sensitivity, formability, etc.) The paper deals with the possible ways of macrostructure determination on the basis of the results of super heat and strand speed and other factors of continuous casting process. We pay a special attention to the columnar-equi axed transition as a function of heat parameters of the casting process and to the macro segregation formation caused by the motion of solute enriched inter dendritic liquid in the mushy zone.

BREIF INTRODUCTION

Visakhapatnam Steel Plant (VSP), the first coast based Steel Plant of India is located, 16 KM South West of city of Destiny i.e. Visakhapatnam. Bestowed with modern technologies, VSP has an installed capacity of 3 million Tons per annum of Liquid Steel and 2.656 million Tons of saleable steel.

The construction of the Plant started on 1st February 1982. Government of India on 18th February 1982 formed a new Company called Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. (RINL) and transferred the responsibility of constructing, commissioning & operating the Plant at Visakhapatnam from Steel Authority of India Ltd. to RINL.

At VSP there is emphasis on total automation, seamless integration and efficient up gradation, which result in wide range of long and structural products to meet stringent demands of discerning customers within India and abroad. VSP products meet exacting International Quality Standards such as JIS, DIN, BIS, BS etc.

VSP has become the first integrated Steel Plant in the country to be certified to all the threeInternational standards for quality (ISO-9001), for Environment Management (ISO-14001) & forOccupational Health & Safety (OHSAS-18001). The certificate covers quality systems of allOperational, Maintenance and Service units besides Purchase systems, Training and Marketingfunctions spreading over 4 Regional Marketing Offices, 24 branch offices and stock yards located all over the country.

VSP by successfully installing & operating efficiently Rs. 460 crores worth of Pollution Control and Environment Control Equipments and converting the barren landscape by planting more than 3 million plants has made the Steel Plant, Steel Township and surrounding areas into a heaven of lush greenery. This has made Steel Township a greener, cleaner and cooler place, which can boast of 3 to 4 C lesser temperature even in the peak summer compared to Visakhapatnam City.

VSP exports Quality Pig Iron & Steel products' to Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Nepal, Middle East, USA,China and South-East Asia. RINL-VSP was awarded "Star Trading House" status during 1997-2000. Having established a fairly dependable export market, VSP plans to make a continuous presence in the export market.

Having a total manpower of about 16,600 VSP has envisaged a labor productivity of 265 Tons per man year of Liquid Steel.

MAJOR SOURCES OF RAW MATERIALSRAW MATERIALSSOURCE

Iron ore lumps and finesBailadila, Chattisgarh

BF LimestoneJaggayyapeta, AP

SMS limestoneDubai

BF dolomiteMadharam, AP

SMS dolomiteMadharam, AP

Manganese oreChipurupalli, AP

Boiler coalTalcher, Orissa

Imported Boiler coalIndonesia

Imported Coking coalAustralia/US

Medium Coking coalKathara/Swang/Rajarappa/kedla

Imported LAM coalChina

Quartzite lumps and finesLocal

SandSarepalli, AP

MAJOR UNITSDEPARTMENTSANNUAL CAPACITY(000 T)UNITS (3.0 MT Stage)

Coke Ovens2,7014 Batteries of 67 Ovens & 7 mtrs. Height

Sinter Plant5,2562 Sinter Machines of 312 Sq. Mtr. grate area each

Blast Furnace3,4002 Furnaces of 3200 Cu. Mtr. volume each

Steel Melt Shop3,0003 LD Converters each of 133 Cu. Mtr. Volume and Six 4 strand bloom casters

LMMM7102 Strand finishing Mill

WRM8504 Strand high speed continuous mill with no twist finishing blocks

MMSM8506 strand finishing mill

MAIN PRODUCTS OF VSP

STEEL PRODUCTSBY PRODUCTS

BloomsNut CokeGranulated Slag

BilletsCoke DustLime Fines

Channels , AnglesCoal TarAmmonium Sulphate

BeamsAnthracene Oil

SquaresHP Naphthalene

FlatsBenzene

Re BarsZylene

RoundsToulene

Wire RodsWash Oil

VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS OF VSP:

RAW MATERIAL HANDLING PLANT (RMHP)VSP Annually require quality raw materials viz. Iron ore, fluxes (Lime stone, Dolomite), coking and non-coking coals etc., to the tune of 12-13 million tons for producing 3 million tones of Liquid Steel. To handle such a large volume of incoming raw materials received from different sources and to ensure timely supply of consistent quality of feed materials to different VSP consumers, Raw Materials Handling Plant serves a vital function. This unit is provided with elaborate unloading, blending, stacking and reclaiming facilities viz. Wagon Tipplers, Ground and Trace Hoppers, Stock Yard Crushing Plant, Vibrating Screen, Single/twin Bloom Sticker, Wheel On Boom and blender Reclaimers.In VSP peripheral unloading has been adopted for the first time in the country.COKE OVEN AND COAL CHEMICAL PLANT (CO & CCP)Blast furnace, the mother unit of any steel plant requires huge qualities of strong, hard, and porous solid fuel in the form of hard metallurgical coke for supplying necessary heat for carrying out the reduction and refining reactions besides acting as a reducing agent.

Coke is manufactured by heating of crushed coking coal below 3mm in absence of air at a temperature of 1000 C and above for about 16 -18 hr.

A coke oven comprises of two hallow chambers namely, coal chamber and heating chamber. In the heating chamber a gas is fueled such as blast furnace gas, coke oven gas, etc., is burnt. The heat so generated is conducted through the common will to heat and carbonize the coking coal placed in adjacent coal chamber.

SINTER PLANT (SP)Sinter is a hard and porous ferrous material obtained by agglomeration of iron ore fines, coke breeze, lime stone fines, metallurgical wastes viz. flow dust, mill scale, L.D slag etc.Sinter is a better feed material to Blast Furnace in comparison to iron ore lumps and its uses in blast furnace helps in increasing productivity and decreasing the coke rate and

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