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i Education Perspectives wOHdmk m¾hdf,dal fy;tp Nehf;Ffs;

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ii

Education Perspectives

wOHdmk m¾hdf,dal fy;tp Nehf;Ffs;

ii

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iii

Education Perspectives

Guidance:Secretary, Ministry of Education

Advisory Review Board:

Senior Professor, Department of Humanities Education, Faculty of Education,University of Colombo

Former Director, Department of Social Science Education, Faculty of Education,University of Colombo

Former Deputy Director General, Faculty of Planning & Research, National Institute ofEducation

Senior Lecturer, Department of Education, University of Jaffna.

Lecturer, Faculty of Education, Open University of Sri Lanka, Nawala.

Editor

iv

v

Notes for Contributors

Research articles can now be submitted

How are articles assessed?

How should articles or papers be submitted?

EditorEducation Perspectives,Research and Development Branch,Ministry of Education,‘Isurupaya’Battaramulla.

Guidelines for authors:

Calling articles for July 2016 issue:

vi

vii

Education Perspectives

Contents Page No.

Dr. Chris Brown, Senior Lecturer, UCL Institute of Education, UK.

Priyatha Nanayakkara, Director, Bilingual Education Branch,Ministry of Education

cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh ;=<ska iudc taldnoaO;dj

wdpd¾h ,laIauka fjälaldrf.a fÊHIaG lÓldpd¾h wOHdmk iudc úoHd fomd¾;fïka;=j wOHdmk mSGh fld<U úYajúoHd,h"

fld<U. fla. ta. tka. mqIaml=udr" wOHdmk o¾Ykm;s$o¾YkY+Í

Wmdê mdGud,dj. ^mQ¾Kld,Sk&" wOHdmk mSGh" fld<U

úYajúoHd,h"fld<U.

lksIaG oaú;Shsl wOHdmk wjêfha mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh

b.ekaùfï § uqyqKmdk .eg¨. B'tï'tÉ'iS'fla'talkdhl y,a Th lksgq úÿy," ys|.,.

keKei rEmjdyskS wOHdmksl kd,sldfõ .=Kd;AulNdjh

,ËAó u,,.u" YS% ,xld wOHdmk mßmd,k fiajh.

“cah;jukhzth;fspd; Clfmwpitkjpg;gply;||

(aho;. tyaey;Y}h; Nfhl;l 1AB ghlrhiyfis mbg;gilahff;

nfhz;like;jJ)

Rasanayakam. J, Senior Lecturer, Department of Education,University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka andRajeswaran. P, Dip. in media Lecturer, Jaffna National Collegeof Education, Jaffna, Sri Lanka

Smart Quotes

viii

1

Executive Summary

Achieving evidence informed school improvement: current thinkingfrom an English perspectives

Critical analysis of the bilingual education policy in Sri Lanka

2

Englishknowing bilingualism and educational achievement: lessons for and from Singapore

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3

The promotion of social cohesion through life competencies & civiceducation

The problems encountering by the teachers of civic education in SriLanka

4

Actions to be taken to enhance the quality of the “NenasaEducational Television Channel

Assessment of media literacy of the advanced level students”highlights media literacy level of the A/L students

5

Achieving evidence informed school improvement: currentthinking from an English perspective

Dr Chris BrownSenior Lecturer

UCL Institute of Education, UKAbstract

CHECKLIST ITEM : does your approach to research and evidence usedemonstrate your own commitment as well as facilitate the efforts ofothers?

6

CORE THEME : does your approach to research and evidence usehave buy in throughout the school?

et al

et al.,

7

CORE THEME : does your approach to research and evidence use‘start with the end’ in mind and ensure progress towards this end istracked?

Providing a point of focus:

Evaluating your efforts:

8

CORE THEME :does your approach to research and evidence use haveteacher learning and practice at its core?

et al,et al et al, et al,

9

Research LearningCommunities

.

10

Figure 1: The key characteristics of effective learning conversations:

Focus on evidence and/or ideas.

Experience and external knowledge/theory.

Research Learning Communities

Protocols and tools.

Facilitation.

11

CORE THEME : does your approach to research and evidence ensurethat the right people are in the room?

evidence champions

12

Biography

Dr. Chris Brown is a Senior Lecturer at UCL Institute of Education (London Centre forLeadership in Learning). With a long standing interest in how evidence can aidteaching practice, Chris has written three books (including 'Leading the Use ofResearch and Evidence in schools', several papers and has presented on the subject ata number of international conferences both in Europe and North America. Chris hasextensive experience of leading a range of funded projects, many of which seek to helppractitioners to identify and scale up best practice, and was recently awarded asignificant grant by the Education endowment Foundation to work with 100+ primaryschools in England to increase their use of research

References

Leading the use ofResearch & Evidence in schools

Leading the use of Research &Evidence in schools

), Journal of EducationalChange

Leading the use of Research & Evidence in schools

Exploring the school leadership landscape: changing demands,changing realities

Leading the use of Research & Evidence inschools

13

Leading the use of Research & Evidence in schools

Are we nearly there yet?: progress, issues and possible next steps fora self improving school system

Leading the use of Research & Evidence in schools

Partnerships between teaching schools anduniversities: research report,

The Research Engaged School

ProfessionalDevelopment Today

School Effectiveness and School Improvement

:

Leading the use of Research & Evidencein schools

Professional Development Today

Leading the use of Research & Evidence in schools

Joint practice development (JPD) What doesthe evidence suggest are effective approaches?,

14

The essentialsof school leadership

ETF Yearbook 2008:Policy Learning in Action.

Professional Development Today

Leading the use of Research & Evidence in schools

Journal of Educational Change

Leading the use of Research & Evidence in schools

SocialNetwork Theory and Educational Change

Leading the use of Research & Evidence in schools

Leading the Use of Research & Evidence in schools

Teaching and Teacher Education

See: http://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/projects/research learningcommunities/

15

Critical Analysis of the Bilingual Education Policy in Sri Lanka

Priyatha Nanayakkara,Director, Bilingual Education Branch,

Ministry of Education

Introduction

Key words :

16

Language Policy and Language Planning

17

Bilingual Education Policy in Sri Lanka

18

19

Table 1.0. Circulars issued on BEP since 2001

20

21

BE policy: Planted or grown (Context analysis)

22

23

Bilingual education or English medium (Content analysis)

24

25

26

Bilingualism and biliteracy: product unseen (Output/outcome analysis)

27

Equity vs inequity (Equity analysis)

28

29

Feedback and feed forward (Impact review analysis)

Proposing policy elements for a national BE policy framework

Amity Schools

30

Conclusion

31

References

32

33

Social Cohesion through Life Competencies and Civic Education

Dr.LakshmanWedikkarageSenior Lecturer

Department of Social Science EducationFaculty of EducationUniversity of Colombo

K.A.N.PushpakumaraMPhil/Phd (full time)Faculty of EducationUniversity of Colombo

Abstract in English

Key words:

34

cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh ;=<ska iudc taldnoaO;dj

wdpd¾h ,laIauka fjälaldrf.a fÊHIaG lÓldpd¾h

wOHdmk iudc úoHd fomd¾;fïka;=j wOHdmk mSGh

fld<T úYaj úoHd,h" fld<T'

fla'tta'ttka'mmqIaml=udr"

wOHdmk o¾Ykm;s$o¾YkY+rS Wmdê mdGud,dj ^mQ¾Kld,Sk&" wOHdmk mSGh"

fld<T úYaj úoHd,h" fld<T'

ixˑma;h

YS% ,xldj nyq ixialD;sl rgla jYfhka úúO ckj¾." wd.ï" NdIdjkaf.ka iukaú; fõ' tjeks rgl iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsrSu w;HjYH fohla jk w;r wOHdmkh u.ska Bg wjYH myiqlï ie,iSu m%uqL ld¾hhls' jd¾.sl;ajh mokï lr .ksñka jir 30 lg wdikak ld,hla mej;s hqoaOh fya;= fldg f.k YS% ,xldfõ iudc taldnoaO;dj oreKq ì| jeàulg ,laj we;s ;;a;ajhla ;=< ñksiqka w;r mj;sk fnoSï ke;s fldg iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsrSu ld,Sk wjYH;djhls' wOHdmkh ;=<ska iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsrSfï oS cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh úIh i|yd m%uqL;dj ysñjk w;r 2007 kj wOHdmk m%;sixialrK fhdackd yryd tlS úIh y÷kajdoSfï oS o ta nj fmkajd oS we;' tneúka cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh úIh" iudc taldnoaO;djh we;s lsrSu i|yd olajk odhl;ajh fln÷o hkak uQ,sl wruqKq y;rla yd m¾fhaIK m%Yak y;rla Tiafia .=Kd;aul m¾fhaIK m%fõYh Ndú;hg .ksñka wOHhkhg ,la lsrSu fuu m¾fhaIKh u.ska isÿ lrkq ,eîh' bka m<uq wruqKg wod<j úIh yªkajd oSu i|yd n,mdk ,o idOl yd bka wfmalaIs; wruqKq ljf¾o hkak ms<sn|j idys;H úu¾Ykh weiqrska lreKq wkdjrKh lr .ekSu isÿ l< w;r tlS wruqKq fldf;laoqrg .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%y iy fm< fmd;a ;=<ska bgqj mj;So hkak ms<sn| ikao¾N úYaf,aIKh u.ska lreKq wkdjrKh lr .; yels úh' bka ;yjqre jQfha úIh yªkajdoSfï uQ,sl wruqKq thdldrfhkau .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%y iy fm< fmd;a ;=<ska bgqj fkdue;s njhs' tu.ska iudc taldnoaO;djh we;s lsrSu i|yd wOHdmkh udOHhla jYfhka fhdod .ekSu t;rï id¾:l fkdjqK neõ y`oqkd .; yelsh'

uqLH jpk : nyqixialD;sh" iudc taldnoaO;djh" cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh'

35

ye|skaùu

iudc taldnoaO;dj hk jpkh j¾;udkfha fndfyda lafIa;%hkaa wdYs%;j Ndú; jk wdldrh oelsh yelsh' tfy;a tu jpkh u.ska kshudldr w¾:h

ms<sôTq ùula olakg fkd,efí' fckaikag wkqj iudc taldnoaO;dj hkq iudc l%uhla ;=< ish¿ idudcslhska fmdÿ kS;srS;sj,g .re lrñka yd tlsfkldg .re lrñka fjkialï ord .ekSu fõ'

wd¾:sl iyfhda.S;dj yd ixj¾Okh ms<sn| ixúOdkhg wkqj fmdÿ wruqKq idlaId;a lr .ekSu i|yd fjkialï iys; lKavdhï ;u fjkialï msgq oelSu iudc taldnoaO;dj f,i y÷kajd fohs'

rsÜikag wkqj iudch ;=< cSj;a jk ish¿ idudcslhskayg iudk bv m%ia;d we;s lsrSug iQodkïùu yd ta flfrys lemùu;a" iyfhda.fhka hq;=j ta i|yd iyh oelaùu;a ;=<ska iudc l%uh ;=< iudkd;au;dj ;yjqre lsrSu fõ' w;S;fhaoS iudc taldnoaO;dj f,i i,lk ,oafoa úúO ixialD;sl" wd.ñl lKAvdhï tla cd;shla f,i fmdÿ NdIdjla" fmdÿ wd.ula fukau fmdÿ w.h moaO;shla ;=<g

talrdYS lsrSu fõ'

fyaksudka fmkajd fok mrsos j¾;udkfha iudc taldnoaO;dj hkafkka woyia lrkq ,nkafka iu.%yKh lsrSu fjkqjg ish¿ jd¾.sl lKavdhï" wd.ñl lKavdhï mQ¾K ksoyila nqla;s ú`osñka ;u wkkH;dj thdldrfhkau wdrlaId lr .ekSug bv m%ia;d ie,iSu;a" tu`.ska tla cd;shla jYfhka ke.Sisàug wjia:dj Wod lsrSu;a fõ' rgl iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu wjYH jkafka tu rg ;=< nyq ixialD;sl iudc l%uhla jYfhka mj;skafka kï muKs' YS% ,xldj .;a l< tys isxy," fou<" uqia,sï yd uef,a hk ckj¾. fukau fn!oaO" yskaÿ" lf;da,sl" bia,dï hk wd.ñl lKavdhï o Ôj;a fj;s¡ tu ksid nyq ixialD;sl rgla jYfhka YS% ,xldj ;=< iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu w;HdjYH fõ' rgl iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu i|yd wjYH ;SrKd;aul ld¾hhNdrhla bgq lrkq ,nk lafIa;%hla f,i wOHdmkh ye|skaúh yelsh' úêu;a úIhud,dj ;=< iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu i|yd mj;sk bvm%ia;d weiqßka l=vd orejdf.a isg by< mka;s f;la iEu uágulu orejkag Bg wod< ksmqK;d cks; l< yelsh' Ôjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh úIh ;=< iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu i|yd mj;sk bvm%ia;d wfkla úIhkag idfmalaIj by< uÜgul mj;skq we;' Bg fya;=

jkafka 6 9 fYa%Ksj, iEu isiqjl=u fuu úIhh bf.k .ekSu;a" úIh y÷kajdoSfïoS u

iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu i|yd wjYH mdvï tall we;=<;a lsÍug cd;sl wOHdmk fldñIka iNdj úiska ks¾foaY bÈßm;a lr ;sîu;a fõ' tneúka fï jk úg úIhh y÷kajd oS jir .Kkdjla blau f.dia mj;sk ;;a;ajhla ;=< úIhh ;=<ska wod< wruqKq fldf;la bgq ù mj;skafkao hkak ms<sn| úêu;a wOHhkhla isÿ lsÍu fuu m¾fhaIKh Èh;a lsÍfï uQ,sl wruqK úh'

36

m¾fhaIK idys;H

uQ,dY%h(

wOHdmkh ;=<ska iudc taldnoaO;dj m%j¾Okh lsrSu ms<sn|

jd¾;djg wkqj iudc taldnoaO;dj

we;s lsrSfï m%Odk udkhka lsysmhla fõ' úIhud,dj " .=re wOHdmkh

)" fojk NdIdj b.ekaùu m%j¾Okh lsrSu

" iuia; mdi,a ixialD;sh jeä oshqKq lsrSu " mdi,a

wka;¾lrKh (Intergrated Schools) úIh iu.dó ls%hdldrlï we;s lsrSu

" m¾fhaIK m%j¾Okh lsrSu tu udkhka fõ'

cd;sl wOHdmk fldñIka iNdj 2003 j¾Ifha m%ldYhg m;a l< —udkj ixj¾Okh i|yd wOHdmkfha bosrs oelau( YS% ,xldfõ idudkH wOHdmkh ms<sn| cd;sl m%;sm;a;s rduqjla i|yd fhdackd˜ ^2003& u.ska mqrjeis wOHdmkh úIhh kej; mdi,a moaO;shg y÷kajdoSfï wjYH;dj fmkajd oS we;' ta wkqj 2005 j¾Ifha isg b;sydih yd iudc

wOHhkh úIhh fjkqjg 6 11 fY%aKs i|yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh" N+f.da, úoHdj yd

b;sydih hk úIhka y`oqqkajd fokq ,eÅh' 6 fY%aKsfha mrsir wOHhkh" 6 9 fY%aKsj,

fï jk úg jir y;lg wêl ld,hla YS% ,xldfõ mdi,a moaO;sh ;=< fuu úIhh ls%hd;aul lrkq ,enqjo tys uQ,sl wruqKq úIhud,dj ;=< fldf;lAÿrg wka;¾.;j ;sfío@ isiqka ;=< tlS ksmqK;d idOkh lsrSu Wfoid f.k we;s mshjr m%udKj;ao@ tajd fldf;la ÿrg id¾:lj ù ;sfío@ hkak ms<sn|j úêu;a wOHhkhla fuf;la isÿj fkdue;' tneúka ta ms<sn|j lreKq wkdjrKh lr .ekSu i|yd fuu m¾fhaIKh isÿ lsÍug fm<TqKs" m¾fhaIK idys;H iudc taldnoaO;dj m%Odk udkhka mylska iukaú; jk nj YS% ,xldfõ wOHdmkh

;=<ska iudc taldnoaO;dj m%j¾Okh lsrSu

ms<sn`o jd¾;dj fmkajd fohs'

37

yd 10 11 fY%aKsj, iudc wOHhkh yd b;sydih úIhhka bj;a fldg b;sydih" N+f.da, úoHdj yd m%cdpdrh$mqrjeis wOHdmkh jYfhka wksjd¾h úIhka ;=kla 6 fY%aKsfha isg 11 fY%aKsh olajd ls%hd;aul lsrSug tu.ska ks¾foaY lrkq ,eîh' YS% ,xldfõ mdi,a úIhud,djg mqrjeis wOHdmkh úIh y`oqkajdoSfñ uQ,sl wruqK jQfha iudc tald.%;djh f.dvke.Su fú' tlS mrud¾:h fmroers fldg f.k 2007 j¾Ifha kj úIhud,d m%;sixialrKh hgf;a cSjk ksmqK;d" mqrjeis wOHdmkh hk úIh fldgia

fol taldnoaO lr 6 9 fY%aKs i`oyd cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh y÷kajd fokq

,eîh ^mqrjeis wOHdmkh .=re ud¾f.damfoaYh" 6 fYa%Ksh" ^2014&' 10 11 fY%aKs i|yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh yd m%cd md,kh kñka úIhfha ku fjkia lrkq ,eîh'

cd;sl wOHdmk fldñIka iNdj ^2003& úiska iuld,Sk wOHdmk jHqyhka yd ls%hdj,Ska ;=< oelsh yels ÿ¾j,;d ksid OrKSh udkj ixj¾Ok ixl,am rduqj we;=<;

wOHdmkh ;=<ska <`.d lr .; hq;= wruqKq wgla —cd;sl wOHdmk wruqKq˜ f,i yªqkajd fokq ,eîh' tu wruqKq w;=ßka iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu i|yd Rcqj odhl jk wruqK jkafka"

—udkj wNsudkhg .re lsrSfï ixl,amh u; msysgd YS% ,dxlsl nyqúO iudcfha ixialD;sl úúO;ajh wjfndaO lr .ksñka cd;sl taldnoaO;dj" cd;sl iDcq .=Kh" cd;sl iu.sh" tluq;=lu iy iduh m%j¾Okh lsrSu ;=<ska cd;sh f.dv ke.Su iy YS% ,dxlsl wkkH;dj ;yjqre lsrSu'˜ —udkj whs;sjdislïj,g .re lsrSu" hq;=lï yd j.lSï ms<sn| oekqj;a ùu" yDohdx.u ne£ulska hq;=j tlsfkld flfrys ie,ls,su;a ùu hk .=Kdx. m%j¾Okh lsrSug bjy,ajk iudc idOdrK;aj iïu;hka iy m%cd;dka;s%l cSjk rgdjka .eíjQ mrsirhla ks¾udKh lsrSu iy mj;ajd f.k hdug iyh ùu' ˜^udkj ixj¾Okh i|yd wOHdmkfha bosrs oelau" YS% ,xldfõ idudkH wOHdmkh ms<sn| cd;sl m%;sm;a;s rduqjla i|yd fhdackd( 2003 ms'65& cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh úIhh ;=<ska iudc taldnoaO;dj f.dv ke.Su i|yd tu cd;sl wOHdmk wruqKq fol f;df;la ÿrg odhljkafkao hkak ms<sn| fuu m¾fhaIK wOHhkh u.ska wkdjrKh lrkq ,efí' tfiau ;jÿrg;a lreKq wkdjrKh lrk cd;sl wOHdmk fldñIka iNd jd¾;dj ^2003& cd;sl wOHdmk wruqKq idOkh lr .ekSu i|yd imqrd,sh hq;= uQ,sl ksmqK;d y;la y÷kajd fok w;r tys mrsirhg wod< ksmqK;dj hgf;a wkq ksmqK;d wgla fmkajd fokq ,nhs' tys iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu i|yd mdol jk wkq ksmqK;d my; oelafjk mßÈ fm< .eiaúh yelsh' 1' cd;sl Wreuhka ms<sn| wjfndaOh 2' nyq jd¾.sl iudchl idudcslhka ùu yd iïnkaO ixfõoS;dj yd l=i,;d 3' idOdrK hqla;sh ms<sn| ye`.Su 4' iudc iïnkaO;d 5' mqoa., p¾hdj 6' idudkH yd ffk;sl iïm%odhka 7' whs;sjdislï 8' j.lSï hq;=lï yd ne`oSï

38

fuu wkq ksmqK;d w;=rska —nyq jd¾.sl iudchl idudcslhka ùu yd iïnkaO ixfõoS;dj yd l=i,;d˜ hkak Rcq f,iu iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsrSu i|yd odhl jk w;r wfkla wkq ksmqK;djhkao hï;dla oqrlg iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsrSu

Wfoid bjy,a jk nj 6 9 fY%aKsj,g wod< Ôjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh úIh ks¾foaY wOHhkh lsÍu ;=<ska wkdjrKh lr .; yelsh' wfíúl%u ^2010& fmkajd fok mrsos nyqúO iudc l%uhla ;=< m%cdpdr wOHdmkh fyj;a mqrjeis wOHdmkh ;=<ska isÿ lrkafka úYd, fufyhls' t;=<ska bgq lr .ekSug wfmalaIs; w;HjYH wx. ;=kla ms<sn|j Tyq wjOdrKh lrkq ,nhs'

1' mqrjeis oekqu

2' mqrjeis wdl,am

3' mqrjeis l=i,;d 6 fYa%Ksh cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh ^2007& .=re ud¾f.damfoaYhg wkqj cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh hk úIh ldKav foflys wruqKq fjka jYfhka olajd we;' tys mqrjeis wOHdmkhg wod< wruqKq 09 ls' tu wruqKq w;=rska m<uq wruqK jkafka nyqúO iudc l%uhla ;=< tlai;a núka lghq;= lsrSu yryd iudc taldnoaO;djh we;s lsrSug yels jk njhs' ta i|yd wjYH lrk ksmqK;d isiqka ;=< j¾Okh lsrSu mqrjeis wOHdmkh úIhh ;=<ska wfmalaIs; uQ,sl wruqK jk nj tu`.ska jeäoqrg;a fmkajd fokq ,nhs' Bg wu;rj wfkla wruqKq ;=<ska o iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsrSug wjYH ksmqK;d isiqka ;=< idOkh lsrSu flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lr we;s nj y`oqkd .; yelsh' tu ksid mqrjeis wOHdmkh úIhh ks¾udKh lsrSu yd cd;sl wOHdmk fldñIka iNdj úiska y`oqkajd fok ,o cd;sl wOHdmk wruqKq w;r Rcq iïnkaOhla mj;sk nj fï wkqj fmkS hhs'

mqrjeis wOHdmkh úIhfha wruqKq 1' nyqúO iudchla ;=< tlai;a núka hqla;j cSj;aùug wjYH ksmqK;d j¾Okh lsrSu' 2' udkj .=Kdx. yd iudc idrO¾u /l .ekSu i|yd fhda.H mqrjeishka ìys lsrSu' 3'úkh.rel yd kS;s.rel mqrjeishl= iudchg odhdo lsrSu i|yd fhda.H ksmqK;d

j¾Okh lsrSu' 4' mqoa., yd iudcSh ls%hdldrlïj,oS wfkHdakH iyfhda.fhka hqla;j lghq;= lsrSu' 5' YS% ,xldfõ yd f,dalfha md,k rgd ms<sn|j wjfndaOh ,nd oSu' 6'm%cd;ka;%jdoS uQ,O¾uj,g yd udkj whs;sjdislï ms<sn| m%{ma;Skag wkq.;j

lghq;= lrk iudchla f.dv ke.Su' 7'ksr;=rej fjkiajk f,dalfha wkfmalaIs; yd jHdl+, wjia:djkag id¾:lj uqyqK

oSug wjYH Yla;Ska j¾Okh lsrSu' 8' wfkHdakH jYfhka j.lSï yd hq;=lï w.hk iudchla f.dv ke.Su' 9' iudcfha hy meje;au i|yd iudc ixia:d iy ixúOdk fhdod .ekSug fhduq lsrSu' tfukau cSjk ksmqK;d úIhh ;=<ska wfmalaIs; wruqKq 13la 6 fYa%Ksh cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh ^2007& .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh u.ska y`oqkajd fokq ,nhs' tu.ska wjOdrKh lrkq ,nkafka nyq ixialD;sl iudc l%uhl iudc taldnoaO;dj f.dv ke.Su flfrys wjYH lrk ksmqK;d isiqka ;=< ;yjqre lsrSu flfrys ueosy;a ùu

