Editing and Revising Your Academic Writing University of ... ?· Editing and Revising Your Academic…

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  • EditingandRevisingYourAcademicWritingUniversityofBirmingham,3February2014SessionnotesThepresentationforthisworkshop,sessionnotesandaccompanyinghandoutareavailableonlineasPDFfilestodownloadat:https://intranet.birmingham.ac.uk/as/studentservices/graduateschool/skills/materials.aspx

    Intheeventofanyaccessproblems,pleasecontactSophiePumphrey,GraduateSchoolAdministrator,attheGraduateSchoolOffice:graduateschool@contacts.bham.ac.uk

    https://intranet.birmingham.ac.uk/as/studentservices/graduateschool/skills/materials.aspxhttps://intranet.birmingham.ac.uk/as/studentservices/graduateschool/skills/materials.aspxmailto:graduateschool@contacts.bham.ac.uk

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    StructurechecklistExaminethetextandconsiderthesequestions. Doestheargumentflow? Arethepointsrelated? Istheorderlogical? Doesthetextgooffatatangent? Areanyofthepointsirrelevant? Isthetextlabouringthepoint?Footnoteschecklist Isthepointgenuinelynecessary? Aretherealotoffootnotes?Toomanydistractthereader,andare

    avoidedinacademicwriting. Isthefootnotelong?Considerifthepointactuallyhasmoreweight:if

    so,putitinthemaintext.Ifnot,edititdown. Isessentialinformationfootnoted?Avoidsplittingimportantcontent

    (e.g.data,method)betweenthemaintextandnotes.

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    3

    Editinglongsentences

    OriginalDrawingacomparisonbetweenculturalworkasitisunderstoodandenactedwithinthestudioandasitisunderstoodandexperiencedwithincommercialindustrycontextssuchasentrylevelworkasarunnerhighlightsthetensionsandcontradictionsinprovidingauthenticcontextsandpracticesandtheextenttowhichculturalworkforceissuescanbeengagedwith.Itdoesnotnecessarilyrenderthestudiocontextredundantinbeingabletoaddressthesethough.

    EditedsolutionDrawingacomparisonbetweenculturalworkasitisunderstoodandenactedwithinthestudio,andasitisunderstoodandexperiencedwithincommercialindustrycontextssuchasentrylevelworkasarunner,highlightsthetensionsandcontradictionsinprovidingauthenticcontextsandpractices.Comparisonalsohighlightstheextenttowhichculturalworkforceissuescanbeengagedwith;however,itdoesnotnecessarilyrenderthestudiocontextredundantinbeingabletoaddressthese.

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    Editingstaccatosentences

    OriginalThefemalemusiciansexpressdisappointmentaboutreceivingsimilarcommentsfromotherwomen.Aclearrivalryexistsconcerningclaimsofauthenticity.Womenarerequiredtoprovetheirworthtothemenwhodominatetheculture,eveninrelationtootherwomen.Theneedleseyeofauthenticityseemssonarrowthatonlythosewithexceptionalmusicalabilitycanpassthrough.

    EditedsolutionThefemalemusiciansexpressdisappointmentaboutreceivingsimilarcommentsfromotherwomen.Aclearrivalryexistsconcerningclaimsofauthenticity:womenarerequiredtoprovetheirworthtothemenwhodominatetheculture,eveninrelationtootherwomen,andtheneedleseyeofauthenticityseemssonarrowthatonlythosewithexceptionalmusicalabilitycanpassthrough.

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    Activevs.passivespeech

    PassiveThehypothesiswassupportedbytheresultsoftheempiricalinvestigation.Itisimportanttogiveconsiderationtothefactorsinvolvedintheoperationoftheorganisationinordertoachievefullappreciationofthesituation.

    ActiveTheresultssupportedthehypothesis.Itisimportanttoconsiderthefactorsinvolvedinoperatingtheorganisationinordertoappreciatethesituationfully.

