EESAA: Energy Efficient Sleep Awake Aware Intelligent Sensor Network Routing Protocol

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EESAA: Energy Efficient Sleep Awake Aware Intelligent Sensor Network Routing Protocol. Talha Naeem Qureshi Joint work with Tauseef Shah and Nadeem Javaid COMSATS , Institute of Information Technology, 44000 , Islamabad, Pakistan - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of EESAA: Energy Efficient Sleep Awake Aware Intelligent Sensor Network Routing Protocol

EESAA: Energy Efficient Sleep Awake Aware Intelligent Sensor Network Routing Protocol

EESAA: Energy Efficient Sleep Awake Aware Intelligent Sensor Network Routing ProtocolTalha Naeem QureshiJoint work withTauseef Shah and Nadeem Javaid

COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology,44000, Islamabad, International Multi Topic Conference (INMIC), Islamabad, Pakistan 13th to 15th December 2012

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are composed of multiple unattended ultra-small, limited-power sensor nodesSensor nodes are deployed randomly in the area of interestSensor nodes have limited processing, wireless communication and power resource capabilitiesSensor nodes send sensed data to sink or Base Station (BS)Wireless Sensor Networks

Goal:Prolong network lifetime/coverageClustering is useful in reducing energy consumption

Routing in WSNs

LEACH Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy [Heinzelman et al., 2000]SEP - Stable Election Protocol [G. Smaragdakis et al., 2004]DEEC - Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering [Li Qing et al., 2006]LEACH:Unable to differentiate nodes in terms of energy (homogeneous)Node i chooses random number s between 0 and 1If s < T(si), node i becomes a Cluster Head (CH) for the current round where:

where:T(si)=thresholdPi = desired percentage of CHsG = set of nodes that have not been a CH in the last 1/P rounds

Clustering based protocols

Each node is elected CH once every 1/P rounds (epoch length)On average, n x P nodes elected per roundn = total number of nodesLEACH

Differentiate nodes in terms of their energy (heterogeneous)Consider two types of nodes w.r.t energy: normal and advanced nodeswhere:Energy of advanced nodes > Energy of normal nodesCH selection probability of advanced nodes is greater than normal nodesUse same threshold T(si) for CH selection as described by LEACHEach node is elected CH once every 1/P rounds (epoch length)Epoch of advanced nodes < epoch of normal nodes


Differentiate nodes in terms of their energy (heterogeneous)Consider multiple energy levels of nodesUse same threshold T(si) for CH selection as described by LEACHEpoch of high energy nodes < epoch of low energy nodes


Mostly sensor nodes overlaps each other or placed close to each other during deploymentOverlapped and close nodes have same sensed dataThere is no need to send same sensed data two times to BS

Nodes Deployment Issues

Sending same data two times to BS cause Energy lossStability period and life time of WSN decreasesExtra overhead on sinkNo previous protocol including LEACH, SEP and DEEC is addressing this issue

Nodes Deployment Issues

Our goal:To minimize energy consumption To enhance network stability period and network lifetime.Concept of pairing is introducedSensor nodes of same application and at minimum distance between them will form a pair for data sensing and communicationCHs selection technique is enhancedCH selection on basis of remaining energy of nodes CH of current round will predict the CH for next roundOur EESAA: Energy Efficient Sleep Awake Aware Intelligent Sensor Network Routing Protocol

Mechanism:Sensor nodes are supposed to be equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS)Senor nodes measure their location through GPSNodes transmit their location information to sinkIn first round clusters are formed by same mechanism described by LEACHNodes which are at minimum distance from each other in their intra cluster transmission range and of same application type are coupled in pair by BS


Mechanism:Sink broadcast pairing information to all the nodes in networkNodes become aware of their coupled nodeAccording to the proposed scheme, The nodes switch between Sleep and Awake mode during a single communication IntervalInitially node in a pair, switch into Awake mode also called Active-mode if its distance from the sink is less then its coupled nodeNode in Active-mode will gather data from surroundings and transmit data to CHsDuring this period transceiver of the coupled node will remain off and switches into Sleep-modeEESAA

In next round, nodes in Active-mode switch into Sleep-mode and Sleep-mode nodes switch into active-modeEnergy consumption is minimized because nodes in Sleep-modes save their energy by not communicating with the CHsUnpaired nodes remain in Active-mode for every round till their energy resources depletedEESAA

Green circles coupled or paired nodesRead circles unpaired or isolated nodesEESAA

CH selection mechanism:Initially, in first round CHs are selected by same mechanism described by LEACHCHs selection after first round is based on remaining energy of each nodeNodes in Active-mode take participation in CH election processDuring start of round, nodes also transmit their energy information to CHCH computes the remaining energy of every node in cluster and its distance from each node and select CH for the next upcoming round


Transmission phase:When node has been selected as CH, it broadcasts an advertisement message to whole network. Only Active-mode nodes hear the broadcast advertisements from different CHsThey select their CHs on the basis of Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) of advertisementsNodes in Active-mode, transmit their sensed data to CH during their assigned TDMA slotsNodes in Sleep-mode do not take participation in data transmission and save their energy by turning their transceiver offEESAA

Node mode setup algorithmEESAA

Performance metrics:Stability period: It is duration of network operation from start till first node diesNetwork lifetime: Network lifetime is duration from start till last node is aliveInstability period: It is duration of network operation from first node dies till the least node diesNumber of CHs: It indicates the number of clusters generated per roundPacket to BS: It is rate of successful data delivery to BS from CHsSimulation Results

Simulation Results

In EESAA first node dies around 1800 roundStability period of EESAA is almost 120% 50% and 35% greater than LEACH, SEP and DEEC respectivelyEESAA has 100% 102% and 50% network lifetime as compared to LEACH, SEP and DEEC

Simulation Results

SEP, DEEC and LEACH has more uncertainties in CHs selection Random number of CHs are selected in every round but ESSA has controlled CHs selection. EESAA efficient CHs selection algorithm helps it in better and constant data rate transmission to BS

Simulation Results

EESAA has sleep-awake policy for nodesLess number of data is transmitted to BS in starting rounds due to sleep mode of some nodesBut after 4300 rounds, EESAA has highest data rate


EESAA is location aware protocolEESAA minimizes energy consumption by sleep-awake mechanismSimulation results show significant improvement all performance metrics as compared to existing routing protocols e.g., SEP, LEACH and DEEC

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