39

fkdj ldhsl yd udkisl l=i,;d jeäoshqKq lr .ekSu i|yd wjYH idkqn, iemhSu fõ' tys miajk ^5& wruqK jk —hym;a wka;¾ mqoa., in|;d mj;ajñka iydkqN+;sfhka hq;=j lghq;= lsrSu˜ hkak hï;dla oqrlg nyqixialD;sl iudc l%uhl iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsrSu i|yd fya;=jk nj fmkajd osh yelsh' 1' hym;a wka;¾ mqoa., in|;d mj;ajñka iydkqN+;sfhka hq;=j lghq;= lsrSu' iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsrSu ;=<ska ks¾udKh lsrSug wfmalaIs; wkd.; mqrjeishd i;= .=Kdx. oy;=kla —cd;sl m%;sm;a;sh iy ls%hdldrlï ms<sn| úia;rd;aul rduqj˜ ^2008& uÕska fmkajd fokq ,nhs' ta w;=rska m<uq .=Kdx.h Rcq f,iu iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsrSu i|yd bjy,a jk nj fmkajd osh yelsh' wfkla .=Kdx.o nyq ixialD;sl iudchl iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsrSu i|yd odhl jk w;ru tjeks .=Kdx. fmroers lr f.k lghq;= lsrSu ;=<ska ks;e;skau iEu mqrjeisfhl=u ;=< wfkHdakH úYajdih" .re;ajh" iudc idOdrK;ajh fukau iudkd;au;dj ms<sn| ye`.Sï j¾Okh jkq we;' t;=<ska ks;e;skau iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s jk nj fmkajd osh yelsh' ta wkqj cd;sl m%;sm;a;sh iy ls%hdldrlï ms<sn| úia;rd;aul rduqj ^2008& u.ska fmkajd fok wkd.; mqrjeishd i;= .=Kdx. my; oelafõ'

1' nyq ixialD;sl iudchl cSj;a úh yelsh' úúO;ajh .re lrhs' fjkialï mdolj ;rÕ fkdlrhs' wka whf.a ixialD;Ska bjiSug yels jk w;r tajd w.h lrhs' wka wh úYajdi lrhs' udkj ohdfjka hqlal fjhs' j¾.jdoS fkdfjhs' wka;¾ ixialD;sl úfrdaO;d ms<sn|j ;¾ldkql+,j úYaf,aIKh lsrSug yels fjhs'

2' ;SrK .ekSfï oS m%cd;ka;%jdoS fjhs' .egqulska f;drj iduqyslj jev lsrSfï yelshdj i;= fjhs' wka whf.a woyia f;areï .ekSug W;aidy lrhs' iïm;a fnod .ekSug yelshdj orhs' újD; u;hlg ysñlï lshhs' úpdrj;aj is;hs'

3' wka whf.a whs;sjdislï iqrlaIs; lrñka tajdg .re lrhs'

4' fydoska ikaksfõokfha fhfohs' tlsfkldf.a NdId j,ska woyia yqjudre lr .kshs' wk,iaj ijka fohs'

5' .eg¿ úi`od .ekSug yelshdj i;= fjhs' wNsfhda.j,g uqyqK fohs' úfYaIfhka úúO ixialD;sl iudchl mj;akd wNsfhda.j,g uqyqK fohs'

6' .egqu mrskdukh lsrsug iu;a fjhs' Okd;aulj is;Sug iu;a fjhs'

7' Ñ;a; wNHka;rfha iduh fidhd .kshs' iduldó iu;=,s; cSjk l%uhla i;= fjhs' ;ukaf.a YlH;djka iy ld¾hfha iajNdjh jgyd .kshs'

8' foaYmd,k wjfndaOfhka hqla; fjhs'

9' ¥Is; fkdfjhs' w,a,ia ms<sfkd.kshs' wfmalaIKhlska f;drj wka whg fiajh lrhs' m%cd i;a.=Kfhka hq;al fjhs'

40

10' úYaj oelaulska hqla; jQ úYaj mqrjeisfhla fjhs' c.;a ixj¾Okhg iyNd.Sùug ;rï wd;au Yla;shla orhs' mrsir ys;ldó fjhs'

11' is;=ú,a,lska fyda ls%hdjlska fyda lsisfjl=g ydks fkdlrhs' wka whf.a ye.Sïj,g .re lrhs' ixfõokd;aul fjhs'

12' YS% ,dxflah iïm%odh" ixialD;sh iy idrO¾uhka wdrlaId lsrSug yels fjhs'

13' kS;s .relhs' kS;s iy fr.=,dis blaujd .sh .=Kdx.hka i;=hs'

^cd;sl m%;sm;a;sh iy ls%hdldrlï ms<sn| úia;rd;aul rduqj" 2008&

tys nyq ixialD;sl iudc l%uhla ;=< ixialD;sl úúO;ajhg .re lrñka tlsfkld iu`. úYajdifhka yd ohdfjka hq;=j fjkialï flfrys ixfõoSj lghq;= lrk iy ckjd¾.sl úúO;ajh u; lghq;= fkdlrk úYaùh mqrjeisfhl= ìys lsrSu m%Odk wfmalaIdj fõ'

mqrjeis wOHdmkh úIh ;=<ska wfmalaIs; uqLH mrud¾:h jkafka nyq ixialD;sl iudchla ;=< tlai;a núka hqla;j cSj;aùug wjYH ksmqK;d isiqka ;=< ixj¾Okh lsrSu fõ' m%cdpdr úIh wka;¾.;fha yd ls%hdldrlïj, we;=<;a úh hq;= ,laIK cd;sl wOHdmk fldñIka iNd jd¾;dj ^2003& úiska fmkajd fohs' fuysoS o iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsrSu i|yd m<uq ,laIKh Rcqj odhl jk nj fmkajd osh yelsh' Bg wu;rj wfkla ,laIKo iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsrSu Wfoid odhl jk nj fmkajd osh yelsh' 1' wka wh iu. iyfhda.fhka cSj;aùug bf.k .ekSu ;=<ska iudc taldnoaO;dj

i|yd úúO jd¾.sl" nyq wd.ñl" nyq ixialD;sl iudchl ixialD;sl úúO;ajhg .re lsrSu'

2' mjq," m%cdj" fiajd ia:dkh" iudch yd iudc ixúOdk ;=< mka;s iy ia;S% mqreI

iïnkaO;d we;=¿j iudkd;au;d m%;sm;a;shg wkql+,j iudc iïnkaO;d m%j¾Okh lsrSu'

3' fjkialïj,g ixfõoS ùu" idlÉPd u.ska .egqï úi|Su iy iu:hlg m;a lsrSu yd

m%pKav;ajh msgq oelsu jeks yosis wjYH;d imqrd,Su'

m¾fhaIK wruqKq yd m¾fhaIK m%Yak iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsrSu flfrys cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh úIhfha odhl;ajh ms<sn|j úu¾Ykh lsrSug wod< fuu m¾fhaIKh ;=< uQ,sl wruqKq y;rla mokï lr f.k we;s w;r fuu m¾fhaIK m;%sldj bÈßm;a lsÍu i|yd m<uq wruqK yd Bg wod< m¾fhaIK m%Yakh muKla mokï lr f.k ;sfí'

41

1' cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh ^6 9& úIfha wruqKq idlaId;a lr .ekSug mdi,a fm<fmd;a" .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%y iy bf.kqï WmlrKj, odhl;ajh we.hSu'

m¾fhaIK m%Yakh

1' cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh ^6 9& úIfha wruqKq idlaId;a lr .ekSug mdi,a fm<fmd;a" .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%y iy bf.kqï WmlrKj, odhl;ajh fln÷fõo@

m¾fhaIK l%ufõoh

iudc taldnoaO;dj f.dv ke.Su i|yd cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh úIh fldf;laÿrg odhl;ajhla imhkafkao hkak mrSlaIdjg ,la lsrSu w;sYh iudc úoHd;aul ixisoaêhla jk w;r tjeks ;;a;ajhla fyd|ska wOHhkh l< yelafla .=Kd;aul wOHhk l%ufõoh ;=<ska nj m¾fhaIlhdf.a woyihs' tu ksid iudc taldnoaO;dj jeks w;sYh .=Kd;aul ,laIK j,ska fyì ixl,amhl idOkh ;SrKhlsrSu m%udKd;aul m¾fhaIK l%ufõoh Ndú; fldg" ixLHd;aul o;a; u; mokïj isÿ lsrSu fhda.H fkdjk fyhska .=Kd;aul wOHhk l%u Ys,amh hgf;a ixfla; wka;¾ ls%hdjdoh mokï fldg f.k ikaOdr úYaf,aIKh isÿ lrkq ,efí'

m¾fhaIK WmlrK

o;a; tla/ia lsrSu i|yd m%Odk m¾fhaIK WmlrK ;=kla fhdod .kq ,nk w;r bka

,sÅ; uQ,dY% ^6 9 fYa%Ksj,g wod< Ôjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh fm< fmd;a& muKla fuu m¾fhaIK m;s%ldj bÈßm;a lsÍu i|yd mokï lr .kq ,eîh' ta u; mokïj isÿ lrk ,o wkdjrK weiqßka ks.uk yd fhdackd bÈßm;a lrkq ,efì'

1' ,sÅ; uQ,dY%

,sÅ; uQ,dY% mokï lr .ksñka isÿ lrk ikaOdr úYaf,aIKh ls%fmkafvda¾ma

y`oqkajd fokafka —,sÅ; o%jHj,ska tajdfha uQ,dY%hkays iajNdjh ms<sn|j iqúfYaIS wkqudkhka lsrSu i|yd fhda.H yd j,x.= l%uhls˜ hkqfjks'

ikaOdr úYaf,aIKhl ;sìh hq;= uQ,sl wx. ,laIK y;rla úiska fmkajd fokq ,nhs'

1' kHdhd;aul wkqudkhg yd m%cdkk wNsreÑhg mokula iemhSu'

2' m%;sM, kej; mÍlaId l< yels ksheÈhla ùu yd /ia lr .kakd o;a;j, úYajiH;dj ;yjqre l< yels ùu'

3' o;a; úYaf,aIKh i|yd úYajdiodhl yd j,x.= m%j¾. f.dv k.d .ekSu'

4' /ia lr .kakd ,o f;dr;=re ms<sn| m%udKd;aul ú.%yhla yd ta ms<sn| iqÿiq w¾:l:khka wka;¾.; ùu'

42

wka;¾.; úYaf,aIK ls%hdj,sh ;=<oS wkq.ukh l< hq;= uQ,sl mshjr igykla fndia

yd gdkdhs fmkajd fokq ,nhs'

kHdhd;aul uágu m%j¾. msysgqjd .ekSu

mQ¾j mrSlaIKh

o;a; /ia lsrSu yd we.hSu

o;a; w¾:l:kh

ta wkqj m¾fhaIlhska úiska by; olajk ,o Bos & Tarnai (1999) ikaOdr úYaf,aIK

wdlD;sh mokï lr .ksñka 6 9 fY%aKsj, cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh

fm<fmd;a úYaf,aIKhg n`oqka lrkq ,eîh¡ tysoS Bos & Tarnai (1999) úiska bÈßm;a lrk ,o ikaOdr úYaf,aIKhl ;sìh hq;= uQ,sl wx. ,laIK w;=ßka m<uq jekak jk —kHdhd;aul wkqudkhg yd m%cdkk wNsreÑhg mokula iemhSu˜ hk lreKg wod<j

iudc taldnoaO;dj hk ixl,amh f.dv ke.S we;s m%Odk udkhka my

kHdhd;aul moku f,i i,ld ikaOdr úYaf,aIKh isÿ lrkq ,eîh'

43

fïßka.a ^Mayring) keu;s m¾fhaIlhd úiska olajk wdldrhg Bos & Tarnai,1999 ^fndia yd gdkdhs& úiska bÈßm;a lrk ,o ikaOdr úYaf,aIK ls%hdj,sh ks.dó Ñka;kh weiqßka m%j¾. y÷kd .ekSuls' fïßka.a ^Mayring) jeäÿrg;a i|yka lrkafka m¾fhaIlhl=g Ndú; l< yels tlu ls%hdj,sh th fkdjk w;r Woa.dó m%j¾. ixj¾Ok ls%hdj,sh o ta i|yd Ndú; l< yelsh' ta wkqj Woa.dó fyda ks.dó l%ufhka ixj¾Okh lr .kakd m%j¾. ;=<ska /ia lr .kakd o;a; úYaf,aIKh lsÍfïoS m¾fhaIlhl=g wkq.ukh l< yels iqúfYaIS ls%hdud¾. ms<sn|j fïßka.aia ^Mayring,1983& úiska jeäÿrg;a lreKq fmkajd fokq ,nhs' ta hgf;a m%Odk lreKq

y;la wjOdrKh lrk fïßka.a ^Mayring) úYaf,aIK ls%hdud¾. iqúfYaIS f,i y÷kd .ekSu yd w¾: oelaùu i|yd iqúfYaI —.=Kd;aul ikaOdr úYaf,aIK Wml%u˜ ;=kla y÷kajd fohs' bka —idrdxY lsÍfï ikaOdr úYaf,aIKh˜ mokï fldg .ksñka fuu ikaOdr úYaf,aIKh isÿ lrkq ,eîh'

o;a; úYaf,aIKh

Ôjk ksmqK;d

mqrjeis wOHdmkh

Ôjk ksmqK;d

mqrjeis wOHdmkh

Ôjk ksmqK;d

mqrjeis wOHdmkh

Ôjk ksmqK;d

mqrjeis wOHdmkh

o;a; úYaf,aIKh

Ôjk ksmqK;d

mqrjeis wOHdmkh

Ôjk ksmqK;d

mqrjeis wOHdmkh

Ôjk ksmqK;d

mqrjeis wOHdmkh

Ôjk ksmqK;d

mqrjeis wOHdmkh

o;a; úYaf,aIKh

6 9 fY%aKsj,g wod<j Ôjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh fm< fmd;a fhdod f.k fuu ikao¾N úYaf,aIKh isÿ lrk ,o w;r tla tla fY%aKshg wod< mdvï tall my; j.= igyk ;=< olajd we;'

Ôjk ksmqK;d

mqrjeis wOHdmkh

Ôjk ksmqK;d

mqrjeis wOHdmkh

Ôjk ksmqK;d

mqrjeis wOHdmkh

Ôjk ksmqK;d

mqrjeis wOHdmkh

o;a; úYaf,aIKh

6 fYa%Ksh

Ôjk ksmqK;d 1' wd;audjfndaOh 2' ie,iqïlrKh yd

ixúOdkh 3' M,odhS ikaksfõokh4' iydkqN+;sh ^iylïmkh$wkqfõokh& mqrjeis wOHdmkh 5' wfma mdi, 6' wm Ôj;ajk mßirh 7' hym;a mqrjeishl=

jYfhka iudcfha Ôj;aùug wjYH .=Kdx.

7 fYa%Ksh Ôjk ksmqK;d 1' Tn wisßu;ah 2' úfúlhg kj

wre;la 3' idrO¾u iqrlsuq4' f;dr;=re

fidhuq ksr;=re mqrjeis wOHdmkh 5' hd¿hs wms hd¿hs6' wfma mjq, 7' wfma ck iudch8' wfma ixialD;sh

8 fYa%Ksh Ôjk ksmqK;d 1' Ôú;h iqNjdoSj

olsuq 2' Ñ;a;fõ. hym;a

f,i yiqrejd .ksuq3' .egqï wju lr

.ksuq 4' ienE kdhlhka

fjuq 5' jev f,dalhg

msúfiuq' mqrjeis wOHdmkh 6' wm m%foaYfha fmdÿ fiajd 7' m%cd;ka;%jdoS ck iudch 8' nyq ixialD;sl ck iudch

9 fYa%Ksh Ôjk ksmqK;d 1'wd;audjfndaOfhka

lghq;= lruq' 2' iyÔjkh m%.=K

lruq' 3' M,odhS ;SrK

.ksuq' 4' wdmod

l<ukdlrKh lruq'

5' .egqï iudldój úi|uq'

6' jev f,dalhg iQodkï fjuq'

mqrjeis wOHdmkh 7' iudc

iqrlaIs;;dj we;s lruq'

8' iudc hym;g odhl jk fjkiaùï ye|sk .ksuq'

9' md,kh i|yd ck;d iyNd.s;ajh w.huq'

10' m<d;a md,k wdh;kj, lghq;= i|yd iydh fjuq'

44

6 fY%aKshg wod< ikaOdr úYaf,aIKh 6 fY%aKsh wod< úIh ikaOdrh úYaf,aIKh lsÍfï§ wd;audjfndaOh keu;s tallh ;=<ska wka whg .re lsÍu" iyfhda.h" bjiSu jeks .=Kdx. iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu iïnkaOfhka jeo.;a jqjo ta i|yd wjOdkh fhduq lr we;s njla y÷kd .; fkdyel' tfiau ie,iqïlrKh yd ixúOdkh hgf;a tys isxy," fou<" uqia,sï ckj¾. kssfhdackh lr ;sfí' M,odhS ikaksfõokh keu;s tallh ;=<ska wka;¾ mqoa., in|;djka ;=< oelsh yels ,laIK u;= lr olajd we;'

tlsfkldf.a ;SrK yd w.hkag w;aoelSïj,g .re lsÍu tla mqoa.,fhla wfkla mqoa.,fhl= wNsnjd biau;= ùug ;e;a fkdlsÍu wfkHdakH ie,ls,a, TskEu mqoa.,fhl=g ;udg ksjerÈ hhs is;k woyia oeÍug whs;shla we;s nj ms<s .ekSu ;u woyi wfkldg ms<s.ekSug n, fkdlsÍu

y;rjk tallfha§ iydkqN+;sh ^iylïmkh$wkqfõokh& ms<sn|j wjOdkh fhduq lr we;' iydkqN+;sh hkq wkHhkaf.a wjYH;djkag yd ye.Sïj,g ixfõoS ùuhs'

—iudcfha wka wh iu`. iemf;a oS yd úmf;a oS tlu mjq,la f,i talrdYSùug" ieye,a,qfjka Ôj;aùug mqoa.,hd ;=< ixfõoS nj ;sìh hq;=h˜ hkqfjka olajd we;'

tlu mdi,la ;=< úúO ckj¾." úúO wd.ñl lKavdhï ksfhdackh lrk orejka isáh yelsh' ta wkqj wfma mdi, keu;s tallfha§ mdif,a wkkH;dj ;yjqre lrk tla idOlhla f,i mdi,a .S;h olajd we;s w;r tu .S;h ;=< iu.sfhka uõìu iq/lSu isiqkaf.a j.lSula yd hq;=lula f,i i|yka lr ;sfí'

wm Ôj;a jk m%foaYh keu;s tallfha§ isiqqka ;=kafofkl= isÿlrk m%ldYhla bÈßm;a lr we;' tu isiqka ;=kafokd isxy," fou<" uqia,sï ckj¾. ksfhdackh lsÍu i|yd we;=<;a lr ;sîu iudc taldnoaO;dj fmkakqï lsÍug .;a W;aidyhla f,i fmkajd oSug mq̀:jk'

hym;a mqrjeisfhl= f,i iudcfha Ôj;aùug wjYH .=Kdx. y;a jk tallfhka u;= lr,Sug W;aidy ord we;' tys§ wdpdrYS,S NdId Ndú;h" ^ms¡47& úkh yd YslaIKh" ^ms¡48& wkau; úuiSu yd idlÉcd u.ska ksjerÈ ;SrKj,g t<öu" wka whf.a woyia ;ud ork woyig úreoaO jqj;a tajdg ijka oSu ^ms¡48& yd ndOd fkdlsÍu" fmdÿ tl`.;djg t<öug W;aidy oeÍu" jeä fofkl=g tl`.úh yels mßÈ idlÉcd u.ska .eg`: úi`oSug fhduq ùu" wmlaImd;S" idOdrK" uOHia: ;SrK .ekSu wdosh ^ms¡48& fuu tallh ;=< iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu i|yd odhl jk lreKq jYfhka fmkajd oSug mq̀:jk'

7 fY%a‚h wod< ikaOdr úYaf,aIKh

7 fY%aKshg wod<j Tn wisßu;ah mdvï tall hgf;a ;ukaf.a hym;g fya;=jk .=Kdx. ^ms'11& f,i Okd;aul is;sú,s" iqyoYS,S wka;¾ mqoa., in|;d" ks¾udKYS,S Ñka;kh" ixfõ§;dj iylïmkh hk lreKq fmkajd § we;'

45

—iudcfha hym;g fya;=jk wdh;k˜ ^ms'10& rEmigykla uÕska fmkajd § we;' tu rEmigyk ;=< mkai," fldaú," uiaðoh" m,a,sh wd§ wd.ñl ia:dk olajd ;sfí' tys m<uqj olajd we;af;a mkai, ksrEmKh jk ±.enl ixfla;hls' bka miqj wfkl=;a wd.ñl ia:dk olajd ;sfí' tuÕska ;yjqre jkafka ;jÿrg;a Y%S ,dxlsl ck iudch ;=< isxy," fn!oaO ck lKavdhu wka ckjd¾.sl yd wd.ñl lKavdhïj,g jvd by<ska isák njhs'

úfõlhg kj wre;la hk fojk mdvï tallh wdrïNfha§ u iudc taldnoaO;dj ms<sn| woyila biau;= lsÍug fm<fmd;a l;=jrhd úiska W;aidy f.k ;sfí' tkï" 7 fY%AKsfha isiqka mka;s ldurfhka neyerj úfkdao jk wjia:djla yd mka;s Ndr .=re;=ñh tu ia:dkhg meñKsh o isiqka ta neõ fyda fkdoek ;u úfkdaoh Wmßu wdldrfhka N=la;s ú¢k wjia:djls' ^ms' 20& .S .ehQ ore msßi ioyd rx.kfhka odhl jQfha md;sud" ;kqcd" foaú" wu,a yd fudfyduâh' ^ms'21& fuuÕska fm<fmd;a l;=jrhd úiska u;= lsÍug W;aidy f.k we;af;a nyq ixialD;sl mka;s ldurhl isiqka ish,q fokd iduQyslj yd iyfhda.fhka hq;=j lghq;= lrk njhs'

;=kajk mdvï tAllh ;=< —Tng mdif,a § iq/lsh yels idrO¾u˜^ms'38& lsysmhla olajd ;sfí' tys ish¨ fokd iuÕ ñ;%YS,Sj" iyfhda.fhka lghq;= lsÍu" wka YsIHhka iuÕ iqyo j" is; fkdßfok whqßka l;d lsÍu" wjia:dfjdaÑ;j wkHhkag Wmldr lsÍu wdÈh nyq ixialD;sl iudchl iudc tAldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu i|yd iDcqj Þhl jk lreKq fõ'

tfiau wfkHdakH f.!rjfhka hq;= j tlaj ne£ Ôj;a ùfï § ñksiaiq l%shd l< hq;= wdldrh ^ms'42& olajd ;sfí' tys iEu fokdu ñksiqka nj;a" tlsfkldg f.!rj lsÍu yd wdorh lsÍu l<hq;= nj;a olajd ;sfí'

tfiau wfkHdakH f.!rjfhka hq;=j tlaj ne£ Ôj;a ùfï jákdlu ms<sn| j bÈßm;a lr we;s lreKq lsysmhla my; ±lafõ'

• tlsfkldg Woõ lr;s'