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    Repetitionofterms

    OriginalTheownersofsmallbusinessesclaimthatthereisnowaythatsmallbusinessescancompetewithmassivecompanieslikeTesco.Therearemanyreasonswhytheycannotcompetewiththesecompanies,suchasthefactthatsmallbusinessesdonothaveasmuchaccesstoadvertisingaslargebusinesseslikeTesco.Smallbusinessesalsohavelimitedhoursofoperationcomparedtolargebusinesses.Also,smallbusinesseshavefewerstaffandalackofspecializedstaff.Smallbusinessesalsohaveasmallerinventory,andhavingasmallinventorymeansthattheycannotlowerpricestotheextentthat

    largebusinesseslikeTescoreducetheirprices.EditedsolutionSmallbusinessownersclaimthatthereisnowaythatsmallbusinessescancompetewithmassivecompaniessuchasTesco:forexample,theydonothaveasmuchaccesstoadvertisingaslargebusinesses.Smallbusinesseshavelimitedhoursofoperationcomparedtolargebusinesses,fewerstaffandalackofspecialisedstaff.Theyalsohaveasmallerinventory,whichmeansthattheycannotlowerpricestothesameextentaslargebusinesses.

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    Overusingscarequotes

    OriginalThestudioislocatedinabuildingwithinaformerindustrialfactoryareadevelopedasacreativequarter.Thelivedexperiencesofthisenvironmentwerecrucialtothestudentexperience,andboundupwithhowstudentscouldunderstandthemselvesasstudentsbecomingculturalworkers.Overall,studentswereattunedtothewayinwhichthequarterwaspresentedasacreativeareabythemanagementcompanyrunningthewholequarter.

    EditedsolutionThestudioislocatedinabuildingwithinaformerindustrialfactoryareadevelopedasacreativequarter.Thelivedexperiencesofthisenvironmentwerecrucialtothestudentexperience,andboundupwithhowstudentscouldunderstandthemselvesasstudentsbecomingculturalworkers.Overall,studentswereattunedtothewayinwhichthequarterwaspresentedasacreativeareabythemanagementcompanyrunningthewholequarter.

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    Jargonandexcessiveabbreviation

    JargonOverthelastdecadefirmshavereconsideredtheirorganisationalboundaries,usingrelationshipswithexternalactorsasafulcruminthisstrategy,especiallywhenpursuingcontinuousinnovation.Mobilisingthemultiplicityofactorsinvolvedinthesameinnovationprojectistheconsequenceofthegrowingcomplexityandvarietyofresourcesneededtodevelopnewknowledge.Thisrenderstheexchangeof

    resourcesamongpartnersakeycomponentofinnovationandthenetworkrelationshipsbecomethedrivingforcebehindtheinnovativeprocesses.JargonandexcessiveabbreviationThePIdeclaredthattheROIoftheR&DinthisprojectwasinsufficienttomeetVCprescriptions,andthatQAprocedureswouldbenecessarytoensurejustifiableHEIoutputs.

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    Sourcequoteexamples:intextandreferencelist

    Printreference:SmithstatedthatJonesetal.sstudysupportedtheextantliteratureonmanagementinput(2012:256).SmithR(2012)Managementinput:AresponsetoJones.JournalofBusiness23(2):245267.Onlinereference:Smith(2012)statedthatJonesetal.sstudysupportedtheextantliteratureonmanagementinput.SmithR(2012)Managementinput:AresponsetoJonesetal.JournalofBusiness23(2).Availableat:www.journalofbusiness.co.uk/smith2012.pdf(accessed12August2012).SmithR(2012)Managementinput:AresponsetoJonesetal.JournalofBusiness.Epubaheadofprint,12August2012.DOI:1058324838.Fieldwork/participantquote:Asaseniormanagercommented:Iregularlysendourstaffoncourses,asIwantthemtoincreasetheirskillsitbenefitsthecompanyasawhole(Sarah,technicaldirector,CookFestPR).Personalcommunication/interview:Asaseniorstaffmembercommented:Imcommittedtothecontinuousprofessionaldevelopmentofmyteam(interviewwithJohnSmith,operationsdirector,ClothCo,12August2012).

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    Referenceschecklist

    Printoutthereferencelistandfirst,tickoffeveryreferenceinthetextagainstthelist.Then,checkthefollowing: Areallthetextualcitationslistedinthereferencelist/bibliography?

    Isanythingmissing? Doauthornamespellingsanddatesmatch? Iseveryentrybibliographicallycomplete? Arepagerangesornumbersincludedforchaptersandarticlesinprint

    references? Arewebaddressesanddatesaccessedincludedforonlinereferences? Arealltheonlinecitationscompleteandplacedinthereferencelist,not

    thenotes? Isthereferencingsystemorganisedalphabeticallyorchronologically? Isthereferencingsystemuniformandconsistentlyapplied? Hasthepublishersreferencingsystembeenused?