• wfkld i;= foh fidrlï fkdlr;s'

• ;ud i;= foh wjYH;d wkqj fno yÞ .ks;s'

iudc tAldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍug Þhl jk ;j;a tla wjia:djla f,i hd¿hs wms hd¿hs mdvu fmkajd Èh yelsh' tu mdvï tAllh ;=<—wka;¾ mqoa., iïnkaO;d f.dv keÕSug˜ fya;=jk idOl .Kkdjla ^ms'11& bÈßm;a lr we;' wka wh w.h lsÍu" wfkla ;eke;a;dg mQ¾K wjOdkh fhduq lsÍu" weyqïlka §u" ÿria:nj ke;s lr ióm ùu jeks .=Kdx. wka;¾ mqoa., iïnkaO;d f.dv keÕSug bjy,a jk nj olajd ;sfí'

;jÿrg;a ú.%y lrk fm<fmd;a l;=jrhd mqoa.,hska /ila tla jQ mu‚ka wka;¾ mqoa., in|;d f.dv fkdkefÕk nj m%ldY lrhs' Tjqfkdjqka w;r ±kqu" wjfndaOh" tlsfkldg ijka §u" fmdÿ u;hg .re lsÍu wd§ ,laIK mej;sh hq;= nj o i|yka lrhs'

wfma mjq, keu;s mdvï tallh u`.ska Y%S ,xldfõ úúO ckj¾." úúO wd.ï iys; nyq ixialD;sl ck iudch ;=< úúO;ajh fya;= fldg f.k Tjqka wkq.ukh lrk isß;a úß;a o fjkia jk nj ^ms' 37& i|yka lr ;sfí'

46

tfiau wfma ck iudch hk mdvï tAllh ;=< —ck iudcfha úúO;ajh˜ ud;Dldj hgf;a ixialD;sl úúO;ajh ms<sn| woyila bÈßm;a lrkq ,nhs' —´kEu ck iudchla úúO h' we÷ï me<÷ï" isß;a úß;a yd l;d lrk NdIdj o úúO h' Tjqfkdjqkaf.a wd.ï o fjkia h' fndfyda úg mqoa., yevrej o fjkia fõ' tfy;a wms ish¨ fokdu tlu ñksia mjq,lg wh;a fjuq˜' ^ms'49& bka wk;=rej —Y%S ,dxlsl ck iudcfha jHqyh˜ hk ud;Dldj hgf;a my; ±lafjk ú.%yh isÿ lrhs' —ck iudchl jHqyh ilia jkafka cd;sh" wd.u yd NdIdj hk uQ,sl ,laIK uÕsks' Y%S ,xld ck iudch m%Odk jYfhka ks¾udKh ù we;af;a isxy," fou<" uqia,sï" n¾.¾" uef,a hk ckj¾. j,sks' Tjqka ;u ckj¾.hg wdfõ‚l jQ NdId l;d lr;s' isxy," fou<" bx.%Sis yd uef,a hk NdId Tjqka w;r jHjydrfha mj;S' fn!oaO" yskaÿ" l%sia;shdks yd bia,dï hk wd.ï Y%S ,xldjdiSka woyk wd.ï fõ˜' ^ms' 50& —'''''' uf.a uõìu Tfí rg fuka yeg y;r .=Khla úYd,h' tys oñ<" u,hd," .=crdg" urdG" øúv" jx. hkd § úúO ck j¾. fjfi;s' Tjqyq úúO NdId l;d lr;s' yskaÿ" fn!oaO" l%sia;shdks" lf;da,sl" ffck" bia,dï wd§ úúO wd.ï woyk msßia o tys fjfi;s' wms ish¨ fokd Ndr; uE‚hkaf.a orefjda fjuq' tneúka f,dalfha fiiq rgj,a wmj y÷kajkafka bkaÈhdkq cd;slhka f,ih''''''˜ ^ms'50& fï ;=<ska iudc tAldnoaO;dj f.dv keÕSu i|yd iDcq odhl;ajhla iemhSug fm<fmd;a l;=jrhdg wjia:dj WÞ ù we;s nj fmkajd Èh yels h' —Tn Ôj;a jk iudcfha úúO fjkialï y÷kd .kak' tu iudcfha udkj j¾." NdId" isß;a úß;a" wd.ï ms<sn| j f;dr;=re we;=<;a lr is;a .kakd úia;r m;%sldjla ilikak˜' ^ms'51& bka wk;=rej —ck iudch ;=< mj;sk ixúOdk iy udkj wka;¾ in|;d˜ ms<sn| fmkajd §ug W;aidy lrk fm<fmd;a l;=jrhd tf,i msysgqjd we;s ixúOdk lsysmhla ksoiqka f,i ^ms'58& bÈßm;a lrhs' tfiau tu ixúOdk yereKq úg wka;¾ udkj in|;d mj;ajk wd.ñl yd iudc ixúOdk jYfhka mkai," fldaú," m,a,sh jeks wdh;k lsysmhla ^ms' 59& kï lrkq ,nhs' tfiau —uQ,sl whs;sjdislï ys iajNdjh˜ hgf;a Y%S ,xld wdKavql%u jHjia:dj uÕska mqrjeishka fj; ysñ lr § we;s whs;Ska lsysmhla fmkajd fokq ,efí' —;uka leu;s wd.ula weoySfï whs;sh iEu mqrjeishl=gu ysñ h˜' ^ms' 69& ;j o" — ^'''''''& isxy," fou<" uqia,sï" n¾.¾ yd wksl=;a ckhdf.a uQ,sl whs;Ska Y%S ,xld md¾,sfïka;=j uÕska kS;s mkjd iqrlaIs; fldg ;sfí'˜ ^ms'71& f,i olajd we;s w;r tuÕska tla tla ckjd¾.sl lKavdhï i`oyd iqúfYaI uQ,sl whs;Ska ;yjqre lr we;s njg woyila YsIHhska ;=< we;s lrhs' tfy;a j;auka wdKavql%u jHjia:dj ;=< tf,i ckj¾. mokï fldg f.k whs;sjdislï ysñ lr §ula isÿ fkdjk w;r iuia;

47

—Y%S ,dxlsl mqrjeishka˜ fjkqfjka fmdÿ whs;Ska ud,djla y÷kajd fohs' tneúka fm<fmd;a l;=jrhd úiska fuys § iudc tAldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍug W;aidy±Íu ;=< isÿj we;af;a th ;jÿrg;a ì£ hdula fõ' wgjk mdvï tAllh wfma ixialD;shhs' tA hgf;a —ixialD;sh ye¢kaùu˜ isÿ lrk w;r wd¾hhkaf.a meñŒu yd nqÿ oyfï wdNdIh fya;=fjka isxy, fn!oaO ixialD;shla Wreuj mej;s nj wjOdrKh lrhs' ^ms' 76& —wm rfÜ jir 2500g jvd È.= b;sydihlg ysñlï lshk ixialD;shla ;sfí' wd¾hhkaf.a meñŒu yd nqÿ oyfï wdNdifhka fmdaIKh jQ ÈhqKq isxy, fn!oaO ixialD;shla wmg ysñ ù ;sfí˜' ^ms' 76& tfiau miqld,Skj fou< ckhdf.a meñŒu fya;=fjka yskaÿ ixialD;sh Y%S ,xldfõ ixialD;shg tl;= jQ nj;a fj<|du i|yd meñ‚ uqia,sï cd;Ska fya;=fjka bia,dï ixialD;sh ,enqKq nj;a fmkajd fohs' ^ms' 76& —miq ld,fha § meñ‚ fou< ckhdf.a" fou< yskaÿ ixialD;sh o Y%S ,xld ixialD;shg tla úh' bka miqj fj<|du i|yd meñ‚ uqia,sï ckhd ksid uqia,sï bia,dï ixialD;sl ,laIK o" ngysr cd;Skaf.a meñŒu fya;=fjka bx.%Sis NdIdj" lf;da,sl" l%sia;shdks wd.ï" úúO wdydrmdk" isß;a úß;a" wm ixialD;shg we;=<;a ù ;sfí˜' ^ms' 76& —úúO ixialD;Skag wh;a úfYaI ,laIK˜ ud;Dldj hgf;a tla tla ckj¾j,g yd wd.ñl lKavdhïj,g wh;a wdydr mdk" we÷ï me<÷ï" weoys,s yd úYajdi wdÈh bÈßm;a lr ;sfí' ^ms' 79& —Y%S ,xldfõ iudch ixialD;sl úúO;ajhlska hqla;h' ckj¾. jYfhka isxy," fou<" uqia,sï" n¾.¾ yd uef,a wd§ úúO ck lKAvdhï rdYshla olakg ,efí' fn!oaO" yskaÿ" bia,dï" lf;da,sl yd l%sia;shdks jYfhka wd.ï lsysmhls' Tjqka l;d lrk NdId wkqj isxy," fou<" bx.%Sis" wrdì" uef,a jYfhka j¾. lsysmhls' wdydrmdk" we÷ï me<÷ï" isß;a úß;a" weoys,s" úYajdi fndfyda ;sfí˜' ^ms' 79& tfiau tla tla wd.ñl lKavdhï úiska ;u ixialD;sl wkkH;dj wdrlaId fldg mj;ajd f.k hdu i|yd fhdÞ .kakd wd.ñl W;aij lsysmhl ^ms' 80"81& mska;+r lsysmhla bÈßm;a lr we;' —iEu ixialD;shlu olakg ,efnk fmdÿ ,laIK˜ ud;Dldj hgf;a ;u ixialD;sh fukau wkH ixialD;Skag o .re lsÍfï jeo.;alu fmkajd fohs' ^ms' 84& —tla tla ckj¾." wd.ï" iudc mka;s u; ixialD;sh o fjkia úh yels h' tfy;a tAjd tlla wfklg jvd Wiia fyda my;a hehs lsj fkdyels h' iEu flfklau ;u ixialD;sh w.h lrkakd fiau wkH ixialD;Skag o .re l< hq;= h˜' ^ms' 84& tfiau iEu ixialD;sl lKavdhulau iu.sfhka yd iyfhda.fhka lghq;= lsÍfï jeo.;alu meyeÈ,s lrk fm<fmd;a l;=jrhd úiska tuÕska ijka tAldnoaO;dj ;yjqre lsÍug W;aidy ord ;sfí'

48

—iEu ixialD;shlgu wh;a fldgia iuÕsfhka yd idufhka Ôj;aùu w;HjYH fõ' tlsfklg .re l< hq;= h' iduQyslj wd¾Ól" foaYmd,k yd iudc lghq;= bgq lsÍu i|yd tl fia Þhl úh hq;= h' th ixialD;sh uekúka wjfndaO lsÍug msájy,la fõ˜' ^ms' 84& cd;sl wkkH;dj yd cd;sl iuÕsh ^ms' 86& ud;Dldj hgf;a wm rfÜ Ôj;a jk ish¨ fokd cd;shla jYfhka tlai;aj Ôj;a úh hq;= nj fmkajd fohs' ^ms' 86& —wm rfÜ Ôj;ajk ck;dj cd;shla jYfhka tlai;aj" tluq;=j lghq;= lsÍu rfÜ ixj¾Okhg fya;= jkq we;˜' ^ms' 86& bka wk;=rej Y%S ,xldfõ cd;sl wkkH;dj fmkakqï lrkq ,nk ixfla; f,i cd;sl .Sh" cd;sl fldäh yd rdcH ,dxPkh hk ixfla; jeo.;a jk nj i|yka lrhs' ^ms' 86& cd;sl .Sh uÕska rgl mqrjeishka ;=< ;u uõìu ms<sn| f.!rjhla" Nla;shla yd wjOdkhla we;s lsÍu;a" cd;sl iu.sh we;s lsÍu;a isÿjk nj fmkajd § we;' ^ms' 87& tfiau Bg wÞ< l%shdldrlula ,nd foñka —cd;sl .Sh ;=<ska cd;sl tluq;=lu ms<sn| j lshfjk mo Wmqgd olajkak˜ wjia:dj ^ms' 88& ,nd fohs' th cd;sl ixfla; ;=<ska cd;sl wkkH;dj ;yjqre lsÍug;a" t;=<ska iudc tAldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍug;a .;a hym;a W;aidyhla f,i w.h l< yels h'

8 fY%aKshg wod< ikaOdr úYaf,aIKh —nyq ixialD;sl iudchla ksfhdackh lrk mka;s ldurhla˜ Ôú;h iqNjdoSj olsuq keu;s m<uq mdvu ;=< bÈßm;a lr we;' tu mka;s ldurh ;=< isiqka 14 fofkl= ^ms'23& isák kuq;a bka 8$14 la isxy, isiqka jk w;r th m%;sY;hla jYfhka .;a l< 57] ls' Bg idfmalaIj fou< isiqka ^rdKs" foaú& 2$14 o uqia,sï isiqka 3$14 ^fudfyduâ" *drela" uqkSrd& jYfhka ;u woyia bÈßm;a lrkq ,nhs' m%;sY;hla jYfhka .;a l< ms<sfj,ska th 14] la yd 21] la fõ' nyq ixialD;sl mka;s ldurhla ;=< iEu ckj¾.hlgu" wd.ulgu wh;a isiqkayg iudk wjia:d,dNhka ysñ úh hq;= jqjo fuu.ska meyeÈ,s jkafka tfia bgq ù fkdue;s njhs'

mqoa., is;=ú,sj,g n,mEï lrk uQ,dY% igykla bÈßm;a lr we;' ^ms¡ 13&

m,a,sh

mkai,

fldaú,

uiaðoh

wd.ñl isoaOia:dk

8 fY%aKshg wod< ikaOdr úYaf,aIKh

m,a,sh

mkai,

fldaú,

uiaðoh

wd.ñl isoaOia:dk

49

fojk tallh Ñ;a;fõ. hym;a f,i yiqrejd .ksuq fõ' tys wka wh iu`. iyfhda.fhka Ôj;a ùu w;sYh jeo.;a jk nj biau;= lrk fm< fmd;a l;=jrhd mqoa.,fhl=yg id¾:l Ôú;hla .; lsÍug th uy`.= msgq n,hla jk nj fmkajd fohs' udkj iudch úúO woyia yd u;jdo iys; mqoa.,hkaf.ka iukaú; tallhla jk nj;a" th mqoa.,hdf.a oekqï uÜgï wkqj iudc ;rd;sru" fmkqu" m%udKh" l;d lrk NdIdj" woyk wd.u wkqj fjkia jk nj;a .egqï wju lr .ksuq hk tallh ;=< m%ldY lrhs' Wod(

Ñ;a;fõ.S ye.Sïj,g jy,a fkdù bjiSfuka lghq;= lsÍu' iydkqN+;sl ijka oSu" tkï hfula m%ldY lrk fohg ixfõoS fjñka hï Woõjla lsÍfï n,dfmdfrd;a;=fjka Wkkaÿfjka ijka oSu' ie.jqKq wfmalaIdjkaf.ka f;drj wjxlj lghq;= lsÍu' ^ms'42&

iudcfha hymeje;au i|yd iudkd;au;dj iy iyÔjkh w.hk" iïu; isß;a úß;a" kS;sÍ;s yd iïm%odhkag .re lrñka Ôj;a ùu w;HjYH fõ' m%cd;ka;%jdoS Ôjk l%uhl mej;sh hq;= ,laIK lsysmhla m%cd;ka;%jdoS ck iudch mdvï tallh ;=< fmkajd oS we;' jeäfokdf.a leue;a;g .re lsÍu" ;u woyia m%ldY lrñka wka whf.a woyiaj,g .re lsÍu" úreoaO u; bjiSu wdÈh iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu i|yd w;sYh jeo.;a jkq we;' YS% ,xldj ;=< isxy," fou<" uqia,sï ckj¾. fukau fn!oaO" yskaÿ" bia,dï" lf;da,sl wd.ñl lKavdhï o ls%hd lrk wdldrh nyq ixialD;sl ck iudch hk mdvu ;=< ukdj ú.%y lr ;sfí' tfiau úúO ckj¾. yd neÿKq isß;a úß;a hgf;a fn!oaOd.ñl W;aij f,i fjila" fmdfidka" wei< W;aij o yskaÿ ixialD;sh yd ne`ÿKq wd.ñl W;aij yd isß;a úß;a hgf;a oSmjd,s" uyd Ysj rd;s%h" ff;fmdx.,a W;aijh o" yskaÿ újdyhla o fmkajd oS we;' ls%ia;shdks ixialD;sh yd neÿKq wd.ñl W;aij yd isß;a úß;a hgf;a k;a;,a W;aijh yd mdial= W;aijh i|yka lr we;s w;r orejl= fn!;Siau lsÍu" ls;=Kq újdyhla wdÈh fmkajd oS we;' bia,dóh ixialD;sh yd neÿKq wd.ñl W;aij yd isß;a úß;a hgf;a ñ,dÿka kì W;aijh" rduidka W;aijh" ycað W;aijh o" bia,dóh újdy ux., W;aijhla o fmkajd oS we;' fuysoS iEu ck j¾.hlgu fukau wd.ñl lKavdhulgu fmdÿ jQ ia:dk o mj;sk nj mjik fm< fmd;a l;=jrhd YS% mdoia:dkh" l;r.u foajd,h" y,dj; uqkafkaIajrï fldaú, wdÈh ksoiqka f,i i|yka lr;s' 9 fY%aKshg wod< ikaOdr úYaf,aIKh iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu i|yd jvd;a WÑ; m%ldYhla wd;audjfndaOfhka lghq;= lruq hk m<uq mdvï tallh ;=< bÈßm;a lr ;sfí' —iQ¾hhd wh;a jkafka ljr rdcHhlgo@ pkaøhd wh;a jkafka ljr foaY iSudjlgo@ c,h wh;a jkafka ljr wd.ulgo@ iq<`. wh;a jkafka ljr l=,hlgo@ ñys;,h wh;a jkafka ljr j¾.hlgo@ ñksid fï ish¨ rdcH foaY iSud" wd.ï" l=," j¾. blaujd .sh ;ekl isáh hq;=h' tysoS Tyqg i;H yuqfõ˜'

50

iudc taldnoaO;dj fmkakqï lrk ;j;a tla wjia:djla my; m%ldY ;=<ska ;yjqre fõ' —f,dj wfkl=;a rdcHj, fuka cd;sl wkkH;djg wod< cd;sl fldäh" cd;sl .Sh" rdcH ,dxckh" cd;sl jDlaIh" cd;sl mqIamh" cd;sl mlaIshd yd cd;sl lS%vdj hk wx. YS% ,xld m%cd;dka;s%l iudcjdoS ckrch i;=h' tfukau YS% ,dxlsl ixialD;sh Bgu iqúfYaIS jQ wkkH;djla m%o¾Ykh lrhs'˜ ^ms'15& —nyq ixialD;sl ck iudchl olakg ,efnk úúO;ajh ;=<ska f.dvkef.k tlai;a nj YS% ,dxlsl ck iudcfha ;j;a úfYaI ,laIKhls' úúO wd.ï yd ckj¾.j,g wh;a ck;dj YS% ,dxlsl mqrjeisfhda f,i iyÔjkfhka Ôj;a fj;s'˜ ^ms'17&

;jÿrg;a iudc iyÔjkfha jeo.;alu ú.%y lrk l;=jrhd mdi, ;=<;a" m%foaYh iy wi,ajeishka w;r;a" ;u fiajd ia:dkh ;=<;a iyÔjkfhka hq;=j Ôj;a ùfï jeo.;alu wjOdrKh lrkq ,nhs' tfiau rgl iduh yd ixj¾Okfha moku iyÔjkh nj o ú.%y lrkq ,nhs'

—mdi, ;=<oS o iyÔjkfhka lghq;= lsÍu ;=<ska wfmalaIs; wruqKq bgq lr .; yelsh' tfukau wm Ôj;ajk m%foaYh iy wi,ajeishka w;r;a" fiajd ia:dkj,oS;a wfkHdakH /|shdj" iyfhda.h yd iyÔjkh olakg ,efí' rg ;=< fjfik ckj¾. yd wd.ï w;r iyÔjkh rfÜ iduh iy ixj¾Okfha mokuhs'˜ ^ms'22&

fuu mdvï tallh wjidkfha idrdxY .; lsÍu ;=< iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu msKsi ls%hd lsÍfï jeo.;alu fmkajd oS we;'

—hym;a mqrjeisfhl= f,i úYaj .ïudkh ;=< YS% ,dxlsl wkkH;dj iq/flk whqßka lghq;= lsÍu wm ish¨fokdf.a j.lSuls'˜ ^ms'26&

y;a jk tallh iudc iqrlaIs;;dj we;s lruq fõ' tys iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsÍu i|yd wd.fuka isÿ jk fufyh my; oelafjk mßÈ úia;r lr ;sfí' ^ms'19&

—wd.u hkq iudc taldnoaO;dj jeä ÈhqKq lrkakd jQ iudc O¾u;d yd idrO¾u Yla;su;a lrkakd jQ ixia:djls' î' ue,sfkdõials ^ms'19&

mqoa.,fhl= iudcfha fyd| mqrjeisfhla f,i Ôj;a jk wdldrh ú.%y lr we;af;a my; oelafjk mßÈ fõ˜' ^ms'19&

—iEu wd.ulau mqyqKq lrkq ,nkafka mqoa.,hkag iudcfha fyd| mqrjeishka f,i iu.sfhka" iyfhda.fhka yd iyÔjkfhka hq;=j Ôj;a jk wdldrhhs' ta wkqj wd.ñl wdh;k úiska iudÔh wjYH;d /ila bgq lrk nj fmfka˜' ^ms'19&

wd.ñl wdh;k u.ska iudc iqrlaIs;;djg odhl jk wdldrh ^ms'20&

• iyfhda.S;dj yd wfkHdakH Wmldrhg yqre ùu' • wd.ñl isß;a úß;a" iïm%odhka ms<s.ekSug yd wdrlaId lsÍug

mqreÿ lsÍu' • wka;¾ wd.ñl iyfhda.S;d jevigyka ;=<ska cd;sl tald.%;djla

we;s lsÍu'

51

úúO iudc ixúOdk" iudc iqrlaIs;;dj we;s lsÍu i|yd ,nd fok odhl;ajh my; mßÈ fmkajd oS we;' ^ms¡ 21&

• hym;a wka;¾ mqoa., in|;d we;s lsÍu' • wkHu; .re lsÍug mqreÿ lsÍu'

ksfhdack m%cd;ka;%jdoS md,k l%uhl uQ,sl ,laIK ^ms'59& ;=< iudc taldnoaO;dj i|yd wod< jk ixl,am lsysmhla biau;= lr ;sfnk whqre md,kh i|yd ck;d iyNd.s;ajh w.huq hk mdvu ;=< y÷kd .; yelsh' Wod(

• iudcfha ish,q fokdg iudk whs;sjdislï ysñ ùu yd uQ,sl whs;sjdislï iq/lSug ls%hd lsÍu'

• uyck u;h ksoyfia m%ldY lsÍug wjia:dj ,eîu' ^ms'60&

m%cd;ka;%jdofha m%Odk ,laIKhla f,i Ôj;a ùfï whs;sh" foam< wh;a lr .ekSfï whs;sh" iudkd;au;dj ms<sn| whs;sh" leu;s jD;a;shl ksr;ùug we;s whs;sh" rg ;=< ´kEu ia:dkhl jdih lsÍfï whs;sh wdoS isú,a whs;sjdislï lsysmhla fmkajd oS we;' ^ms'60&

ck kdhlhl=f.ka bgq úh hq;= hq;=lï f,i my; oelafjk lreKq fmkajd fokq ,nhs' ^ms'62&

• ish¨u mqrjeishkag iudkj ie,lSu' • iyfhda.fhka lghq;= lsÍu' • cd;sl wNsjDoaêh Wfoid lghq;= lsÍu'

m¾fhaIK wkdjrK iudc taldnoaO;djh we;s lsrSu i|yd fm<fmd; ;=< t;rï wjOdkhla fhduq lr we;s nj y÷kd .; fkdyel' iEu .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yhla ;=<u úIh wruqKq wka;¾.; lsrSfï oS nyq ixialD;sl iudc l%uhl hym;a mqrjeishl= jYfhka lghq;= lsrSug wjYH ksmqK;d ixj¾Okh lsrSfï wjYH;dj fmkajd oS ;snqK o m%dfhda.slj th thdldrfhkau isÿj we;s nj ikao¾N úYaf,aIKh u`.ska wkdjrKh fkdùh'

tfiau fm<fmd;a rpkd lsrSfïoS .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh ;=< y÷qkajdoS we;s úIhh wruqK flfrys fm< fmd;a l;=jreka wjOdkh fhduq lr we;s nj y÷kd .; fkdyel'

.=re ud¾f.damfoaY fukau fm< fmd;a wka;hkaa folla lrd .uka lr we;s nj fmkakqï flf¾' fm<fmd;a l;=jrhd iudc taldnoaO;dj f,i fndfyda ÿrg y÷kd f.k we;af;a tla mka;s ldurhla ;=< isxy," fou< iy uqia,sï ckj¾. ;=k ksfhdackh jk ;;a;a;ajhla muKs' ke;fyd;a rEm igyka we;=<;a lsrSfïoS tu jd¾.sl lKavdhï ;=k ksfhdackh jk mrsos isiqka ;=ka fofkl= we;=<;a lsrSu fõ' fï ksid nyq ixialD;sl iudc l%uhl iudc taldnoaO;dj we;s lsrSu i|yd fm< fmd; ;=<ska isÿ l< yelsj ;snQ fndfyda wjia:d bka .s,syS f.dia we;s nj ikao¾N úYaf,aIKh ;=<ska wkdjrKh lr .; yels úh'

fhdackd 1' fm<fmd;a rplhska úIh wruqKq ms<sn| oekqj;a lsrSu yd Bg iudkqmd;sl jk f,i

fm< fmd;a rpkd lsrSu'

52

2' fm<fmd;a rpkh ms<sn| wëlaIK uKav, úIh wruqKq ms<sn| oekqj;anúka hq;a úfYaI{hskaf.ka iukaú; lsrSu'

3' .=re ud¾f.damfoaY rpkd lrkq ,nk iïm;a mqoa.,hskayg úIh wruqKq ms<sn|

wjfndaOhla ,ndoSu yd ksrka;rfhka ta ms<sn| wëlaIKh lsrSu' 4' cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh" wOHdmk m%ldYk fomd¾;fïka;=j" wOHdmk wud;HxYh"

cd;sl wOHdmk fldñIka iNdj hk wdh;k ish,a, tlsfklg j.lshk iy j.jk wdh;k cd,hla njg m;a lsrSu'

wdY%s; .%ka: kdudj,sh (

Social cohesion and education Background:Social cohesionand development,Social functions of education.http://eduction.stateuniversity.com/pages/2428/Social Cohesion

Mapping social cohesion:the state of Canadianresearch.

National policy and a Comprehensive framework of action on education for socialcohesion and peace (2007) (ESCP)

The wellbeing of nations:the role of human and social capital.

Presidential Task Forace on General Education (1997).

Social cohesion,public policy and economic growth:implicationfor OECD countries In J.F.Helliwell (ed.), The Contribution of Human and SocialCapital Sustained Economic Groeth and Well:being:International SymposiumReport

The Promotion of Social Cohesion Through Education in Sri Lanka (2011),

National Level Attitude Survey on Social Cohesion,

9' 6 fYa%Ksh cSjk ksmqK;d yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh" ^2007&¡ cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh" uyr.u¡

10' wfíúl%u" ta't,a'tia'^2010&¡ is`.df,dajdo iQ;%h weiqrska mqrjeis wOHdmkh¡ ;rxcs

ms%kag¾ia" uyr.u' 11' udkj ixj¾Okh i|yd wOHdmkfha bosrs oelau" YS% ,xldfõ idudkH wOHdmkh

ms<sn| cd;sl m%;sm;a;s rduqjla i|yd fhdackd ^2003&¡ cd;sl wOHdmk fldñIka iNdj" fld<T'

53

Problems encountering by the teachers of civic educationin Sri Lanka

E.M.H.C.K.EkanayakeTeacher

Hal Oya Junior SchoolHindagala

Abstract in English

Key words

54

lksIaG oaú;Shsl wOHdmk wjêfha mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùfï §

.=rejreka uqyqK mdk .eg¨

B'tï'tÉ'iS'fla'talkdhly,aTh lksgq úÿy,"

ys|.,

ixË‘ma;h lKsIaG oaú;Shsl wOHdmk wjêfha § mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùfï § .=rejreka uqyqK mdk .eg¨ wOHhkh lsÍu m¾fhaIK wruqK úh' uykqjr Èia;%slalfha .ïm<

yd uykqjr wOHdmk l,dmj, 2 j¾.fha mdi,a 16 l mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh W.kajk .=rejreka 40 la yd tu l,dmj, .=re WmfoaYljre" úIh wOHCIljre ksheÈh jQy' ñsY% m¾fhaIK l%ufõoh wkqj m%Yakdj,s" úêu;a yd wúêu;a iïuqL idlÉPd u.ska m%udKd;aul yd .=Kd;aul o;a; talrdYS lr úYaf,aIKh lrk ,§' ld,igyfka i;shlg ,nd § we;s ld,Éfþo fol m%udKj;aa fkdùu" .=re mqyqKq ieis m%udKj;a fkdùu" .=re w;afmd; yd fm<fmd; w;r iïnkaO;dfjys .eg¨" .=re w;afmdf;a wka;¾.; iuyr bf.kqï l%u ms<sn| .=rejrekaf.a oekqj;a nj wvqùu yd tu l%u bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh i|yd Ndú; fkdlsÍu" .=re WmfoaYljreka yd úIh wOHCIljreka iïnkaO .eg¨ mej;Su m¾fhaIK wkdjrK fõ' uqLH jpk ( lksIaG oaú;Shsl wOHdmk wjêh $ mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh

55

ye¢kaùu 2005 § mdi,a úIhud,djg tl;= jQ mqrjeis wOHdmkh b.ekaùu .=rejrekag w¨;a

w;aoelsSula jqKs' oekg jir 8 la ^2005 2013& mdie,a moaO;sfha 6" 7" 8" 9 fY%aKs i|yd wksjd¾h úIhhla f,i yd 10" 11 fY%aKsj, m<uq ldKavfha úIhhla f,i b.ekaùfuys § b.ekaùug iqÿiqlï iys; .=rejreka y÷kd .ekSu iy .=re mqyqKq ieis meje;aùu" ksishdldrj isÿ fkdjk nj úIhh b.ekaùfï fhfok .=rejreka m%ldY l< lreKla fiau m¾fhaIsldjf.a o w;aoelSu úh' lKsIaG oaú;Shsl wOHdmk wjêfha úIhh W.kajk .=rejrekaf.a .eg¨ y÷kd .ekSu ld,skj jákdlula iys; neúka yd úIhhg wod< j uE;ld,Skj m¾fhaIK isÿ ù fkdue;s neúka j¾;udk mdi,a moaO;shg jeo.;a msgqn,hla iemfhkq we;'

wOHhk .eg¨j ksoyiska miq Y%S ,xldfõ lrk ,o m%Odk wOHdmk m%;sixialrKh jQ 1972 § tf;la mej;s m%cdpdrh úIhh" b;sydih yd N+f.da,h hk úIhhka iu. tlafldg iudc wOHhkh f,i w¨;a úIhhla l%shd;aul lrk ,§' ta iu. u m%cdpdrh úIhfhka wfmaCId lrkq ,enQ m%Odk mrud¾: .s,sys hkakg úh' fï wkqj úfÊ;=x. ^2004& Y%S ,xldfõ mdi,a orejkaf.a m%cdpdr wOHdmkh ms<sn| oekqu" wjfndaOh my< uÜgul mj;sk nj wkdjrKh lf<ah' fï .eg¨jg ms<shula f,i 2005 ckjdß udifha isg mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh mdie,a moaO;shg y÷kajd §ug lghq;= lr we;' t;eka isg jir wgl ld,hla Y%S ,xld wOHdmk moaO;sfha l%shd;aul jQ mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh m%;sM, úYaf,aIKh foi wjOdkh fhduq lsÍfï§ ^1 jk j.=j& wiu;a msßi iy idudkH idu¾:H ,nd .;a msßi yeu jirlu úNd.hg fmkS isá msßig idfmalaIj by< w.hla f.k ;sîu iy iu;a msßi w;ßka wvlg;a jeä ixLHdjla idudkH idu¾:H iy ÿ¾j, idu¾:H ,nd ;sîu ksid m¾fhaIK .eg¨j ms<sn| m¾fhaIKhla lsÍfï wjYH;dj ;jÿrg;a ;yjqre lrhs'

úIhh W.kajk .=rejrhd yd bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh w;r .eg¨ mj;S o hkak fidhd ne,Su fï wkqj jeo.;a h' úfYaIfhkau mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh yd iïnkaO fm< fmd;" .=re w;a fmd;" bf.kqï l%u" .=re mqyqKq ieis" úÿyf,a iyfhda.h" ld,h" fm< fmd; yd .=re w;afmd; w;r iïnkaOh" wdOdrl Ndú;h ms<sn`o .eg¨ /ila mj;sk njg iel lrk ,§s'

56

01 jk j.=j ' kj úIh ks¾foaYfha mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh m%;sM, úYaf,aIKh

jir udOH fmkSisg isiqka iu;a m%;sY;h

2008 isxy, 69574 55648

S 22408 28.95%

W 21753 28.10%

2009 isxy, 78992 60703

S 32575 36.30%

W 29031 32.35%

2010 isxy, 84006 78455

S 35582 35.97%

W 20478 20.70%

uQ,dY%h

fmardfoKsh úYajúoHd,fha foaYmd,k úoHd wOHhk wxYh YS% ,xldfõ m%:u j;djg uOHu m<df;a mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh W.kajk .=rejreka i|yd 2012 jif¾ l%shd;aul l< iy;sl m;% mdGud,dfjka wkdjrKh lrf.k we;af;a YS% ,xldjg w¨;a u jQ fuu úIhh .=rejrekag ,ndÿka .=re mqyqKq ieis yd úIhh ms<sn| l< oekqj;a lsÍï m%udKj;a fkdjk njhs' ta wkqj úIhh b.ekaùfï § .=rejrhd uqyqK mdk .eg¨ y÷kd.ekSu jeo.;a neúka úfYaIfhka u 6"7"8"9 fY%aKsj,§ mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh wksjd¾hh úIhhla jYfhka l%shd;aul jk ksid lksIAG oaú;shsl wOHdmk wjêh mdol .eg¨j ms<sn|j úuid ne,Su wjYH úh'

57

wOHhkfha miqìu m¾fhaIKfha § lksIaG oaú;shsl wOHdmk wjêfha § mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùfï § .=rejrhd uqyqK mdk .eg¨ fidhd n,k ,§' 2003 jif¾ § mdi,a úIhud,djg tl;= jQ kj úIhhla jYfhka fuu úIhh y÷kajdÈh yels w;r .=rejrekag o úIh b.ekaùu w¨;a w;aoelSula njg m;ajqKs' úIh lreKq" fm<fmd;a" .=re w;afmd;a mÍlaId lr n,k úg fuu úIh b.ekaùfï § m¾fhaIsldjo .eg¨j,g uqyqK ÿkafka h' úfYaIfhka u mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùug wjYH iqÿiqlï iys; .=rejreka y÷kd .ekSug" mqyqKq ieis meje;aùug fuu úIhh wdrïN l< uq,a ld, jljdkqfõ isg fï olajdu ksishdldrj isÿ fkdjk nj úIh b.ekaùfï fhfok

.=rejreka ks;r m%ldY lrk lreKls' oekg jir 8la ^2005 2013& mdi,a moaO;sfha 6"7"8"9 fY%aKs i|yd m<uq ldKavfha wksjd¾h úIhhla f,i yd 10" 11 fY%aKs i|yd m<uq ldKavfha úIhhla f,i úIhh l%shd;aul fjk ksid wOHhkh i|yd 6"7"8"9 fYa%Ksj, mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk .=rejrekaf.a .eg¨ y÷kd.ekSu ld,Sk jYfhka jeä jákdlula iys; h' tfiau mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhhg wod< m¾fhaIK uE; ld,Skj wOHdmk fCIa;%fha isÿ ù fkdue;s neúka fuu wOHhkh j¾;udk mdi,a moaO;shg jeo.;a msgqn,hla imhkq we;'

wOHhkfha jeo.;alu ´kEu rgla ;u rfgys mj;sk mdi,a moaO;sfha l%shd;aul jk úIh ud,dfjka wjidk b,lalh f,i idlaId;a lr .ekSug wfmalaId lrkafka" —cd;sl fmdÿ wruqKq lr <`.d jQ hym;a mqrjeisfhl= ;kd .ekSuhs'˜

tu wruqKq lrd <`.d ùfï § jeä odhl;ajhla mqrjeis wOHdmkhg imhd Èh yels nj

úúO m¾fhaIK u.ska ;yjqre flreKs ^m%cdpdr wOHdmkh$2003$ ta wkqj 2005 jif¾ isg Y%S ,dxlSh mdi,a úIh ud,djg fuu úIhh tl;= ù we;' .=K keK fnf,ka msßmqka ore mrmqrl wisßh oefha wfmalaIdj nj olajñka hym;a mqrjeisfhl= ;ekSu fuu úIhfha b,lalhhs' tfy;a fuu úIhh" mdi,a ;=< l%shd;aul jir 8 ld,fha .=rejreka úúO .eg¨j,g mka;s ldur ;=<;a bka msg;a uqyqK os we;'

tneúka" mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhfha iajNdjh y÷kd .ekSu;a" j¾;udkfha tu úIh W.kajk .=rejrekaf.a iqÿiqlï ms<sn|j;a" Tjqka uqyqK mdk .eg¨ ms<sn|j;a" tu .eg¨ wju lr .ekSu i|yd bÈßm;a l< yels fhdackd ms<sn|j;a" wOHhkh lsÍu wOHdmk{hkag" mdi,a l<ukdlrejkag" úIh wOHlaIjrekag" .=re WmfoaYljrekag fiau úIh W.kajk .=rejrekag tlfia jeo.;a h'

fuys§ úfYaIfhkau mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk .=rejreka i|yd" Tjqkaf.a bf.kqï b.ekaùï ld¾hh id¾:l lr .ekSug" .=re ks¾udKYS,s;ajh j¾Okh lr .ekSug" bf.kqï l%u ms<sn| kej; is;d ne,Sug" wka;¾ iyfhda.h ms<sn| wjOdkh fhduq lsÍug" fm<fmd;a yd .=re w;afmd;a Ndú;hg" jeä wjOdkhla fhduq lsÍug wjia:dj iemfha' tfiau úÿy,am;sjrekag" .=re jD;a;Sh ixj¾Okhg fhduq ùug"

58

fiajdia: ieis i|yd .=rejre fhduq lrùug" úIh b.ekaùug myiqlï iemhSug" úIh b.ekaùug iqÿiqlï iys; .=rejrekag ld,igyka ,nd §ug" fm,öfï jeo.;alu biau;= lrhs'

óg wu;rj úIh wOHlaIljreka yd .=re WmfoaYljreka i|yd" fiajia: ieis ixúOdkh lsÍug" mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk .=rejreka tu úIh b.ekaùug iqÿiqlï iys; msßila o hkak fidhd ne,Sug" .=re w;afmd; yd fm< fmd; w;r iïnkaO;d yd wiïnkaO;d fidhd n,d oekqj;a lsÍug" úIh .eg¨ yd .=re .eg¨ ksrdlrKh lr §ug" wjYH oekqj;aNdjh we;sùfï jeo.;alu wjOdrKh flf¾' ta wkqj fuu wOHhkfha wruqKq my; f,i fm< .iajk ,§'

^1& mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhfha iajNdjh y÷kd .ekSu' ^2& mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh W.kajk .=rejrekaf.a iqÿqiqlï úuid ne,Su' ^3& mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùfï § .=rejre uqyqK mdk .eg¨ fidhdne,Su' ^4& mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùfï § .=rejre uqyqK mdk .eg¨ i|yd

fhdackd bÈßm;a lsÍu'

idys;H úu¾Ykh mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhhfha wjYH;dj fm%au;s,l ^Premathilaka, 1978& Y%S ,dxflah nyqjd¾.sl iudch ;=< iduh ia:dms; lsÍu i|yd WÑ; mqrjeis wOHdmkhl iajNdjh úuiSSu mss<sn| wOHhkhl fhfoñka furg idudldó kS;s.rel mqrjeishka ìyslsÍu i|yd l%uj;a mqrjeis wOHdmksl jevigyka mdi,ska Èh;a l< hq;= nj fhdackd lrhs' furg úêu;a wOHdmkhg mqrjeis wOHdmkh wjYH o@ wjYH kï tys jeo.;alu l=ulao@ hkakg .=rejre 150 la" isiqka 360 la yd wd.ñl kdhlhska 24 fofkl=f.a ksheÈhlska ,nd.;a m%Yakdj,sh Tiafia ióCIK m¾fhaIK msßie,iqu Ndú; lrñka wkdjrKh lrf.k we;af;a" mqrjeis wOHdmkhla furgg y÷kajd§u ckj¾. ;=klg wh;a w;s nyq;r isiq msßila leu;s ù ;sfnk njhs' m¾fhaIl fhdackd lrkafka mqrjeis wOHdmkhla mdi,a úIhud,djg y÷kajd§ug fmr Y%S ,xldjg wjYH ljr wdldrfha mqrjeishl= o hkak ;SrKh l< hq;= njhs' 2005 jir jk úg Y%S ,xld mdi,a úIhud,djg kj úIhhla f,i y÷kajdÿka mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh cd;sl fmdÿ wruqKq b,lal lr.ksñka ielish hq;= w;r w'fmd'i idudkH fm< olajd ish¨u isiqkag fuu úIhh bf.kSu wksjd¾h nj;a mqrjeis wOHdmkh mjqf,ka wdrïN ù úYajúoHd,h olajd u .uka lsÍu jeo.;a nj;a wkdjrKh lr we;' fuu m¾fhaIKh wkdjrKh flfrk mßÈ mqrjeis wOHdmkh ms<sn| .=re wdl,am foi wjOdkh fhduq lrk úgo hym;a iduldó mqrjeishka ìyslsÍug ish¨u isiqkg mqrjeis wOHdmkh ,nd§u wjYH nj .=re ksheÈfha 87'9] lau ms<sf.k ;sîu jeo.;afõ' tfiau mqrjeis wOHdmkhla l%shd;aul lsÍfï§ .=rejrekaf.a ld¾hNdrh

59

ms<sn| l< úuiSfï§ ta i|yd wjYH úfYaI mqyqKq jevigyka ,nd§u" .=rejrhdf.a wdl,am fjkia lr.ekSu" úIhh b.ekaùug iydh ,nd§u hk lreKq wkdjrKh

lrf.k ;sfí' m¾fhaIl fhdackd jkqfha mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh 6 11 fY%aKs i|yd úIhud,dj ;=< wksjd¾h úIhhla njg m;alsÍu" .=re mqyqKqj fuu úIhhg iqúfYaI fldg ,nd§u" fm<fmd;a cd;sl fmdÿ wruqKq bgq jk mßÈ ieliSu" mqrjeis wOHdmkh ms<sn| isÿ flfrk ióCIK yd m¾fhaIK Èß.ekaùu l< hq;= njhs'

úIhh iïnkaOj Y%S ,xldfõ lr we;s by; i|yka wOHhkh Y%S ,xldjg mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh mdi,a úIhud,djg wjYH nj biau;= lr we;' tfy;a 2005 jir isg YS% ,xldfõ úIhud,djg y÷kajd ÿka fuu úIhg j¾;udkh jk úg jir 8 l b;sydihla mj;S;;a fï úIhh iïnkaOj mj;akd .eg¨" mdi,a ;=< fuu úIhfha l%shdldÍ iajNdjh" isiq m%;sM," wfmaCIs; mrud¾:" wruqKq" wdl,am bgqù o wd§ jYfhka jQ úúO fidhd ne,Sï flfrk wOHhkhla isÿùu w;HjYH h'

fld<U úYajúoHd,fha wOHdmk mSGfha wOHdmk m¾fhaIK yd we.hSï flakaøh

^ & Y%S ,xldfõ m%cdpdr wOHdmkh kï wOHhk jd¾;dfjka

úfÊ;=x.^Wijethunga, 2003& fmkajd oS we;af;a mdi,a wOHdmk moaAO;sh ;=<ska m%cd;dka;%sl yd nyqúO jákdlï m%j¾Okh i|yd úia;S¾K yd §¾> ld,Sk jevigyka ixj¾Okh lsÍug tu wOHhkh WmfoaYd;aul jkq we;s njhs' fuu m¾fhaIKfha cd;sl ksfhdað; ksheÈhg mdi,a 133 la" YsIHhka 2655 fofkla" .=rejre 265 fofkla iy úÿy,am;sjre 133 fofkla we;=<;a j we;' YsIH" .=re yd úÿy,am;s kshe§ka weiqfrka o;a; /ialsÍu i|yd fhdod.;a m%Yakdj,s isxy, yd fou< udOHfhka bÈßm;alr m%udKd;aul yd .=Kd;aul l%ufõoh Ndú; lrñka o;a; úYaf,aIKh fldg we;af;a jhi wjqreÿ 14 la jQ lksIaG oaú;shsl wOHdmk wjêfha wjidk fY%aKsh jk 9 fY%aKsfha bf.kqu ,nk isiq ksheÈhla wkqidrfhks' fuys§ wkdjrKh lr.;a jeo.;a lreKla jkqfha m%cdpdr wOHdmkh yd ne÷Kq úIhud,d wdjrKh iy .=re mqyqKqj Yla;su;a l< hq;= nj h' tfiau m%cdpdr wOHdmkh ,ndÈh hq;af;a ifudaOdks; úIhhla jYfhka nj fy<s jqjo m¾fhaIsldj m%ldY lrkafka tjlg mdi,a úIhud,dfõ mej;s iudc wOHhkh úIhhg .=rejreka yqreùu ksid fujeks woyila Tjqka ;=< we;sùug fya;= jQjd úh yels njghs' tfiau mdi, m%cdpdrh b.ekaùug iqÿiqu fukau ld¾hCIu ia:dkh nj .=rejrekaf.a úYajdih nj wkdjrK meyeos,s lrhs' isiqkaf.a m%cdpdr ixj¾Okhg m%cdpdrh b.ekaùu buy;a msgqjy,la jk njg .=rejre m%ldY lr we;' m%cdpdr wOHdmkh yd ne÷Kq úIhh b.ekaùu jeäÈhqKq lsÍug Y%S ,xldfõ .=rejreka úiska m%uqL;dj ,ndÿka fCIa;% 3 jQfha úIh oekqu ms<sn| jeäÿr mqyqKqj" b.ekaùfï l%u ms<sn| jeäÿr mqyqKqj" iy jvd fyd| bf.kqï b.ekaùï øjH yd fm<fmd; ah'

by; fCIa;% j¾;udk wOHhkfhkao mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh W.kajk .=rejre uqyqKmdk .eg¨ f,i y÷kd.; yels ±hs wOHhk lrkq ,efí' .=rejrekaf.a wLKav wOHdmkh yd mqyqKqj m¾fhaIK ks.ukj,ska fmkajd oS we;ss m%n, idOlhls' m%cdpdr úIhhg jvd .e<fmk .=Kd;aul yd jeä úúO;ajfhka hq;= we.hSï l%u ms<sn| mqyqKqjla .=rejrekag ,nd§u jeo.;a nj;a" .=rejre mka;sldur ;=< Ndú; lrk idïm%odhsl we.hSï l%uj,ska bj;aùu jeo.;a nj;a m¾fhaIK ks.ukhhs' fï moku u; mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùfï§ .=rejrhd uqyqKfok tla .eg¨jla f,i we.hSï l%u fuu wOHhkfhka o y÷kd .kakg wruqKq lr .kq ,efí'