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    Howtoclearcopyright

    Theauthorisresponsibleforclearingcopyright,notthepublisher Findoutwhoholdscopyright,andcontactthemdirect Alwaysputpermissionsrequestsinwritingemailisfine Stateexactlywhatyouwanttoreproduceandwhere,andgivethecontext Bepreparedtopayareproductionfeeifnecessarypublishersdonot

    coverthecostofthis Keepthecorrespondenceonfile,andsendacopytothepublisher

    Ifyourpiecehasbeenacceptedforajournalandyouareunsureaboutreproducinganymaterial,contactthepublisher.Publishersrightsdepartmentsareexpertinthisarea,andcangiveyoudefinitiveadvice.

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    Consultinganeditor

    Professionaleditorscanadviseon:

    standardofEnglish

    languageissuesandgrammar

    structure

    presentation

    Editorscannotcheck,researchorcreatematerialforanyprojectleadingtoaqualification(e.g.masters,PhD).Theessayorthesismustbethestudentsownwork.

    Ifyouwouldlikeprofessionalhelpwithathesis,suchaseditingorproofreading,speaktoyouracademicsupervisorfirstandgetauthorisationtodoso.

    Editorswillrequestyoutoconfirmthatyouhavedonethisbeforetakingonathesis.

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    FormattingandpresentingyourWordfileforsubmissiontoapublisher

    DosandDonts

    GeneralDobeawarethatthewaythatamanuscriptlooksandisformattedinWordwillnotbethesameastheprintedpage.

    Dokeepformattingsimplejustusewordsandspaces.TimesNewRoman12pt,1.5linespacingisagoodstandardfontandspacingtouse.

    Dontmakethedocumentlookfinishedordesignedavoidputtinginheaders,footers,fancyfontsandsizesoranyunnecessaryembellishment.Allofthisformattingwillneedtobestrippedoutfortypesetting,soputtingitincreatesextraworkforthepublisher.

    Donttabrepeatedlytomakethelayoutlookrightespeciallyinreferencesections.Instead,usetheIndentfacilityinWordwherenecessary.Beawarethattabswillnotappearinthesameplaceontheprintedpage,creatingoddgapsinthetexttheywillneedtobestrippedoutbythepublisher.

    Donttypetwospacesafterafullstoporanypunctuationonespaceisfine.

    DonthitthereturnkeyattheendofeachlinejustkeeptypingandallowWordtowrapthetextontothenextlineautomatically.

    DonthitthereturnkeyrepeatedlytogettothenextpageusethePageBreakfacilityinWordtocreateanewpage(CTRL+ENTER).UseSectionBreakifyouneedtochangethepageformatforexample,fromportraittolandscape.

    Dontusethespacebartoindenttext,ortocreateothereffectsusetheIndentfacilityinWordorotherformattingtocreatethedesiredeffect.

    Doleavemarginsaroundthetext,butnottoolarge.Thesedays,mostmanuscriptsareeditedonscreenratherthanonpaper,sothereisnoneedtoleavealotofspaceforphysicalmarkup.

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    Doinsertpagenumbersatthetoprighthandsideofthedocument,includingthefirstpage.

    Dontpresentfootnotesinstead,supplyendnotes.Duringtheeditingprocess,notesaremovedtotheendofthefilefortypesetting(eveniftheywillreverttofootnotesintheprintedpublication).

    Docheckifthepublicationusesnumberedheadings,ifsubmittingtoajournalmanydont.

    TablesandfiguresDousethetablefacilityinWord.Dontusethespacebar,tabbingortheColumnfacilitytocreatetables,asthiscauseslayoutproblemsandwillnottranslatetotheprintedpage.

    Dopresenttablesandfigureswithacueinthetext,e.g.:

    Table1showsthedataforTheresultsofstatisticalanalysisarepresentedhere(Figure2)

    Dosupplyfiguresandtablesinaseparatefiletothemainmanuscript,andlabeleachwithashortcaption.

    Doindicatewheretablesandfiguresshouldbeplacedinthetextbyinsertingcalloutsinsquarebracketsonanewline,e.g.:

    [Table1abouthere][Figure2abouthere]

    Dontplacenotestotables/figuresinthemainfootnotesorendnotespositionthemdirectlybelowthetable/figure.

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