60

mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùug kj l%ufõo Ndú;h iy .=re jD;a;Sh ixj¾Ok

wjYH;dj ms<sn`oj flkä yd fcdaka ^kennedy and John, 2005& l< m¾fhaIKfhka" .=rejrhd ;udf.a jD;a;Sh olaI;d jeä ÈhqKqlr .ekSfï§ mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh ms<sn| jeä keUqrejlska is;d ne,Sfï jeo.;alu wjOdrKh lr we;' fydxfldxys l< fï m¾fhaIKfha § msßmqka wkd.;hla iys; mqrjeisfhl= f,djg odhdo lsÍu .=rejrhdf.a j.lSu nj olajd we;' th l< yelafla jD;a;Sh ixj¾Okh ms<sn| fyd¢ka is;d n,d lghq;= lrk .=rejrekag nj jeä ÿrg;a Tjqka wkdjrKh lr we;' fï woyiaj,g wkqj mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh yd .=rejrhd w;r iqúfYaI ne£ula mej;sh hq;= nj .uHudk fjhs'

nEkalaia ^Banks, 2008& f.da,Sh ixo¾Nh ;=< nyq ixialD;sl wOHdmkh" cd;sl úúO;ajh yd mqrjeis wOHdmkh ms<sn| weußldfõ l< m¾fhIK wOHhkhlska m%ldY lr we;af;a mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh j¾;udk mdi, ;=< b.ekaùfï § tu l%shdj,sh m%;sixialrKhg Ndckh úh hq;= njhs' mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh yryd mdi,a isiqka ;=< ksoyia woyia we;s lr,Sug wjYH miqìu mqrjeis wOHdmkh úIhh W.kajk .=rejrhd úiska mka;sldurh ;=< ks¾udKh l< hq;= h' b;sydifha isg wo olajdu f,dalh mqrdu rgj, wOHdmk{hkaf.a yd iudc úoHd{hkaf.a woyi jQfha mqrjeis wOHdmkh cd;sl;ajh i,ld ,nd Èh hq;= njls' fï woyig úreoaO jk nEkalaia Tyqf.a m¾fhaIKfhka wkdjrKh lrkafka j¾;udkh jk úg nyq ixialD;sl iudc f,dalh mqrd ks¾udKh fjñka mj;sk neúka tu úúO;ajhg .e<fmk f,i mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùfï kj l%u .=rejrehd úiska wkq.ukh l< hq;= njhs' iqúfYaIfhkau .=rejrhd fjkia úh hq;= njhs'

mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh W.kajk .=rejre" iudch yd m%cdj iu`. iïnkaO;d ;nd .ekSfï jeo.;alu

veksh,a yd uh¾ia ^Daniel and Myers, 2010) lekvdfõ Tkagdßfhda ys mdi,l l< m%f;Hhl wOHhkhlska wkdjrKh lrf.k we;af;a mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhhg bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ;=<ska id¾:l;ajhla ,nd§u i|yd tu úIhh W.kajk .=rejreka iudcfha úúO mqoa.,hska" foudmshka fiau mdi,o tlg tl;= lrf.k iu.dój lghq;= l< hq;= njhs' fï ;=<ska orejka ;=< mqrjeis oekqu" l=i,;d yd wdl,am ,nd§u yd tajd Tjqka fj; <`.dlrùu myiqjk nj m%ldYlr isà' ta wkqj fuu úIhh fjkqfjka .=rejrhd iqúfYaI N+ñldjla rx.kh l< hq;= nj ;yjqre fõ'

mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh j¾;udk iajNdjh ;=<ska fjkiaùfï wjYH;dj

fmda,a yd flda.ka ^Paul and Cogan, 2001& mdi,aj, mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhud,dfõ iajNdjh yd tys l%shd;aul iajrEmh ^l%shdldÍ iajrEmh& ms<sn| wdishdkq meismsla l,dmfha iudc yhl l< wOHhkhlska wkdjrKh lrkafka my; fmkajdfok ldrKd wju ;,hl mj;sk nj;a tajd Wmßu ;,hlg .uka l< hq;= nj;a h'

61

02 jk j.=j

wju ;;a;ajh Wmßu ;;a;ajh

mgq nfõ isg mq¿,a nj olajd .uka l< hq;=hs'

fmdÿ núka wvqhs' Bg ish,a, we;=<;a úh hq;=hs'

m%cd wOHdmkh mqrjeis wOHdmkh yd m%cdmd,kh olajd .uka l< hq;=hs'

iqyoYS,S $ ñ;%YS,S iyfhda.S;ajhla fkdolajhs'

tjeks iyNd.S;ajhla olajdu .uka l< hq;=hs'

iEySulg m;ajk f,i u`. fmkaùu fkdj

fkdlvjd .,dhk l%shdj,shla i|yd u`. fmkaúh hq;=hs'

oekqu uQ,sl;ajhg jvd jákdlï uQ,sl;ajhg ;ek Èh hq;=hs'

Wmfoia ,nd§fï isg wfkHdakH ne£ula ;=<ska ,ndfok w¾:l:kj, jeo.;alu olajd .uka l< hq;=hs'

myiqfjka <`.dùug yelsùu" tkuq;a m%;sM, Ndú;fha § jvd M,odhS fkdùu'

<`.dùu wmyiq kuq;a" bka ,efnk m%;sM, jvd M,odhS ùu'

úIh lreKq fjk fjku f.dkqlrkjdg jvd

iuia;hu tlg tl;=jk fia iïnkaO lsÍu jeo.;a nj'

fm<fmd;gu wod, fkdù úúO bf.kqï iïm;a Ndú; lsÍfï jeo.;alu

fuu fmkajd§fuka b;du jeo.;a lreKqq /ila biau;= lrhs' mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh iajNdjh flfia úh hq;=o tu úIh b.ekaùfï§ l=uk l%u wkq.ukh l< hq;=o .=rejrhd flfia ielish hq;=o wd§ ldrKd /ila fmda,a yd flda.kaf.a m¾fhaIKh meyeÈ,sj wjfndaO lrjhs'

m¾fhIK l%ufõoh ñY% m¾fhaIK l%ufõoh Ndú; lrk ,§' m%udKd;aul yd .=Kd;aul o;a; foflysu tl;=jlska .eg¨j ms<sn`o f;dr;=re wkdjrKh lr .ekSug by; m¾fhaIK l%ufõoh wkq.ukh lrk ,§' mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùfï§ .=rejre uqyqK mdk .eg¨ m%udKd;aulj y÷kd.;a miq tu .eg¨ i|yd jeäÿr f;dr;=re ,nd .ekSu .=Kd;aulj isÿ jqKs' ksheÈh iy o;a; ?ia lsrSfï l%u uykqjr Èia;%slalfha .ïm< yd uykqjr hk wOHdmk l,dm folska f;dard.;a mdi,a 16 l lksIaG oaú;shsl wOHdmk wjêh ;=< mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùfï .=rejreka uqyqKmdk .eg¨ ms<sn| úuid ne,Sug yels f,i ksheÈfha mdi,a f;dard .ekSKs’ ^3 jk j.=j&'

62

3 jk j.=j ksheÈh

mdi,a j¾.h

.ïm< wOHdmk l,dmh

uykqjr wOHdmk l,dmh

uq¿ mdi,a

1 AB 3 3 6

1 C 3 3 6

2 2 2 4

tl;=j 8 8 16

6"7"8"9 fY%aKs i`oyd mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh W.kajk .=rejre 40la iy l,dm ksfhdackh jk mßÈ .=re WmfoaYljreka iy úIh wOHlaIljreka fofokd ne`.ska iyNd.s lr .kakd ,§'

m<uq mshjf¾ § mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùu ms<sn| woyia úuiSu i`oyd m%Yakdj,sh .=rejrekag bÈßm;a lrk ,oS' m%Yakdj,sfhka ,enqKq o;a; wkqj y÷kd.;a iqúfYaI .eg¨ ms<sn| jeäÿr o;a; ,nd.ekSu i|yd úIh wOHCIljre yd .=re WmfoaYljre iuÕ úêu;a iïuqL idlÉPd mj;ajk ,§' f;dard.;a 6"7"8"9 fY%aKsj, mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh W.kajk .=rejre 40 iu. iuÕ úêu;a yd wúêu;a iïuqL idlÉPd uÕska o o;a; ?ia lrk ,§'

m¾fhaIK o;a; ,nd .kakd wdldrhm%udKd;aul o;a; .=Kd;aul o;a;

jk j.=j ksheÈh

mdi,a j¾.h

.ïm< wOHdmk l,dmh

uykqjr wOHdmk l,dmh

uq¿ mdi,a

tl;=j 8 8 16

mm¾fhaIK o;a; ,nd .kakd wdldrh m%udKd;aul o;a; ..=Kd;aul o;a;

WmlrK WmlrK fm<fmd;a$.=re w;afmd;a ³ m%Yakdj,s jd¾Isl .=re ieis jd¾;d

úêu;a yd wúêu;a iïuqL idlÉPd

o;a; fla;lrKh

rEm igyk wxl 01

ñY% l%uh

ixLHduh úYaf,aIKh

63

m¾fhaIK .eg¨j úi£u i|yd o;a; /ialr .ekSu msKsi my; mshjr wkq.ukh lrk ,§'

rEm igyk wxl 02

wOHhkfha fojk wjia:dj hgf;a wjYH f;dr;=re meyeÈ<s lr.ekSu i|yd iïuqL idlÉPdj fhdod .kakd ,§' óg wu;rj .=re m%Yakdj,sfha ,enqKq m%;spdr wkqj wjYH f;dr;=re ;jÿrg;a meyeÈ,s lr .ekSu i|yd mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùfï§ .=rejreka uqyqK mdk .eg¨ f,i m%;spdr wkqms<sfjf<a uQ,sl;ajfhka y÷kd.;a ld,h" bf.kqï l%u" úIhNdr .=re WmfoaYljre" .=re w;afmd; yd fm<fmd; w;r iïnkaOh wdÈh ms<sn| wúêu;a iïuqL idlÉPd uÕska o .=re woyia ,nd .kakd ,§'

o;a; úYaf,aIKh

m%Yakdj,sh uÕska ,nd.;a m%udKd;aul o;a; iudc úoHd;aul m¾fhaIK i|yd Ndú; lrk ixLHdk úoHd uDÿldx.h Tiafia idrdxY .; fldg ;rd lsÍu' y÷kd.;a iqúfYaI .eg¨ ;jÿrg;a ;yjqre lr .ekSu i|yd wjYH .=Kd;aul o;a; iïuqL idlÉPd Tiafia ,nd .ksñka o;a; fla;lrKh fldg úYaf,aIKh lsÍu' m%udKd;aul o;a; yd .=Kd;aul o;a; tlsfkl ixikaokh lrñka úYaf,aIKh lsÍu' o;a; úYaf,aIKh Tiafia .uHudkjk lreKq ms<sn| idlÉPd lsÍu'

mqrjeis wOHdmk .=re m%Yakdj,sfhka tu úIh W.kajk .=rejreka uqyqKmdk .eg¨ ms<sn| o;a; ,nd .ekSu'

tu m%udKd;aul o;a; úYaf,aIKh lsÍu

tu o;a; u; mokï jQ fojk mshjr

úIh wOHCIjre" .=reWmfoaYljre yd f;dard.;a .=rejrekaf.ka .=Kd;aul o;a; /ialsÍu

tu o;a; úYaf,aIKh

o;a; ifudaOdkh lrñka w¾:l:kh ks.uk yd fhdackd

.=re w;afmd;a$fm<fmd;a$ .=re mqyqKq ieis jd¾;d

64

0

10

20

30

40

O/L A/L First Degree Master Degree

Education Qualification

Frequency

lksIaG oaú;shsl wOHdmk wjêh ;=< mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk .=rejrekaf.a jD;a;Sh iqÿiqlï

m%ia;dr wxl 01

1 jk m%ia;drfha lksIaG oaú;shl wOHdmk wjêfha mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh W.kajk

.=rejrekaf.a iqÿiqlï ms<sn| f;dr;=re wkqj ksheÈfha .=rejreka 40 fokd w;ßka 28 fofkl= u ^70]& mYapd;a Wmdê wOHdmk ämaf,daud yodrd jD;a;Sh mqyqKqj ,nd we;' ta w;r .=re úoHd,j,ska yd wOHdmk úoHdmSG ;=<ska mqyqKqj ,enQ msßi ms<sfj,ska 12'5] yd 12'5] jYfhka úh' iqúfYaIS;dj jkafka kqmqyqKq .=re msßi o ksheÈfhka 15] la f,i igyka ù ;sîuh' flfia jqjo ksheÈfhka 85]l msßi jD;a;Sh mqyqKqj ,nd isák wh ùu jeo.;a fõ'

mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk .=rejrekaf.a wOHdmk iqÿiqlï

Professional Quali cation

m<uqj" mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh W.kajk .=rejrekaf.a iqÿiqlï ms<sn| úYaf,aIKh lrk ,§' fojkqj" mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh W.kajk .=rejreka uqyqKmdk .eg¨ ms<sn| úYaf,aIKh lrk ,§'

lksIaG oaú;shsl wOHdmk wjêh ;=< mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk .=rejrekaf.a jD;a;Sh iqÿiqlï

mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk .=rejrekaf.a wOHdmk iqÿiqlï

Education Quali cation

lksIaG oaú;shsl wOHdmk wjêh ;=< mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk .=rejrekaf.a jD;a;Sh iqÿiqlï

mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk .=rejrekaf.a wOHdmk iqÿiqlï

m%ia;dr wxl 02

65

by; m%ia;dr wxl 02 uÕska .=re ksheosfha wOHdmk iqoqiqlï fmkakqï flf¾' ksheÈfha jeäu m%;sY;hjk 75] m<uq WmdêOdÍkah' Bg wu;rj 12'5 ] la Wiia WmdëOdÍkah' ñg wu;r Wiia fm< yeoErE 10] l m%udKhla yd idudkH fm< yeoErE 2'5] la o fï msßi w;r fõ' fuys§ i|yka l< hq;=j we;af;a m<uq yd Wiia WmdêOdÍka ksheÈfhka 87'5 ] lau ksfhdackh ù ;sîuhs'

mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk .=rejre uqyqKmdk .eg¨

m%ia;dr wxl 03 6"7"8"9 fY%aKsj, mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh W.kajk .=re ksheÈhg bÈßm;a l< m%Yakdj,sfha wka;¾.; lrk ,o .eg¨ i|yd ,ndÿka m%;spdr 03 jk m%ia;drfhka fmkakqï flf¾' tys fhdod we;s bx.%SiS wlaIr my; f,i ixfla;j;a fõ'

TM - bf.kqï l%u iïnkaO .eg¨ TI - bf.kqï WmlrK iïnkaO .eg¨ TB - fm<fmd; iïnkaO .eg¨ TG - .=re w;afmd; iïnkaO .eg¨ TB - TG - fm<fmd; yd .=re w;afmd; iïnkaO .eg¨ IP - úIh b.ekaùfï§ n,mdk mqoa.,sl .eg¨ PS - úÿy,am;sf.a iydh iïnkaO .eg¨ Time - ld,Éfþo iïnkaO .eg¨ SM - úIh lreKq iïnkaO .eg¨ AS - we.hSï iïnkaO .eg¨ TP - jdr úNd. m%Yak m;% iïnkaO .eg¨ SP - isiqka iïnkaO .eg¨ TTS - úIhg wod< .=re mqyqKq ieis iïnkaO .eg¨ ISA - .=re WmfoaYl yd úIh wOHCI .eg¨ Other - fjk;a .eg¨ ksheÈh ;=< jeäu m%;spdr ,nd§ ;snQ bf.kqï l%u iïnkaO .eg¨" .=re mqyqKq ieis m%udKj;a fkdùu iïnkaO .eg¨" .=re WmfoaYl yd úIh wOHCI .eg¨" ld,h iïnkaO .eg¨ yd .=re w;afmd; yd fm< fmd; w;r iïnkaO;dfõ .eg¨ i|yd iqúfYaI wjOdkh o;a; úYaf,aIKfha § olajk ,§' ksheÈfhka yß wvlg jeä

0

10

20

30

40

50

Yes

NO

66

m%udKhla fuu .eg¨ ms<sn| jeä m%;spdr ,nd§ ;snQ neúks' fu;eka isg tu jeäu m%;spdr ,eî ;snQ iqúfYaI .eg¨ my flfrys wjOdkh fhduq flf¾'

bf.kqï l%u iïnkaO .eg¨

Teaching Methods

bf.kqï l%u iïnkaO .eg¨

bf.kqï l%u iïnkaO .eg¨

bf.kqï l%u iïnkaO .eg¨

m%ia;dr wxl 04 4 jk m%ia;drfha ksheÈfhka 77'5] l m%;sY;hla bf.kqï l%u iïnkaO .eg¨ mj;sk nj m%ldY lr ;sîu fmkakqï flf¾' fuys§ .=re w;afmd; uÕska fmkajd § we;s bf.kqï l%u mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùfï§ hï .eg¨ iy.; ;;a;ajhka ks¾udKh lrk nj y÷kd .ekSug yels jqKs' mqrjeis wOHdmkh W.kajk .=rejreka ;=< .eg¨ mj;sk nj .=re WmfoaYljreka lrk ,o my; m%ldY j,skao ;jÿrg;a ;yjqre úh' —.=re w;afmd; ;=< wka;¾.; l%shdldrlï fkdlr fm<fmd; muKla b.ekaùu wfma .=rejre lrk f,dl= jrola' ta ksid wod< l%shdldrlu ;=< ;sfnk bf.kqï l%u Tjqka wkq.ukh lrkafka kE'˜ —nqoaê l,ïnkh mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh b.ekaùug .=rejrekag Ndú; l< yels fyd| bf.kqï m%fõYhla yd l%uhla' .=re w;afmdf;a fï ms<sn| fyd¢ka igyka lr ;sfnkjd' kuq;a wfma .=rejrekag fï l%u mqreÿ keye' yqre keye' Tfya idudkH b.ekaùul ksr; fjk tlhs isÿ lrkafka'˜ mqrjeis wOHdmk .=re w;afmd; ;=< wvx.= lr we;s bf.kqï Wml%u Ndú; lrñka fuu úIh b.ekaùu l<hq;= nj ish¨u fY%aKsj,g wod< .=re w;afmd;aj, i|ykaj ;snqK;a tajdfha mj;sk .eg¨ldÍ iajNdjh ksid;a" úIh lreKq b.ekaùug wod< .=re w;afmdf;a i|yka l%shdldrlu ;=< olajd we;s bf.kqï l%uh wkq.ukh lsÍfuka muKla l< fkdyels nj .=rejreka iuÕ l< wúêu;a iïuqL idlÉPdj,§ fy<s úh' 9 fY%aKsfha .=rejßhf.a m%ldYhlskao by; .eg¨j mj;sk nj olakg ,eìK' —.=re w;afmdf;a l%shdldrlu ú;rla lr, <uhskag uÈ' fm<fmd; ;=< úIh lreKq f.dvla ;sfhkjd' tajd ms<sn|j;a <uhsg lsh,d fokak ´kE' t;fldg .=re w;afmdf;a ;sfhk bf.kqï l%uhu Ndú;hg .kak nE'˜ by; woyi 8 jk fY%aKsfha .=rejßh úiskao m%ldY lrk ,§'

67

—úNdf.g ,shkak$mdvï lrkak <uhskag igykla fokak;a ´kE' .=re w;afmdf;a l%shdldrlï lrkak;a ´kE' t;fldg <uhskag mdvug wod< .=re w;afmdf;a fiaru l%shdldrlï yd fm<fmdf;a i|yka we.hSï" mejreï" l%shdldrlï" mdvu meyeÈ<s lrkak;a ´kE' t;fldg bf.kqï l%u ms<sn| .eg¨ we;sfjkjd˜ fï iïnkaOj mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh wOHCIljrhd m%ldY lf<a .=re w;afmd; fhdackd lrk bf.kqï l%u wkq.ukh lsÍu fujeks úIhhla b.ekaùu i|yd b;du M,odhS jk njhs' tys i|yka iuyr bf.kqï l%u wkq.ukh lrñka b.ekaùug iuyr .=rejre fkdokakd nj;a" W;aidy fkdlrk nj;a h'

.=re mqyqKq ieis m%udKj;a fkdùu iïnkaO .eg¨

mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh wOHCIjrhd"

.=re mqyqKq ieis m%udKj;a fkdùu iïnkaO .eg¨

.=re mqyqKq ieis m%udKj;a fkdùu iïnkaO .eg¨fõ§ ksheÈfhka 77'5]la ta iïnkaO

.eg¨ mj;sk nj m%ldY lr we;s wdldrh fmkakqï flf¾' fï nj .=Kd;aul o;a;j,ska o ;yjqre úh' ta iïnkaO .=re WmfoaYljre yd úIh wOhCIljre fukau .=rejre my; m%ldY isÿlrk ,§' mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh wOHCIjrhd" —jdrhlg 1 ne.ska jirlg ;=ka j;djla fyda ieis ixúOdkh lsÍug wms lghq;= lrkjd'˜ hkqfjka m%ldY l< w;r Bg wu;rj"—ieis ixúOdkh ;=<ska .=rejrekag úIhh iïnkaOj mj;sk .eg¨ /ila ksrdlrKh lr .ekSug wms Woõ lrkjd˜ wdÈ m%ldYhkao bÈßm;a lrk ,§' wOHdmk l,dm fofla u mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh iïnkaOj 2012 jif¾ wjidk jdrh ;=< tla ieishla ixúOdkh l< nj;a 2013 jif¾ m<uq jdrfha ieis ixúOdkh fkdl< nj;a h' fï iïnkaOj .=re WmfoaYljrhdf.a woyi jQfhao ieis ixúOdkh l<;a >KmQ¾Kh fkdue;s njhs' —wfma .=rejre ys;kafka fï úIh W.kajkak yßu f,aishs lsh,d' isÿjk w¨;a foaj,a fydh, n,,d ta ms<sn| oekqj;a fjkak wfma .=rejrekag jqjukdjla kE' fmdf;a ;sfhk

.=re mqyqKq ieis m%udKj;a fkdùu iïnkaO .eg¨

m%ia;dr wxl 05

mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh wOHCIjrhd"

Teacher training program

68

foau lshdfokak n,kjd' ieisj,g wdj;a m%fhdackhla kE hk ;SrKh ;ud iuyrekaf.a woyi'˜

fuu úIhhg ieis m%udKj;a fkdùfï .eg¨j iïnkaOj 6 yd 8 jk fY%aKsj, mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh W.kajk .=rejrekaf.a m%ldYh jQfha"

—iEu jdrhlg u tl ne.ska jirg ;=ka j;djla fuu ieis ixúOdkh fjkjd kï fyd|hs' yenehs tajd wmg m%fhdackj;a fjk wdldrhg mj;ajkjd kï ;ud fyd|' fndrejg ojfia ld,h f.j,d odkak t;ekg hk tl jevla kE'˜f,ih'

9 fY%aKsfha mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk .=rejßhl m%ldY lf<a"—bÈßm;a lsÍï ^power point& Ndú;fhka mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk wdldrh ms<sn| oekqj;a l<;a mdi, ;=< tjeks fohla bf.kqug fhdod .ekSug wjia:d ke;akï" tjeks ieisj,ska .=rejrhdg ,efnk oekqfï m%fhdackh <uhskag hkafka kEfk'˜ hkqfjks'

ieis m%udKj;a fkdùu iïnkaOj .=rejre fukau .=re WmfoaYljre" úIh wOHCIljre ,ndÿka by; woyia úuid n,k úg ta ;=< mj;sk i;H ms<sn| .eg¨jla biau;= fõ'

.=re WmfoaYljreka yd úIh wOHCIjreka iïnkaO .eg¨

9 fY%aKsfha mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk .=rejßhl m%ldY lf<a"

.=re WmfoaYljreka yd úIh wOHCIjreka iïnkaO .eg¨

m%ia;dr wxl 06

mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhg wod<j l,dm wOHdmk ld¾hd,j, isák .=re WmfoaYljreka yd úIh wOHCIljreka iïnkaOj mj;sk .eg¨ mj;sk nj 72'5] l m%;sY;hla m%;spdr m%ldY fldg we;s whqre fmkakqï flf¾' fuu .eg¨j iïnkaOj .=re ksheÈfhka bÈrsm;a jQ woyia lSsmhla my; oelafõ' —iuyr .=re WmfoaYljrekag wmg lshd fokak mq¿jka' ˜ —iuyre ;k;=re ,ndf.k ;sfhkak úNd. mdiafj,d fkfjhs'˜ —.=re WmfoaYljre n|jd.kak úNd.hla ;sfhkjd kï fyd|hs' l,dm ld¾hd, yryd fndfyda fokd ys;j;alï Wv .=re WmfoaYljre fjkjd' ˜

ISA & Subject Directors problems

69

—mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh w¨f;ka mdi,a úIhud,djg tl;= jQ ksid tu úIhh .ek fyd¢ka oekqj;a jQ yd mqyqKq jQ .=re WmfoaYljre yd úIh wOHCIjreka wjYH nj ysf;kjd' ˜

fuu m%ldYj,ska m%Yakdj,sfhka wkdjrKh jQ lreKq ;jÿrg;a ;yjqre lr .ekSug yelshdj ,eìKs'

mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùug mdi,a ld,igyk ;=< fjka lr we;s ld,Éfþo m%udKh m%udKj;a fkdjk nj iïnkaO .eg¨

fï iïnkaOj .=re WmfoaYljrhd m%ldY lf<a"

fï iïnkaOj úIh wOHCIjrhdf.a m%ldYh jQfha"

mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùug mdi,a ld,igyk ;=< fjka lr we;s ld,Éfþo m%udKh m%udKj;a fkdjk nj iïnkaO .eg¨

m%ia;dr wxl 07

ld,h yd iïnkaO .eg¨jg iuia; ksheÈfhka 72'5]la m%;spdr olajd ;sfnk whqre fmkakqï flf¾' mdi,a ld, igyk ;=< fjka lr we;s ld,Éfþo foll m%udKh bf.kqï b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh i|yd m%udKj;a fkdjk njg woyia olajd we;' .=rejre" .=re WmfoaYljre iy úIh wOHCIl my; m%ldY isÿlrk ,§' fï iïnkaOj .=re WmfoaYljrhd m%ldY lf<a" —ld,h ms<sn|j kï .eg¿jla ;sfnkjd ;uhs'˜ hkqfjks' tfiau"—ld,h iïnkaO .eg¿jg úi÷ula úÈyg .=re w;afmdf;a i|yka l%shdldrlug muKla .=rejrhd iSudùu m%udKj;a nj ys;kjd'˜ hkqfjka o m%ldY lrk ,§' fï iïnkaOj úIh wOHCIjrhdf.a m%ldYh jQfha"

—fm<fmd; ;=< <uhdg lshùug wu;r lreKq f.dvla wka;¾.; lr, ;sfhkjd' tal ksihs .=rejre lshkafka fm<fmd;a lreKq jeähs lsh,d' .=re w;afmd; ;=< i|yka l%shdldrlu wod< ld,hg tys igyka lr ;sfnk bf.kqï l%uh wkqj mdvu ixúOdkh lsÍu fyd|gu m%udKj;a" hkqfjks' ta ;=<ska ld,h ms<sn`o .eg¨jla fkdue;s nj úIh wOCIjrhdf.a woyi úh'

—ñia" m¾fhaIsldjla úÈyg fï foi .eUqßka n,kak' wfma .=rejre fïl f;areï .kafk kE' fm<fmd; <uqka lshjd.;a;yu fyd|gu m%udKj;a' .=re w;afmd; ;=< wka;¾.; l%shdldrlug .=rejrhd fyd¢ka ixúOdkh ù b.ekaùu ;=<ska fuu úIhhg fyd| idOdrKhla bgq lrkak mq¿jka'˜ hkqfjka .=re WmfoaYljrhdf.ka bÈßm;a jQ woyilao fuysoS jeo.;a fõ'

Time For Subject

70

—.=re WmfoaYljre l=ula lSj;a mka;sldurj, W.kajk wms úúO .eg¨j,g uqyqK fok tl mqÿuhla fkdfjhs'˜ hkqfjka 9 fY%AKsfha mqrjeis .=rejßh i`oyka l<dh'

fï ms<sn| 9 fY%aKshg mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk .=rejrfhla m%ldY lf<a" —i;shlg ;sfhk ú'40 ld,Éfþo foflka .=re w;afmdf;a ;sfhk l%shdldrlula lrkak;a fj,dj uÈ'˜ hkqfjks' —.=re w;afmdf;a iuyr l%shdldrlï ñ'80 lg ixúOdkh lr .kak lsh, Wmfoia §, ;sfhkjd' ta;a mdif,a ld,igyfka mqrjeis úIhg tl È.g ld,Éfþo folla fjkalr keye' t;fldg fldfyduo wms fïjg ld,h fjkalr .kafk' ˜ fujeks m%ldY ;=<ska fuu úIhhg m%udKj;a ld,hla wjYH nj yeÕS hhs' tfiau" 7 fY%aKsfha .=rejßhl m%ldY lf<a"—.=re w;afmdf;a tajhs fm< fmdf;a tajhs fiaru W.kajkak isxy, úIhg jf.a i;sfha ojia mygu ld,Éfþo 5 la j;a ´kE' ta ;rug fm<fmdf;a úIh lreKqhs" .=re w;afmdf;a l%shdldrluqhs f.dv .eys,d'˜ hkqfjks' —fuu úIh b.ekaùug mj;sk ld,Éfþo 2 m%udKj;a ke;s nj úúO wjia:dj, .=re WmfoaYljre oekqj;a l<;a Bg m%;spdrhla keye' taf.d,af,d lshkafka .=re w;afmdf;a l%shdldrlu l<du we;s lsh,d' ta;a W.kakka§ ;ud wmsg f;afrkafka tfyu lrk tl m%udKj;a uÈ lsh,d' .=re WmfoaYljre oek.kak ´kE" tajd by< ks,OdÍkag oekqï §,d úIh lreKq i,ld n,d lrkafka l=ulao lsh, ;SrKh lrkak'˜ hk woyi ;=<skao ;jÿrg;a by; .eg¨j meyeÈ,s lr.; yels fjhs' Ôù; w;aoelSï iajhx wOHhkh ;=<ska <ud is;g .%yKh lrùu fuu úIfha mq¿,a wruqK jQj;a .=rejrekaf.a fuu m%ldYj,ska yeÕS hkafka úIhh b.ekaùug ,nd§ we;s ld,h fï i|yd yriajk njhs'

6"7"8"9 fY%aKsj, mqrjeis wOHdmk fm<fmd; yd .=re w;afmd; w;r iïnkaO;dfõ .eg¨

fï ms<sn| 9 fY%aKshg mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh W.kajk .=rejrfhla m%ldY lf<a"

7 fY%aKsfha .=rejßhl m%ldY lf<a"

6"7"8"9 fY%aKsj, mqrjeis wOHdmk fm<fmd; yd .=re w;afmd; w;r iïnkaO;dfõ .eg¨

m%ia;dr wxl 08

Conection between TB & TG

71

fm<fmd; yd .=re w;afmd; w;r iïnkaO;dfõ .eg¨ mj;sk nj ksheÈfhka 62'5]la m%ldY lr ;snqKs' tys§" —9 fY%aKsfha fm<fmd; yd .=re w;afmd; w;r in|;djla fkdue;s neúka isiqkag wjYH ksmqK;dj ,nd§u wmyiq nj˜ m%Yakdj,sh ;=< igyka lr ;sîu ksidu ta ms<sn| jeämqr wúêu;a idlÉPdj,ska o úuid n,k ,§' fï iïnkaOj .=re WmfoaYljrhd m%ldY lf<a" —fm<fmd; yd .=re w;afmd; w;r iuyr wjia:dj, fkd.e<mSï yd wod<;ajhla ke;s nj oekS hkjd' tjeks ia:dk ms<sn| wmsj oekqj;a lsÍu taf.d,a,kaf. hq;=lula˜ jYfhks' 9 fY%aKsfha .=rejßh m%ldY lf<a" —2010 jif¾ 9 fY%aKshg ,ndÿka mqrjeis wOHdmkh fm<fmd; yd .=re w;afmd; w;r wiïnkaO;d ;sfhkjd' ta .ek wms ieisj,§ .=re WmfoaYljrekag mejiqjd' Tjqka m%ldY lrkafka .=re w;afmdf;a l%shdldrlu l<yu we;s lsh,hs' ta;a W.kajoa§ wmsg oefkkafka th m%udKj;a ke;s njhs' fudlo <uhskag úúO .eg¨ we;s fjkjd'˜ hkqfjks' by; ish¨ m%ldY foi wjOdkh fhduq lr n,k úg yeÕS hkafka fm<fmd; ;=< wvx.= úIh lreKq m%udKh úYd, nj;a" .=re w;afmd; ;=< wka;¾.; l%shdldrlu muKla isÿlsÍu m%udKj;a fkdjk nj;a" fm<fmd;g jeä lreKq we;=<;a lsÍu ;=<ska .=rejre fukau isiqka o wmyiq;djhg m;aj ;sfnk nj;a h'

ks.uk

1' mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùfï fhfok".=re ksheÈfhka 85]laa jD;a;Sh mqyqKqj ,nd isá;s'

2' .=re w;afmdf;a wka;¾.; nqoaê l,ïNkh jeks bf.kqï l%u ms<sn|

.=rejrekaf.a oekqj;aNdjh wvqh'

3' fm<fmdf;a wka;¾.; úIh lreKq m%udKh jeä ksid i;shlg ,nd § we;s ld,Éfþo fol m%udKj;a ke;'

4' .=re w;afmdf;a wka;¾.; bf.kqï l%u wkq.ukh lsÍug ld,h m%udKj;a ke;'

5' mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh W.kajk .=rejreka yd .=re WmfoaYljreka by;

y÷kd.;a .eg¨ iïnkaOfhka olajk woyiaj, fkd.e<mSula we;'

6' úIhh b.ekaùfï§ bf.kqï l%u" ld,h" .=re mqyqKq ieis" .=re WmfoaYl yd úIh wOHCIl" .=re w;afmd; yd fm<fmd; w;r iïnkaO;dfõ .eg¨ mj;s'

72

fhdackd 1' úIh b.ekaùug mdi,a ld,igyfkka ,nd§ we;s ld,Éfþo m%udKh

jeälsÍu

fm<fmdf;ys wvx.= úIh lreKq" mejreï" l%shdldrlï fukau .=re w;afmdf;a wka;¾.; l%shdldrlï ixúOdkh lr b.ekaùug i;shlg ld,igyfka fjkalr we;s ld,Éfþo foll m%udKh m%udKj;a fkdjk neúka fhdackd lrkafka 10"11 fY%aKs i|yd fjkalr ;sfnk i;shlg ld,Éfþo ;=k ne.ska jk m%udKhg fyda lksIaG oaù;shsl wOHdmk wjêhg o ,nd§u wjYHfõ' ta i`oyd fjka fkdl< ld,ÉfPao fhdod.; yels h'

2' mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh b.ekaùu iïnkaO jk mqyqKq ieis m%udKh jeäl< hq;=h

kj úIhhla f,i mdi,a úIhud,djg y÷kajd§fï§ Bg fmr fï i|yd .=rejreka úfYaI mqyqKqjlg fhduq lr fkdue;s w;r jirlg mj;ajkq ,nk .=re mqyqKq ieis m%udKh m%udKj;a fkdjk neúka" jdrhlg tl ne.ska jirlg ieis ;=kl m%udKhla olajd fyda m%fhdackj;a" M,odhS mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh ieis meje;aùu jeo.;a h'

3' mqrjeis wOHdmk úIhh .=rejreka i|yd .=re w;afmdf;a wka;¾.; lr we;s bf.kqï l%u ms<sn| ukd wjfndaOhla ,nd§u'

mqrjeis wOHdmk úIh bf.kqï l%ufõo jkqfha ksÍlaIKh" .fõIKh" iïuqL idlÉPd uÕska f;dr;=re /ialsÍu" f;dr;=re úYaf,aIKh lsÍu" fCIa;% jev" jHdmD;s .eg¨ úi£fï l%uh" úuiqï b.ekaùfï l%uh" m%Yafkda;a;r l%uh ^ì;a;s mqj;am;a$m%o¾Yk& iy nqoaê l,ïNkhhs'

fï l%uj,ska <uhskag iajhx wOHhk l%u yryd bf.kqï w;aoelSï ,nd fokafka flfiao hkak ms<sn| fuu úIhh W.kajk .=rejrekag meyeÈ,ss wjfndaOhla ,nd§u fhda.Hfõ' fiajdia: mqyqKq ld¾h ieis weiqfrka fïjd ms<sn| oekqu yd wjfndaOh ,nd§u .=re w;afmd; ;=< fhdackd lr ;snqKo tajd l%shdjg fkdkefÕk neúka jirlg tla j;djla fyda fuu bf.kqï l%u ms<sn| .=rejreka oekqj;a lsÍu wjYH fõ'

4' úIhh flfrys .=re WmfoaYljrekaf.a yd úIh wOHCIjrekaf.a úfYaI wjOdkh yd Wkkaÿj jeä jeäfhka fhduqlsÍu wjYH fõ'

M,odhS yd m%fhdackj;a .=re mqyqKq ieis jdrhlg tl ne.ska fyda ixúOdkh lsÍu' m%.;sh ms<sn| fidhd n,d l,dm uÜgñka mdi,a úÿy,am;sjre yd úIh W.kajk .=rejre oekqj;a lsÍu'

5' fm<fmd;a yd .=re w;afmd;a w;r we;s iïnkaO;dj ;r lsÍu

úIhh b.ekaùfï fhfok .=rejre ks;r m%ldY lrk iuyr .eg¨ iy.; wjia:d iys; fm<fmd;aj, mdvï yd .=re w;afmdf;a l%shdldrlï ixfYdaOkh l< hq;= fõ'

73

wdY%s; .%ka: kdudj,sh

edr.sagepub.com/content/37/3/129.short(American Educational Research Association)/2008

Libir.,ied,hk/dspace/handle/2266.2/10195 (International Journal of citizenship & Teacher Education)/2005.

Wijethunge, S. (2004) National Research study on civic Education in Sri Lanka ; summary report, NEREC, Facility of Education, Colombo.

www.sciencedirect.com/science/articlepil/so88303550100009x .(International journal of Educational Research/2001

www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10,1080/02601370304835. (Traylor & Francis online) /2010

fm%au;s,l" fÊ'ta'tka' ^1998& Y%S ,dxlSh nyqjd¾.sl iudch ;=< iduh ia:dms; lsÍu i|yd WÑ; mqrjeis wOHdmkhl iajNdjh úuiSu" o¾Ykm;s ksnkaOkh" fld<U úYaj úoHd,h'

is,ajd" ví'ta' ^2004& Y%S ,xldfõ m%cdpdr wOHdmkfha ixlaIsma; jd¾;dj" cd;sl wOHdmk m¾fhaIK iy we.hSï flakaøh" wOHdmk mSGh" fld<U'

úNd. fomd¾;fïka;=j'm%;sM, ixLHdf,aLk w;afmd;" ^2008-2010&

74

Actions to be taken to enhance the quality of the“Nenasa” Educational Television Channel

Lakshmi Malalagama (SLEAS)[email protected]

Abstract in English

KeyWords:

75

“keKi” wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS kd,sldfõ .=Kd;aulNdjh by< kxjd,Sug .; hq;= ls%hdud¾.

,laIañ u,,.u

Y%S ,xld wOHdmk mrsmd,k fiajh [email protected]

ixlaIsma;h “keKi” wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS kd,sldj 2007 j¾Ifha oS osjhsfka mdi,a myl osh;a l<

kshuq jHdmD;shla f,i wdrïN j we;s w;r 2009 j¾Ifha isg úldYhg wkque;sh ,eî we;' wOHhk fmdÿ iy;sl m;% idudkH fm< úNd.fha m%Odk úIhkays my< idOk m%;sY; .eg,qjg úi÷ï f,i YsIH úúO;ajh yd .eUqre úIhud,dj wkqj" isiqkag jvd;a fhda.H jk mrsos w;sf¾l bf.kqï wjia:d ie,iSSfï wruqKska 2009 j¾Ifha isg fï olajd woshr 4l oS mdi,a 1996 lg rEmjdyskS hka;% ,nd oS" kd,sldj keröug wjia:d i,id we;' mdi,a 1000la ixj¾Okh lsrSfï jHdmD;shg wh;a mdi,aj, bos l<

uyskafodaoh ;dCIKsl úoHd.drh ;=<“keKi” ¥ria: wOHdmksl uOHia:dkhg

tallhla fjka fjhs' ld,Sk jeo.;alulska hqla; keKi jevigyfka .=Kd;aulNdjh by< kxjd,Sug .; hq;= ls%hdud¾. y÷kd.ekSu m¾fhaIK wNsm%dh úh' m¾fhaIKfha

wruqKq bgqlr .ekSu i|yd ióCIK l%ufõoh Ndú; lrk ,oS' 2009 2014 ld,fha

rEmjdyskS hka;% ,nd ÿka mdi,aj,ska wdlD;sm;la weiqrska ,nd.;a o;a; úYaf,aIKfhka" kd,sld iïnkaO;dfõ .eg,q ke;s njg y÷kd.;a mdi,a w;=rska Okd;aul fhdackd bosrsm;a l< mdi,a 20l yd úldYh ms<sn| j Okd;aul fyda RKd;aul u;hla bosrsm;a fkdl< mdi,a 20l úÿy,am;sjreka 40la" .=reNj;=ka 40la yd isiqka 80laiu. l< ÿrl:k ixjdo" oskm;d mdi,aj,ska ,efnk ,sms yd ÿrl:k weu;=ï iy mdi,a wëlaIK u.ska mdi,aa uqyqKfok .eg,q y÷kd .kakd ,oS' Rcq j RKd;aul u; m< l< mdi,a folls' ˜keKi˜ úldYk ld,igyk mdi,a ld,igykg fkd.e<mSu" kd,sldjg wod< ;dCIKsl wjfndaOh mdi,a ld¾h uKav,j,g fkdue;sslu" vhf,d.a iïnkaO;dj ms<sn| .eg,qj,g läkñka m%;spdr fkd,eîu" fou< udOH mdvïj, W!k;djh" rEmjdysksh ;nd.ekSug m%udKj;a bvla fkdue;slu mdi,aj,g n,mdk ndOl úh' kd,sldj u.ska úldYh lrkq ,nk mdvïj, .=Kd;aul nj yd jevigyka bosrsm;a lsrSfï úúO;ajh jeäoshqKq lsrSu" fou< mdvï ksmoùu" wOHdmksl jYfhka jeo.;a ld,Sk úúO jevigyka jeämqr úldYh iy kshdukh úêu;a lsrSu fhdackd fõ'

uqLH jpk wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS kd,sldj" ¥ria: wOHdmkh

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1'0 ye|skaùu

wOHdmkh hkq mqoa.,hl=f.a muKla fkdj iuia; iudc ixj¾Okfha moku nj 21 jk ishjfia wOHdmkh ms<sn| jQ fv,¾ jd¾;dj^1996& fmkajd oS we;' ksoyia wOHdmkh" hdjÔj wOHdmkh" ieug wOHdmkh" osú meje;au i|yd wOHdmkh" m%d.aOkh b,lal fldg .;a wOHdmkh jeks fkdfhl=;a f;aud ms<sn| j wjOdkh foñka iEu rgla u ish wOHdmk ie,iqï ilia lrkq ,nk w;r" úIhka f;dard .ekSfï wjia:dj isiqkg ,nd foñka Y%S ,xldfõ ish,qu rcfha mdi,aj, fmdÿ úIhud,djla ls%hd;aul flf¾' wOHhk fmdÿ iy;sl m;% ^idudkH fm<& úNd. m%;sM, úYaf,aIKfhkaa y÷kd.;a my<

idOk m%;sY; wju lsrSfï wNs,dIfhkA “keKi” wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS kd,sldj ms<sn|

ixl,amh ìys j we;s w;r" ÿIalr yd .=re W!k;d mj;sk m%foaYj, mdi,a isiqkaf.a wOHdmk ixj¾Okh" orejka jeä jYfhka m%sh lrk rEmjdysksh weiqrska mdvï bosrsm;a lr bf.kqu flf¾ jeä fm,Uùula we;s lr,ñka .=Kd;aul bf.kqï M, lrd fhduq lsrSu" hqfkiaflda iïuq;Skag wkqj yeug iu wOHdmk wjia:d ysñ lr .ekSfï whs;sh ;yjqre lsrSu" wvq myiqlï iys; mdi,aj, isiqkag Wiia .=Kd;aul Ndjfhka hq;= bf.kqï øjH Ndú;hg fuka u kj ;dlaIKh yd tys Ndú;hka ms<sn| j w;aoelSug wjia:d ie,iSSu" osjhsfka ÿr neyer mdi,aj, fiajh lrkq ,nk .=reNj;=kaf.a l=i,;d jeäoshqKq lsrSug odhl ùu yd wod< úúO .=re mqqyqKq ,ndoSu

hk b,lal imqrd,Sfï wruqKska w;sf¾l bf.kqï wjia:d

ie,iSu i|yd wOHdmksl jevigyka úldYh lsrSu wrUk ,oS'“keKi” wOHdmksl

rEmjdyskS kd,sldj úêu;a j wdrïN lsrSug wkque;sh ,nd.ekSu i|yd cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh úiska wOHdmk wud;Hd;=ud u.ska wud;H uKav,h fj; bosrsm;a l< fhdackdj wkqj úIhdkqnoaO jevigyka" .Ks;h"bx.%Sis yd f;dr;=re ;dlaIKh

hk úIhka" fY%aIaG prs; mlaISka yd i;=ka" ixialD;sluh jYfhka jeo.;a ia:dk" mdi,a cd;sl wOHdmk úoHdmSG yd .=re úÿy,aj, ks¾udKd;aul l%shdldrlï" m%Yak úpdrd;aul" idudkH oekqu yd úYaj oekqu jevigyka" .=re wOHdmksl jevigyka yd mqyqKq jevigyka" mdi,aj, ks¾udKd;aul l<ukdlrK Ndú;djka" wOHdmksl mqj;a" úIh ks¾foaY fjkiaùï yd wOHdmkfha kj m%jK;d hk jevigyka tu kd,sldj u.ska úldYh lsrsug ie,iqï lr ;sìK' ^weuqKqu 1&' ;dlaIKh yd udOH ikaksfõokfha oshqKqj;a iu. .=jkaúÿ,sh yd rEmjdysksh wOHdmk ld¾hhg iydhs; ;dlaIKhka fia ueosy;aùu wdrïN ù we;' ¥ria: wOHdmk fuj,ula f,i rEmjdysksh fhdod .ekSu tla tla YsIHhdg tlsfklg fjkia bf.kqï l%ufõo wjYH jqj;a idudkH mka;s ldurfhkaaa tu wjYH;d bgq fkdùu" ksoyia kj bf.kqï wjia:d iïmdokhg udOH Ndú;h rel=,la ùu" udOHfha úúO Ndú; u.ska wOHdmk moaO;sfhka neyer jQjkag jqj o kj bf.kqï wjia:d ie,ish yels ùu" kj wjia:d ie,iSu u.ska wOHdmkfha b,lalh jk iudkd;au;dj ;yjqre ùu hk lreKq

Tiafia isiqkaf.a wOHdmk M, by< kexùu i|yd jeo.;a jk nj we,aldka

wkdjrKh fldg we;

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rEmjdyskshg iqúfYaIS jQ Y%jHoDYH úldY myiqlu ksid u wOHdmkh i|yd rEmjdysksh Ndú;h u.ska b.ekaùu jeä oshqKq lsrSu yd bf.kSug wkqn, oSu" Wmfoia oSu lreKq oelaùu yd meyeos,ss lsrSu" idrdxY lsrSu" bf.kqï Yla;sh jeä lsrSu" fm,Uùu yd osrs.ekaùu" fjk;a bf.kqï øjH i|yd iydhs; udOHhlaa f,i Ndú;h yd bf.kqï fõ.h jeä lsrSu" f;dr;=re Ndú;hka f.k yer oelaùu" isiq p¾hdj fjkia lsrSu" <Õd úh fkdyels f;dr;=re yd isoaëka jvd;a meyeos,sj bosrsm;a

lsrSu hk M, imqrd.; yels nj ysi,a fmkajd fohs' 2007 j¾Ifha oS kshuq jHdmD;shla f,i wdrïN fldg 2009 j¾Ifha isg úêu;a j l%shd;aul lrkq ,nk ˜keKi˜ wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS kd,sldj keröug mdi,a 1996 lg yd cd;sl wOHdmk úoHd mSG 18 lg rEmjdyskS ,nd oSug" úldYh i|yd ùäfhda jevigyka ksmoùug iy wod< fN!;sl yd udkj iïm;a ixj¾Okhg vhf,d.a wdiswdgd ^mS't,a'iS& wdh;kh ish uQ,H i;aldrh ,nd oS we;' 2009 j¾Ifha isg ish,qu fY%aKs i|yd cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh úiska ksmojk ,o úúO úIhkag wod< ùäfhda jevigyka tla kd,sldjlska úldYh lrk ,o w;r" 2013 j¾Ifha iema;eïn¾ ui isg

tf;la kñka O¾ujdyskS moku u.ska vhf,d.a wdh;kfha uQ,Huh iydh

u; úldYh l< kd,sldj o “keKi” kd,sldjg iïnkaO lrñka 10 yd 11 fY%aKs i|yd

kd,sld 2la f,i úldYh wdrïN flrsKs' cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh úiska ksmojk ,o

ùäfhda jevigyka w;=rska mdvï 98la yd O¾ujdysks moku u.ska kd,sldj

wdrïNfha isg Ndú;fhka bosrsm;a lrkq ,nk mdvï 903la fhdod.ksñka oekg tu kd,sld u.ska úldYh isÿ lrkq ,nhs' ;reK isiqka ;udg u mqoa.,sl jk iqúfYaIS bf.kqï ud¾. ilid .kakd oaù;shsl wOHdmk wjêhg wOHdmk ls%hdj,sfha m%Odk N+ñldjla ysñ jk w;r"f,dalh wNsNjkh lrñka mj;sk ;dlaIKh wOHdmk ld¾hhka i|yd o cSj;aùug yd /lshd

i|yd isiqka iQodkï lsrSug o Ndú;d l< hq;= fyhska ) fujeks w;sf¾l

bf.kqï iemhSu .=Kd;aul j ukd m%ñ;shlaa hgf;a

ls%hd;aul l< hq;=j we;' m¾fhaIl “keKi” wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS kd,sldj ms<sn|

ld¾hh Ndr ks,Odrs f,i jir 4l ld,hla lghq;= l< w;r" ieneúka u mdi,g wjYH yd mdi, úiska b,a,qï lrkq ,nk foa —keKi˜ kd,sldfjka iemhSug yd tys Ndú;h M,odhS j by< kxjd,Sug .;yels ls%hdud¾. ljf¾ oehs idlÉPd lsrSu cd;sl fuka u ld,Sk j.lSula neúka ta ms<sn| j úu¾Ykh lsrSu m¾fhaIKfha wNsm%dh úh'

2'0 idys;H úu¾Ykh

Y%S ,xldfõ mdi,aj, we;s fN!;sl yd udkj iïm;a fnoS hdfï úIu;dj wkqj bf.kqï b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sfha mj;sk wiudk;d ie,lSfï oS" w;sf¾l bf.kqï wjia:d ,nd oSug osh;a l< ˜keKi˜ kd,sldfõ .=Kd;aulNdjh by< kxjd,Sug .; hq;= ls%hdud¾. wOHhkh jeo.;a jkafka" iudc bf.kqï kHdh wkqj p¾hdj" wdl,am" weoySï yd jákdlï" oekqu yd m%cdkk l=i,;d flf¾ rEmjdysks keröu mq¿,a n,mEula we;s

78

lrk neúks iudc bf.kqï kHdh wkqjksrSlaIKh

wkqlrKh yd wdo¾Ykh bf.kqu flf¾ n,mdk

w;r fuhska wdo¾Ykh icSj wdlD;s " jdÑl b.ekaùï

yd ixfla;uh f,i YsIH m%fndaOkhg fya;= ldrl fjhs' by; wdlD;s wkqj" ms<sfj<ska ienE mqoa.,fhl= úiska wNsu; p¾hdjka fmkakqï lsrSu" mqoa.,fhl= úiska wNsu; p¾hdjka ys kshe,Sfï ms<sfj<úia;r lsrSu yd Ñ;%mg" rEmjdysksh" wka;¾cd,h" .=jkaaúÿ,sh yd idys;Hh u.ska w;a olsk i;H fyda m%nkaO prs; u; m%fndaOkh isÿ fjhs' ksrSlaIK u.ska isiqka úiska ljr f;dr;=re tl;= lr

.kafka o hkakg wdo¾Ykfha wdldrh yd Tjqkaf.a m%cdkk yd

p¾hd;aul ika;;sh n,mdk fyhska"rEmjdyskS kd,sldjla u.ska mdvï bosrsm;a lsrSfï oS jvd;a fhda.H wdo¾Yk Ndú;fhka isiqkaf.a

wjOdkh OdrKh oekqu W;amdokh yd

fm,Uùu i|yd wjia:d mq¿,a l< yelsh' wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS jevigyka hkq ¥¥ria: wOHdmkh i|yd rEmjdyskS Ndú;hhs' ¥ria: wOHdmkh hkq jpkfha wre; wkqj u .=rejrhd yd YsIHhd fN!;sl j iïuqL j fkdisg ,nd fokq ,nk wOHdmkhhs'¥ria: wOHdmkh fyda ¥ria: bf.kqu hkq ;:H jYfhka u .=rejrhd yd YsIHhd wjldYfhka iy fyda ld,fhka fjka j lrkq ,nk

b.ekaùuhs .

ÿria: wOHdmkfha uq,a u W;aidyh f,i igyka jkafka 1728 j¾Ifha oS

hkqfjka úiska ,>qf,aLkh b.ekaùug i;sm;d ;eme,a ud¾.sl mdvï bosrsm;a lsrSu ms<sn| j oekqj;a

lrñka ys l< oekaùuhs' tfy;a bx.%Sis ,>q f,aLkfha ks¾ud;D jk

úiska 1840 j¾Ij, oS, Tyqf.a mqyqKqjg wod< Wmfoia jeä YsIH msrsilg

,nd oSug Wmdh ud¾.hla f,i ,>qqf,aLkh lsrSu i|yd ;eme,a m;a j, ,shk ,o j.ka;s isiqka fj; hjd" ;eme,am;a u.ska ms<s;=re f.kajd ksjeros lr oSu kkQ;k ÿria: wOHdmkfha uQ,drïNh fia ms<s.kq ,nhs' fuu l%uh id¾:l yd M,odhS jQ fyhska wjqreÿ lsysmhla ;=< Tyqf.a Y%djl msrsi fnfyúka me;sr .sh úYd, ixLHdjla úh

' we;eï iqúfYaIS oekqj;a lsrSï i|yd tlai;a rdcOdksh" c¾uksh"

wfursld tlai;a ckmoh yd cmdkh ÿria: wOHdmk l%u Ndú;d lr we;

. Ñldf.da úYaj úoHd,h úiska j¾I 1900 .Kkaj, oS ;eme,a ud¾.sl mdGud,d

ia:dms; lr we;s w;r" j¾I 1911 oS ´iafÜ%,shdfõ laùkaia,kaâ úYajúoHd,h úiska ndysr wOHhk mSGhla ia:dms; lr ¥ria: wOHdmk wjia:d ,nd oSug lghq;= lr we;' fï wdldrfhka uq,a wjêfha oS Wiia wOHdmk wjia:d yd jeäysá wOHdmksl wjia:d ie,iSu i|yd ;eme,a ud¾.sl j ¥ria: wOHdmkh ,nd oS we;' 1969 j¾Ifha oS tlai;a rdcOdksfha újD; úYajúoHd,h ìysùu;a iu. ie,lsh hq;= ixj¾Okhla isÿlrñka ñY% udOH Ndú; m%fõYhla ;=<ska ¥¥ria: wOHdmkfha fojk

wjêh wrUd we;' újD; úYajúoHd,h úiska bf.kqï øjH

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ie,ls,su;a j ieliQ uqøs; yd Y%jHoDYH øjH f,i ;eme,a ud¾.sl j isiqka fj; hjd we;s w;r" w;sf¾l bf.kqï jYfhka tu bf.kqï øjH idudkH .=jkaúÿ,sh yd rEmjdysksh u.ska úldYh fldg we;' rEmjdysksh yd f¾äfhdaj wOHdmk fuj,ula f,i ckm%sh jk f;la u ;eme,a ud¾.sl b.ekaùï" ¥ria: wOHdmkh hkqfjka y÷kajd

we;' ' ;dlaIKfha oshqKqj;a iu. u rEmjdysks ;dlaIKfha oshqKqj o isÿ jQ w;r th woshfrka woshr mka;s ldurhg ueosy;a jQ nj yd tu.ska bosrsm;a lrk bf.kqï wka;¾.; YsIHhka bf.kqug fmd,Ujkq ,nk nj yd wOHdmkh w;HjYH

nj Tjqkag ;yjqre lrkq ,nk nj fmkajd fohs' kj ;dlaIKh yd úfYaIfhka u udOH Ndú;h mka;s ldur ld¾hlaIu;djh by< kexùug" .=re W!K;djhg úi÷ï oSug yd krl b.ekaùï l%u wju lsrSug fya;=jkq

we;s nj , udOHh i|yd lrkq ,nk l:kh" ,sùu yd

jevigyka ksIamdok ;dlaIKh ms<sn| oekqj;a ùu wkd.; jevf,dalh i|yd isiqkag

jeo.;a jkq we;s nj iy má.; lsrSï" Ñ;%mg" rEmjdysksh yd wka;¾cd,h Ndú;h bf.kqï b.ekaùï ls%hdj,shg ueosy;aùu ;=<ska kSri mdi,a osúh yd fjfyildrS fm<fmd;a Ndú;h wjika lrñka jvd;a iM, bf.kqï øjH mka;s

ldurhg f.k taug yelsjkq we;s nj ;yjqre lr;s' ;j o" kj udOH ;dlaIKh mka;s ldurhg f.k tafukaa YsIH flakaøSh yd iyNd.s;aj bf.kqug isiqka Wkkaÿ lr,sh yels nj fukau .=Kd;aul yd úfkdaod;aul wOHdmksl jevigyka bosrsm;a lsrSfuka il%sh j wOHdmkfha fhfok isiqka iys; mka;s ldur olakg ,efnkq

we;s nj fmkajdfok fun÷ jvd;a fyd| bf.kqï mrsir we;s lsrSfuka jvd;a fyd| .=rejreka" jvd;a ymka isiqka" jvd;a ymka jeishka iys; jvd;a j.lSfuka hq;= jvd;a fyd| f,dalhla ìysjkq we;ehs mqfrdal:kh lrhs' tf,i u bf.kqu i|yd jvd;a wdl¾KSh" ;¾ldkql+, yd iyNd.sl;ajhg bv ie,fik wdldrfha jevigyka ks¾udKfha oS YsIH wjYH;dj yd we,au ljrdldroehs y÷kd .; hq;= nj o" 21 jk ishjfia uq,a Nd.h ;=< wOHdmk ld¾hfha oS jvd;a u m%lg bf.kqï WmlrKh rEmjdysksh jkq we;s nj o" tfyhska u rEmjdysksh Ndú;fhka úldYh lrkq ,nk mdvï ks¾udKh lrkq ,nkakka yg ;sr msgm;a ,sùug yd wOHlaIKhg wod< úêu;a mqyqKq wjia:d ie,ish hq;= nj o tu jd¾;d j,ska idlÉPd fldg we;' f,dalh mqrd jvd;a u jHjydrs; ckudOHh jk rEmjdysksh ñksidf.a tosfkod jev" lS%vd yd wka;¾ iïnkaO;d wdlD;s fjkia lr,ñka isà' rEmjdyskshg weíneys ùu hkak myiqfjka wjfndaO lr.; yelalls' ixl,amkdjka i;Hhka njg m;a lr,Sug yels fjk;a wdldrhla fõo@ i;=g" ÿl" iskyj" yeéu" ika;%dih" fldamh fukau ñ;%;ajh f.k fok rEmjdysksh wOHdmksl fuj,ula fia jeo.;a jkafka th krUkakka yqÿ krUkakka muKla u fkdù tu l%shdldrlïj, iyNd.slhka jk neúks' fuu il%sh keröu úfkdaodiajdoh;a iu. M,odhS bf.kqug isiqka fhduq lr,hs' rEmjdysks keröu yeuúg u RKd;aul ;;a;ajhka Woa.; fkdlrk njg

jevigyka oduh f,dalhg idlaIs orhs' wdl¾IKSh m%Njhla f,i oskm;d Ôú;fha fldgila njg m;a j we;s rEmjdyskshl ñ, wvqfjñka mj;sk fyhska wOHdmk lafIa;%h i|yd th M,odhS j Ndú; lsrSfï

80

bvlv jeäfjñka mj;S' ' rEmjdysksfhkaa f;dr;=re bosrsm;a lsrSfï oS wod< meyeos,ss lsrSï yd WodyrK oDYH udOHfhka bosrsm;a l< yels ksid u" idïm%odhsl wOHdmk l%u Ndú;hg jvd bf.kqu flf¾ isiqka fm,U ùug yd Tjqkaf.a bf.kqï wNs,dIhka jeä lsrSug yels jk fyhska bf.kSu iy iaurKh jvd;a myiq jk nj ms<sf.k we;' wOHdmkfha wiudk;d yd úúO jQ wiuñ;Ska wju lr ljr fyda N+f.da,Sh msysàul isg tl u fõ,djl oS tl u úldYh keröfï wjia:dj i,id,ñka iu bf.kqï wjia:d iemhSug rEmjdysksh i;= ;dlaIKh Ndú; l< yelsh' rEm rduq wdikakhg .ekSfï yd ÿria lsrSfï yelshdj fuka u iqúfYAIS j biau;= lsrSfï yelshdj ksid isiqkaf.a wjOdkh jeälsrSfï ,d wOHdmk fuj,ula f,i rEmjdyskshg m%uqL ia:dkhla ysñ fjhs' woDYH yd i;H jYfhka w;aoelsh fkdyels isoaëka iÔùlrK

f,i bosrsm;a lsrSug fjk;a lsisÿ WmlrKhlg ke;s" rEmjdyskshg muKla we;s úYsIag yelshdj Ndú;fhka úYd, oekqï m%udKhla flá ld, mrdihla

;=< ksrjq,a j bosrsm;a l< yelsh' . foaYk" mrSlaIK yd ksrEmK

jeks idïm%odhsl b.ekaùïj,ska neyer j iEu me;slvla u ksrjq,a j oelaúh fkdyels úoHd.dr mrSlaIK mjd" ;srh úoHd.drhla njg m;a lr.ksñka iqmeyeos,ss j bosrsm;a

lsrSug rEmjdysksh fhdod .; yels h' ' tf,i u wuQ¾; iy

jHqla; ixl,am ;yjqre lsrSug yd úfYaIfhka u N+f.da, úoHdj" b;sydih jeks mdvïj,g wod< j icSù j <Õd úh fkdyels ia:dk oelaùug

rEmjdysksh fhdod.ekSug we;s yelshdj wOHdmk ld¾hfhaoS jeo.;a fõ

. o;a; yd f;dr;=re j¾Kj;a j bosrsm;a lsrSug yd lsisfia;a icSù j kerôh

fkdyels f,dj mqrd we;s úúO ixialD;SkA" YsIagdpdr" mqrdúoHd;aul jákdlï iys; ia:dk yd fgda¾kdfvda jeks mrsir ;;a;aj iúia;r j bosrsm;a lsrSug wmQ¾j bf.kqï

fuj,ula ( f,i rEmjdysksh fhdod .; yelsh' u;l

;nd .; yels whqrska w.kd oekqï iïNdrhla i;=g o iu. ,nd fok fmdfydi;a bf.kqï mrsirhla mka;s ldurh ;=< ks¾udKh lsrSug rEmjdysksh ksjeros j yd M,odhS j Ndú;fhkaa bf.kqu flf¾ isiqka n,jka; l< yelsh' cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh" ^2012& l< iólaIKh u.ska o YsIH wjYH;d ie,ls,a,g f.k jvd;a wdl¾IKSh f,i ksmojk mdvï úldYh lrñka kd,sldfõ .=Kd;aulNdjh by< kexúh hq;=nj fmkajd fohs'

¥ria: wOHdmkh hkak

hkqfjka o Ndú;d lrkq ,nk w;r" jvd;a u m%p,s; j we;af;a o f,dj mqrd

fï iïnkAO m¾fhaIK jd¾;d jeä jYfhka we;af;a o jYfhks' wka;¾cd;sllrKh" f.da,ShlrKh yd f;dr;=re yd ikaksfõok ;dlaIKfha oshqKqj;a

iu. újD; m%fõYh yd wka;¾cd, myiqlï ;=<ska úfoaY úoHd,hlska jqj úúO uÜgfï Wmdê" mYapd;a Wmdê i|yd ¥ria: j wOHdmkh ,eîfï wjia:d nyq, j j¾Okh ù we;'

81

1 jk rEmh ¥ria: wOHdmk wjia:d ;dlaIKh ms<sn| wdlD;shls

(R.Johansen, et.al 1991, p.16)

2'1 wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS úldYhla keröu <uhskaf.a bf.kqug n,mdk wdldrh

rEmjdyskshl jvd;a u m%lg ,laIKh jkafka th i;= oDYH .=Khhs' jpkhlg jvd oyia .=Khlska rEmhla ják njg we;s merKs wdmaf;damfoaYh wkqj o weiSfuka ,nk oekqug jvd oelafuka ,nk m%;HlaIh jeä h' rEmjdyskshla rEmj,g wu;r j p,k" Yío yd wjYH mrsos j.ka;s j,ska yd l:kfhka o f;dr;=re imhhs' Y%jH yd oDYH udOH Ndú;fhka fokq ,nk f;dr;=re u.skaa Wiia bf.kqï M, ,nk nj yd wruqKla we;sj lrkq ,nk rEmjdyskS keröfuka ,nd.kakd oekqu jvd;a .eUqre yd úo.aO nj

wkdjrKh lrhs' wjqreÿ 40 l ld,hla ;=<oS Ñ;%mg" rEmjdysksh

iy ckudOH

bosrsm;a lsrSï wkqj idudkH bf.kqï l%u iïmQ¾Kfhka hgm;a jkq we;ehs

woyia olajhs'

wOHdmksl fuj,ula f,i rEmjdysksh Ndú;fhka olsk foa úYajdi lsrSug fukau

u;l ;nd.ekSug mokï jk nj fmkajd fok u;lhg .ekSfï

wjia:d ms<sn| j bf.kqï kHdh mdol fldg f.k

bosrsm;a l< ks.ukh Wmqgd olajñka lshjk fohska

10%la" wefik fohska 20%la" olsk fohska 30% la yd olsk iy wefik fohska 50%la

u;lhg .kakd fyhska jvd;a ie,iqï iy.; j ilikq ,nk ùäfhda jevigyka wOHdmk ld¾hhg jeo.;a nj ;yjqre lrhs'

1 jk rEmh ¥ria: wOHdmk wjia:d ;dlaIKh ms<sn| wdlD;shls'

2'1 wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS úldYhla keröu <uhskaf.a bf.kqug n,mdk wdldrh

uqøs;, Y%jH y~mg,ùäfhda,mrs.Kl

weiqrska ixjdo

rEmjdyskS ixjdo

úoHd.dr, Y%jH

y~mg, ùäfhda

bf.kqï uOHia:dk .=jkaúÿ,sh

iïuqL j

kj ;dlaIKh iu.

´kEu fõ,djl ´kEu ia:dkhl

tlu fõ,djlfjkia ia:dkhl

fjkia fõ,djl" fjkia ia:dkhl

fjkia fõ,djl tlu ia:dkhl

tlufõ,djltlu ia:dkhl

82

2'2 YsIH idOkh by< kexùug wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS úldYh .=rejekag n,mdk wdldrh

wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS yd ùäfhda Ndú;fhka b.ekaùfï oS lshùu yd b.ekaùï øjH

n,.ekaùug yels ùu" YsIHhka w;r fmdÿ oekqï mokula ixj¾Okhg WmldrS ùu" YsIH wjfndaOh yd idlÉPd jeä lsrSu" úúO jQ bf.kqï ffY,Ska ie,iSug yels ùu" m%n, bf.kqulg isiqka Woafhdaa.Su;a lsrSu" ish ld¾h idOkh by< kxjd .ekSug yels ùu hk wdldrj,ska .=rejreka yg jeo.;a jk nj

olajhs'

2'3 nyqúO nqoaëka w;am;a lr.ekSu i|yd nyqúO l%fudamdhla f,i wOHdmksl rEmjdysksh

rEmjdysksh i;= y~ yd m%;srEm ixl,kfhka bf.kqug m%n, Wmldrhla isÿjk nj

m¾fhaIKd;aul j olajk úldYh lrkq ,nk ksYap, rEmhlg y~ ixl,kh lsrSu" rEmhlg p,k ixl,khg jvd wOHdmkslj M,odhS nj olajd

we;' ll:kh" j.ka;s" ksYap, rEm(Still Images) yd p,k ixl,kh l< rEm (MovingImages) wdos ixfla;j, iïñY%Khla fia ielfik rEmjdyskS jevigykla u.ska bka tla ixfla;hla iys; j m%d:ñlj ilikq ,nk jevigyklg jvd uy;a jQ

wOHdmksl wiajekakla ,nd fok nj wjOdrKh lrhs' tf,i rEmjdyskshla u.ska fokq ,nk mKsjqv iïñY%Kh u.ska" tlsfkldg fjkia jQ udkisl

Yla;Ska ) yd <eoshd iys; YsIHhkaf.a nyqúO nqoaëka biau;=

lr.; yels nj .d¾âk¾ f.a nyqúO nqoaê kHdh biau;= lrñka

(Marshall, 2002, p. 8) meyeos,s lrhs' ;ud wjg f,dalfhka ,efnk f;dr;=re tla tla YsIHhd úiska f;areï .kakd wdldrh wkqj ish m%cdkk wdlD;Ska fyj;a nqoaëka yev.eiSu yd ieliSu isÿjk nj .d¾âk¾ fmkajd fohs' Tyqf.a nyqúO nqoAê kHdh wjOdrKh lrkq ,nkafka úIh lreKq bosrsm;a lrkq ,nk wdldrh wkqj tla tla mqoa.,hdf.a bf.kqï Odrs;djh md,kh lrkq ,nk njhs' iïm%odhsl fm<fmd;a j,ska

NdIduh m%fõYhla i|yd jeä keUqrejla ,ndfok nj fmkajd fohs' flfia jqj;a rEmjdysksh i;= nyqúO bosrsm;a lsrSfï .=Kh fhdod .ksñka NdIduh

fi!kao¾hd;aul ;d¾lsl yd

úia;r lsrSu wdoS úúO jQ m%fõYhka weiqrska" tlsfkldg fjkia jQ YsIH iuQyhl úúO jQ nqoaêuh yelshd biau;= lsrSu i|yd jvd;a .e<fmk mdvï wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS kd,sld u.ska bosrsm;a l< hq;= nj yd tf,i fkdfhl=;a wdldrfha m%fõYhka iys; mdvï ieliSu Tjqkaf.a nyqúO nqoaëka biau;= lr.ekSu i|yd jvd;a fyd|

Wmldrhla jk nj fmkajd fohs' ;j o" wOHdmksl rEmjdyssksh keröu iu. fmr mdi,a <uhskaf.a yd mdi,a <uhskaf.a m%cdkk nqoaêh j¾Okh w;r Okd;aul iïnkaO;djla we;s nj ;yjqre lrhs' YsIH <eoshd yd wNs,dIj, úúO;ajh wkqj oekqu flakaøSh jQ jD;a;Sh u.fmkaùï iys; mdvï taldldrS fkdjk wdldrfhka úúO wdlD;s hgf;a ilid úldYfhka nyqúO nqoaëka biau;= lr,ñka jevf,dalhg wod< jD;a;Sh ud¾f.damfoaYkhg o kd,sldj M,odhS f,i fhdod .; yels w;r fï ms<sn| j Y%S ,dxlsl ;;ajh wOHhkh lsrSfï wjYH;dj mj;S'

83

3'0 m¾fhaIK l%ufõoh 3'1 m¾fhaIK wruqKq

1' —keKi˜ wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS kd,sldfõ j;auka ;;a;ajh wkdjrKh lr.ekSu'

2' —keKi˜ wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS kd,sldfõ Ndú;h ms<sn| .eg,q y÷kd

.ekSu'

3' —keKi˜ wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS kd,sldfõ .=Kd;aulNdjh yd Ndú;h by< kexùug wod< ld¾hhka y÷kd .ekSu'

4' j;auka ;;a;ajh" .eg,q yd ixj¾Ok b,lalhka y÷kd .ekSu i|yd

ls%hdjg kxjk ,o jevigyka ms<sn| j ;lafiarejg t<öu yd jd¾;d lsrSu'

3'2 m¾fhaIK msrsie,iqu fuu m¾fhaIKh i|yd úia;rd;aul m%fõYhg wh;a iólaIK m¾fhaIK l%uh

fhdod .kakd ,oS'

3'3 ix.ykh" ksheosh yd o;a; /ia lsrSu

2 jk rEmh ksheoSh N=1996

wdlD;sm;a hjd o;a; ,nd .;a mdi,a ixLHdj

úÿy,am;sf.ka " úIhNdr .=reNj;df.ka yd isiqka

fofofkl=f.ka ÿrl:kfhka o;a; ,nd .;a mdi,a ixLHdj

rEmjdyskS imhk ,o mdi,a 1996 iix.ykhhs' i;shlg rEmjdysksh krUk ld,fPo ixLHdj" rEmjdysksh keröug isiqka fhduq lrk wdldrh" rEmjdysksh iïnkaO .eg,q"

wekafgkd iïnkaO;dj ) ms<sn| .eg,q" úldYhg wod< .eg,q" mdvï

ms<sn| .eg,q" fjk;a .eg,q yd kd,sldfõ ixj¾Okhg wod< fhdackd hk lreKq we;=,;aa wdlD;sm;a tu mdi,a fj; hjd o;a; /ia lrk ,o w;r" 2014 j¾Ih wdrïNfha oS rEmjdysksh Ndú;h ms<sn| j o;a; f.kajd .;a wdlD;sm;a 670la iólaIKfha mm<uq ksheosh f,i iiïNdù j f;dard f.k we;' fojkqj W;=re yd kef.kysr m<d;a yer fiiq m<d;aj,ska msysàu wkqj w;sf¾l

bf.kqï wjia:d ie,iSu jvd;a iqÿiq fia ie,lsh yels yd j¾.hg wh;a" by;

n1=670

n2=40

84

wdlD;sm;aj, kd,sldj ms<sn| j Okd;aul u;hla olajd ;snqKq mdi,a 20la yd Okd;aul fyda RKd;aul u;hla meyeos<s j m< fkdl< mdi,a 20la" m¾fhaIKhg wod< lreKq iqúfYaIS lr .ekSu i|yd WWm ksheosh fia f.k" úÿy,am;sjreka yd úIh Ndr .=reNj;=ka iu. ÿrl:kfhkaa idlÉPd fldg tu mdi,aj,ska imhk ,o o;a; jvd;a iúia;rj ;yjqre lr .kakd ,oS' tu mdi,aj, isiqka fofofkla ne.skaa iyNd.s lr f.k i;shlg rEmjdysksh krUk ld,fPo ixLHdj" rEmjdysksh keröug fhduq jk wdldrh" kd,sldj weiqrska bf.kqug jvd;au leu;s úIh$úIhhka" kd,sldfjka n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk bf.kqï iydh iy kd,sldfõ ixj¾Okhg wod< fhdackd hk lreKq ÿrl:kfhka úuik ,oS' iu.dó j udi 3 la ;=< oskm;d ,efnk ÿrl:k weu;=ï yd mdi,a wëlaIK u.ska o;a; /ia lrk ,oS' 4'0 o;a; bosrsm;a lsrSu yd idlÉPdj 4'1 keKi kd,sldfõ j;auka ;;ajh 4'1'1 oskm;d ,efnk ÿrl:k weu;=ïj,ska ,o o;a; rEmjdysksh keröfï oS mek kef.k .eg,q oekaùu i|yd ÿrl:k wxl 3la mdi,a fj; ,nd oS ;snqKs' udi 3l oS ,o weu;=ï 189la jd¾;d l< w;r" mdi,a uqyqK fok .eg,q úi|Sug wjYH mshjr .ksñka u m¾fhaIKhg wod< mrsos tu .eg,q j¾. lrk ,oS ^3 jk rEmh&'

1 jk m%ia;drh ÿrl:k weu;=ï u.ska okajk ,o mrsos mdi,a uqyqK fok .eg,q

4'1' 2 i;shla ;=<oS rEmjdysksh keröug isiqka fhduq lrk ld,fPo ixLHdj ms<sn| o;a;

i;shl ld, mrdihla ;=< mdi,a úiska rEmjdysksh keröug isiqka fhduq lrkq ,nk ld,fPo ixLHdj 4 jk rEmfha mrsos fm<.iajk ,oS'

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2 jk m%ia;drh mdi,a úiska i;shla ;=< rEmjdysksh krUk ld,fPo ixLHdj

oskm;d ld,igyk wkqj mdif,a bf.kqï b.ekaùï ld¾hhkag iu.dó j —keKi˜ kd,sldj keröug m%uqL;ajh ,ndoSu wju uÜgul mej;sKs' ^4 jk rEmh&' i;shla

;=< rEmjdysksh krUk ld,fPo ixLHdj “0” f,i oelaùu fukau lld,fPo ixLHdj

i,l=Kq fkdlr ;sîfuka o meyeoss,s jkafka tu mdi,a o rEmjdysksh keröug ksis ie,iqula fkdue;s mdi,a njhs'

4'1'3 mdi,a úiska rEmjdysksh keröug isiqka fhduq lrkq ,nk wdldrh ms<sn| o;a;

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keKi kd,sldj, úldY ld,igykg mdi,a wkq.; j fkdue;s nj ;yjqre jk w;r tu mdi,aj, isiqka f.a m%ldYj,ska wkdjrKh jkafka o Tjqka kd,sldj krUkakg jeä jYfhka fhduq jkafka .=reNj;=ka fkdmeñKs úg njhs ^6 jk rEmh&' 4'1'5 mdi,a wëlaIKj,ska /ia l< o;a; udi ;=kla ;=< mdi,a 36 la wëlaIKh lr rEmjdysksh keröug isiqka fhduq lsrSug f.k we;s mshjr yd mka;s jd¾;d wkqj i;shla ;=< isiqka fhduq lr we;s ld,fPo ixLHdj wOHhkh lrk ,oS' ^1 jk j.=j&' wëlaIKh i|yd hk wjia:dfõ rEmjdysksh krUñka isá mdi,a ixLHdj 2 ls' rEmjdysksh krUd ;snq Wmrsu ld,fPo ixLHdj 14 ls'

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4'1'7 wekafgkd iïnkaO;dj (DTV Connection) ms<sn| .eg¨

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5 jk m%ia;drh wekafgkdj iïnkaO j mdi,a uqyqK fok .eg,q

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mdi,g foj;djla hdug ld,h" Y%uh yd msrsjehla oerSug isÿjk fyhska" tu mdi,aj,g wekafgkd ,ndoSu m%udo lsrSug isÿ jQ wjia:d we;' vhf,d.a wdh;kh úiska fuu kd,sldj keröu i|yd mdi,aj,ska .dia;=jla wh fkdlrk ksid u rEmjdysksh i;s foll ld,hla tl os.g ls%shd;aul fkdl< úg tu iïnkaO;dj úikaê lrkq ,nhss' ta wkqj mdi,aj,g oS we;s rEmjdyskS hka;%j,g wod< iïnkaO;d úikaê jk nj i|yka lrkq ,nk mdi,a o úêu;a ie,eiaulg kd,sldj Ndú; fkdlrk nj meyeos,s fõ' tfiau iqir lr .ekSfï wmyiq;d iy ;dlaIKsl oekqu fkdue;slu f,i igyka j we;af;a o fndfyda úg oskm;d ls%hd;aul fkdlrk rEmjdyskS we;s mdi,a nj o fï wkqj ;yjqre fõ'

4'1'8 úldYhg wod< j mdi,a uqyqK fok .eg,q úldYhg wod< j mdi,a uqyqK fok .eg,q 3 jk j.=fõ oelafjk wdldrhg j¾.SlrKh lrk ,oS' 3 jk j.=j

wxlh .eg,qj mdi,a

ixLHdj 1 —keKi˜ ld,igyk mdi,a ld,igyg fkd.e,mSu 587

2 rEmjdysksh l%shd;aul jqj;a ksis f,i —keKi˜ kd,sld kerôh fkdyels ùu

16

3 ld,igyfka i|yka fõ,djkag wod< mdvï úldYh fkdùu 42

4 úldYh l< jevigyka kej; ne,Sug fkdyels ùu 238

tla tla mdif,a ld,igyk tu mdi,g iqúfYaIS jk fyhska —keKi˜ kd,sldfõ úldY ld,igykg mdi,a ld,igyk .e<fmkafka ke;s nj meyeos,ss lreKls' úldYh jQ mdvï kej; ne,Sug myiqlï i,id fkdue;' mdi,a wëlaIKj,ska y÷kd.; yelsjQfhaa ld,igyka fkd.e<mSu fya;=fjka iEu jevigykla u keröug wod< fY%aKsj, isiqka fhduq l< fkdyels njhs' ;j o .=reNj;=ka úiska ;u ld,fPo fuu kd,sldj keröug fhoùug Rcq tlÕ;ajhla fkdue;s nj o my; oelafjk whqre bosrsm;a lr we;'

YsIH ;lafiarelrK lghq;= we;=¿ .=re ld¾hhka imqrd .ekSfï b,lal yUd hd hq;= ùu'

;u ld,fPoj,g wod< mdvï ie,iqï wkqj úIhud,dj wdjrKh lsrSfï wjYH;dj m%uqL ùu'

.=reNj;=ka ish b.ekaùï l%ufõoh" w;aoelSï yd fm!reIh .ek jeä úYajdihla ;eîu'

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89

4 jk j.=j

wxlh .eg,qj mdi,a

ixLHdj

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2 jevigyka taldldrS ùu 324

3 mdvï jeä m%udKhla wdrïNfha isg wjidkh olajd foaYk wdldrfhka bosrsm;a lsrSu fya;=fjka isiqka kd,sldj keröug we;s Wkkaÿj wvq ùu

215

4 m%dfhda.sl jevigyka m%udKj;a fkdùu 211

5 wOHdmksl jákdlula we;s úúO lafIa;%j,g wod< úúO jevigyka bosrsm;a fkdlsrSu ^úúOdx.SlrKh fkdùu&

204

6 jevigyka bosrsm;a lrk .=reNj;=kag isiqkaf.a wjOdkh ,nd .ekSug yd mdvu wjika jk f;la wjOdkh mj;ajd .; fkdyels ùu

179

7 jevìï" lafIa;%" l¾udka; jeks ndysr mrsir jevigykaj,g fhdod fkd.ekSu

165

8 fou< udOH jevigyka fkdue;s ùu 133

9 mqgq m%udKj;a fkdùu 96

10 rEmjdysksh ;eîug bvla fkdue;slu 73

11 oji ;=< úldYh jk jevigyka iunr fkdùu 63

12 iqrlaIs;;dj ms<sn| .eg,q 62

13 isiqkag u;=jk .eg,q ksrdlrKhg l%uhla fkdue;s ùu 34

4'2 YsIH wjYH;d yd kd,sldfõ ixj¾Okh i|yd mdi,a j,ska ,o fhdackd

4'2'1 keKi kd,sldfjka isiqka n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk bf.kqï iydh

4 jk j.=j

wxlh .eg,qj mdi,a

ixLHdj

2009-2011 j¾Ij, m%d:ñl mdi,aj,g o rEmjdyskS imhd we;s w;r tu mdi,a fndfyduhlg fuka u .%dóh m%foaYj, uyd úoHd,j,g mjd 4 jk j.=fjys oelafjk .eg,q mj;sk nj mdi,a wëlaIKj,ska o ;yjqre j we;' fuu kd,sldj úêu;a j yd ie,iqï iy.; j keröug isiqka fhduq lsrSug by; .eg,q m%n, f,i u ndOd fjhs' úÿy,am;s ldurfha" mrs.Kl ldurfha fyda mdi,a mqia;ld,fha rEmjdysksh ia:dk.; l< mdi,a o fjhs' mshdfkdaj" mrs.Klh" rEmjdysksh we;=¿ úfYaIfhka iqrlaIs; l< hq;= mdi, i;= fN!;sl iïm;a ish,a, u úÿy,am;s ldurfha ;nd we;s mdi,la o m¾fhaIl úiska mdi,a wëlaIKhl oS y÷kd .kakd ,oS'

4'2 YsIH wjYH;d yd kd,sldfõ ixj¾Okh i|yd mdi,a j,ska ,o fhdackd

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90

6 jk m%ia;drh YsIH bf.kqï ,eoshd

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kd,sldj Ndú;h ms<sn|j mdi,a oekqj;a lsrSu

jevigykaj, .=Kd;aulNdjh jeä lsrSu

wdl¾IKSh yd by< Wiia >kfha jevigyka ksmoùu

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jevigyka bosrsm;a lsrSug jvd;a iqÿiq .=reNj;=ka f;dard.ekSu

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m%dfhda.sl mrSlaIK weiqrska b.ekaùu

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fou< udOH mdvï úldYh

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mka;s ldurfhka tyd .sh jevigyka ,ndoSu

l%Svd jeks cd;ssl ch.%yK jd¾;duh jevigyka bosrsm;a lsrSu

nqoaêhg l:dlrk jevigyka u.ska <uqka cd;Hka;rhg f.k hdu

olaI isiqka .ek jevigyka ieliSu

oskm;d ir< l:d lrk bx.%Sis jevigykla úldYh lsrSu

oskm;d l:d lrk fou< jevigykla úldYh lsrSu

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92

m¾fhaIK wkdjrK wkqj—keKi˜ wOHdmksl kd,sldfõ ixj¾Okhg yd Ndú;h by< kexùug wod< fhdackd 5 jk j.=fjka olajd we;' fuu kd,sldfõ úldYhg wdrïNfha isg u ùäfhda jevigyka ksIamdokh l< cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh úiska 2012 j¾Ifha oS l< iólaIKhla wkqj fuu kd,sldfõ ixj¾Okh yd Ndú;h by< kexùu i|yd y÷kd.;a woyia o wjOdkhg ,la lr we;' tf,i u 8 yd 9 rEm igykaj,ska m%;srEmKh jk YsIH úúO;ajh ksid u we;sjk bf.kqï <eoshd yd bf.kqï wNs,dIhkays úúO jQ jrKhkays wmQ¾j úÑ;%;ajh o wjOdkhg ,la lrk ,oS' 5'0 ks.uk yd fhdaackd —keKi˜ wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS kd,sldfõ l%shdldrS ;;a;ajh" tys .=Kd;aulNdjh" jevigyka ksIamdokh" jevigyka bosrsm;a lsrSu yd bf.kqï b.ekaùï ;dlaIKh Ndú;h jvd;a ixj¾Okh l< hq;= uÜgul mj;S' fuu kd,sldfõ M,odhS Ndú;h wju ùu flf¾ wdl¾IKSh fkdjk taldldrS wkaofï mdvï úldYh" mdvï bosrsm;a lsrSu kSri ùu" jeä mdvï m%udKhla iïm%odhdkql+, foaYk l%ufhka bosrsm;a lsrSu" l%shdldrS yd m%dfhda.sl bf.kqï wjia:d ysÕlu" jevigyka úúOdx.SlrKh fkdùu m%n, j n,md we;s nj kd,sldfõ .=Kd;aulNdjh yd Ndú;h by< kexùu i|yd fhdacs; woyiaj,ska meyeos,s fõ' ^5 jk j.=j&' ¥ria: wOHdmkh ms<sn| wOHhk yd m¾fhaIK wkdjrK wkqj YsIHhskaf.a" Y%djlhskaf.a wNs,dIhka .ek fkd;ld iSñ; wjldYhla ie,ls,a,g f.k mdvï ksmoùu" iEu úIhlg u yd b.ekaùulg u fhda.H mrsir fkdue;s ùu" ;sr msgm;a ,shkq ,nk msrsig rEmjdyskS jev igyka ksIamdokh ms<sn| we;s iSñ; w;aoelSï fya;==fjka ksmojkq ,nk mdvïj, ukd ksudjla fkdue;s ùu" lreKq rdYshla tl mdvulska bosrsm;a lsrSug lrk W;aidyfha m%;sM,h f,i b;d iq¿ lreKq m%udKhla Wlyd .; yels ùu" ljr wdldrfha mdvï bosrsm;a lrkafka o hkak meyeos,s j y÷kd fkd.ekSu" úúO PdhdrEm" o< igyka yd w¾: oelaùï rdYshla Ndú;h ksid mdvïj, wdl¾IKh wvq ùu iy jevigyka ixfhda.h iunr fkdùfuka krUkakka fjfyig m;aùu hk lreKq fya;=fjka fujka kd,sld u.ska bf.kqug isiqka f.a Wkkaÿj ySk

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1' kd,sldfõ .=Kd;aulNdjh by< kxjd,Su i|yd wjOdkh osh hq;= lreKq'

kj ;dlaIKhka Ndú;fha wjYH;dj yd jeo.;alu'

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wdh;kuh yd ixialD;sluh fjkia lsrSï'

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93

2' úldYh l< hq;= mdvï ljf¾o hkak ;lafiare lsrSu'

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mdi,aj, b,a,qu wkqj

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ld,Sk wOHdmk m%jK;d wkqj

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wod< udOH ;dlaIKhka ms<sn| j mqyqKq wjia:d ie,iSfuka mdvïj, ;;a;ajh yd Tjqkaf.a bosrsm;a lsrSïj, ;;a;ajh ld,Skj jeäoshqKq lsrSu

tla úIhlg m%udKj;a .=re msrsila fhdod.ekSfuka bosrsm;a lsrSïj, úúO;ajh jeälsrSu

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riúkaokd;aul .=Kh jeä lrñka nyqúO nqoaëka biau;= lsrSu b,lal lsrSu

5' —keKi˜ wOHdmksl rEmjdyskS kd,sldfõ .=Kd;aulNdjh by< kexùu i|yd rEmjdyskS udOH i|yd jevigyka ieliSfï fhfok w;aoelSï yd m<mqreoao iys; f;dard .;a úoaj;a lKavdhulf.a WmfoaYl;ajh ,nd.ekSu'

tu WmfoaYl;ajh hgf;a wOHdmkh i|yd rEmjdyskS udOH Ndú;h ms<sn| j jvd;a oekqj;a lKavdhula f;dardf.k Tjqka u.ska kd,sldfõ mj;sk ;;a;ajh ksjerosj y÷kd .ekSu yd b,lalh ks¾Kh lr .ekSu'

94

kd,sldfõ .=Kd;aulNdjh Wiia lsrSug wod< lreKq y÷kd.ekSug újD; fhdackd ,nd.ekSu yd w;aoelSï yqjudre i|yd tu fhdackd idlÉPdjg wjia:d ie,iSu'

rEmjdyskS udOH i|yd jevigyka ks¾udKhg m<mqreoao iys; WmfoaYl iydh ,nd.ekSfuka —keKi˜ kd,sldfõ úldYhg ljr úIhhka i|yd ljr wdldrfha mdvï ks¾udKh l< hq;= o hkakg tlÕ;ajhg t<öu'

ta wkqj jevigyka ixj¾Okh i|yd jvd;a fhda.H l%ufõoh ieliSfuka kd,sldfõ úldYh i|yd Wiia ;;a;ajfhka hq;= .=Kd;aul jevigyka ksIamdokh yd tu mdvï úldYfhka tys Ndú;h by< kexùug ie,iqï lsrSu'

6' kd,sldj iïnkaO m¾fhaIK lsrSug fhduq lsrSu wdY%s; .%ka: yd m¾fhaIK ,sms kdudj,sh cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh"^2012& keKi kd,sldj Nd tys Ndú;h ms<sn| j wkdjrKh lr.ekSug l< iólaIKfha jd¾;dj

Educational technology and conceptual dimention of distanceeducation.

Education by radio in American schools.

Aggression: A social learning analysis.

Observational learning. In A. Bandura, Social foundations ofthought and action

Television, learning and distance education.

Into distance higher education

Technology: Open learning and distance education

95

Using educational video in the classroom:Theory, research andpractice

Dale, E. (1969). Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching, 3rd ed., Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, p. 108.

Radio: The assistant teacher

To make producting and directing at television program

Distance Teaching Process and Print Materials.

Distance education. Trends and issues alerts

Distance Education Broadcasting in Developing and DevelopedCountries

Review of educational research, 61(2),

Teachingthrough radio and television.

Learning with technology: Evidence that technology can, anddoes, support learning

96

Handbook of research for educational communications and technology

Television for Learning: Our Foremost Tool in the 21st Century

Definition, History and Theory of Distance Education

Online universities teach knowledge beyond the books

Effects of the media to politic life

Learning: The treasure within

Instructional effectiveness of

video media

97

“Assessment of media literacy of the advance level students”(A study based on 1 AB schools in the Nallur division of Jaffna

educational zone)

Rasanayakam, J. Ph.D

Senior Lecturer, Department of Education, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka and

Rajeswaran, P B.A. (Hons), PGDE (Jaffna), M.A. Mass communication and Journalism, M.Ed. (Jaffna),

Dip.in media Lecturer, Jaffna National College of Education, Jaffna, Sri Lanka

Abstract in English

Keywords: Education, Media literacy, media

98

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crhj;Jiz tpguk;

Daley, E. (2003). Expanding the concept of literacy, Educause Review, pp. 32 – 40. Washington: D.C. (2006).National communication Association.

Jenkins, H. (2003) , media literacy beging at home, MIT Technology Review.

Media literacy, (2005), A Training manual for peace building, National peace council of Sri Lanka.

Media and information literacy curriculum for Teacher Education. Draft modules, (2009) UNESCO.

Introduction to media and Information literacy; media and you, (2009), mod.1, UNESCO.

Global media and information literacy Assessment frame work, (2013), united National Educational Scientific and cultural organization.

Everette, E. Reshaping the media, mass communication in an information age, SAGE Publications, New Delhi.

Cecillavan Feilitzon and catharing By cht, out looks on children and media UNESO international clearing house.

Media and information literacy curriculum for Teacher Education Training of Trainers workshop Hand outs, (2009), Colombo, Sri Lanka.

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Smart Quotes

Thomas Edison, Inventor

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Marilyn Monroe

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Bible – Mathew; cf: luke Ignorance / leadership

John F. Kennedy, 35thUS President