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EDEXCEL GCSE Music Revision How to use this booklet: Set Work Mind Maps Revise the mind map for each set work to give you all the information you need to talk about them in the exam. These are colour coded for the grade you are aiming for. MAD TSHIRT Knowledge Organisers Revise these to make sure you know what vocabulary the question is asking for and the types of answers you can give. This is how you turn an open question into a multiple choice Set Work Context Grids These will give you the background and common conventions of the style of each set work so you can make A04 points (the why part of the exam questions)

EDEXCEL GCSE Music Revision - Debenham High School...EDEXCEL GCSE Music Revision How to use this booklet: • Set Work Mind Maps Revise the mind map for each set work to give you all

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Text of EDEXCEL GCSE Music Revision - Debenham High School...EDEXCEL GCSE Music Revision How to use this...

  • EDEXCELGCSEMusicRevision

    Howtousethisbooklet:

    • SetWorkMindMapsRevisethemindmapforeachsetworktogiveyoualltheinformationyouneedtotalkaboutthemintheexam.Thesearecolourcodedforthegradeyouareaimingfor.

    • MADTSHIRTKnowledgeOrganisersRevisethesetomakesureyouknowwhatvocabularythequestionisaskingforandthetypesofanswersyoucangive.Thisishowyouturnanopenquestionintoamultiplechoice

    • SetWorkContextGridsThesewillgiveyouthebackgroundandcommonconventionsofthestyleofeachsetworksoyoucanmakeA04points(thewhypartoftheexamquestions)

  • Exam Strategies & Tips

    How many marks is the question worth?

    Always check how many marks the question is worth! If it is worth 2 marks, make 2 points. If it is worth more than 2 marks you need to make that number of points AND justify answer with an

    A04 point (evaluate your answer – what makes you think this?)

    Melody?

    Does it go up or down (ascending or descending)? Does it move by small steps (conjunct) or big leaps (disjunct) Does the melody use a small range or a wide range of notes (lowest to highest)?

    Dynamics?

    1) How loud is it? Forte (loud), Mezzo Forte (middle), Piano (quiet) 2) How does it change? Crescendo (getting louder), Diminuendo (getting quieter),

    Terraced dynamics (suddenly changes)

    Tempo?

    Fast (allegro), moderate (moderato), or slow (largo) Does it get faster (accel.) or get slower (rall.)

    Harmony?

    90% of the time it will be Consonant – the notes fit together nicely Are the notes that sound odd or crunchy? Then it has chromatic notes! Is there a long held note in the background? This is a Drone! How quickly do the chords change? This is called Harmonic rhythm

    Cadence?

    If in any doubt, always put Perfect Cadence! If they ask you about two cadences, put Perfect Cadence for both – it will be correct for at least one of

    them!

  • Tonality?

    90% of the time it is Major (happy) or Minor (sad) Atonal will NEVER be the correct answer! EVER! Modal is only ever used for Release by Afro Celt Sound System

    Rhythm?

    Is it constantly repeating or changing? Is it Straight (on the beat) or Swung (a bit jazzy)? Which note value is most common (crotchets, quavers, semiquavers)?

    Metre/Time Signature?

    If in doubt put the most common answer: 4/4

    Texture?

    If in doubt put the most common answer: Melody Dominated Homophony

    Essay?

    PLAN IT! The examiner will mark this and try to give you as many marks as possible! Make sure it is clear and uses the table format from class

    If you are aiming for a 5 or lower use bullet points making a clear point and describe its effect If you are aiming for grade 6 or higher use PEAR: Point, Evidence, Analyse, Relate

    Essay Plan? Use this format – They will mark this so be detailed and grab extra marks!

    Familiar Element 1

    Familiar Element 2

    Unfamiliar element 1 Unfamiliar element 2

  • Essay Planning Document

    .

    Grade 1 – 5

    Bullet points

    A03 comment and the effect created (A04) for piece 1 A03 comment and the effect created (A04) for piece 2

    Grade 6

    Point (A03) A Baroque feature that Purcell uses in his text setting is word painting with the use of melismas on important words… Evidence (A03) …such as ‘wondring’ and ‘pains’.

    Analysis (A04) The melisma on ‘wondring’ draws out that word, as if the person is actually taking the time to wonder how the person’s ‘pains were eas’d’. Relate The other piece, Linden Lea, is mainly syllabic in its text setting.

    Grade 8+

    Point (A03) A Baroque feature that Purcell uses in his text setting is word painting with the use of melismas on important words… Evidence (A03) …such as ‘wondring’ and ‘pains’.

    Analysis (A04) The melisma on ‘wondring’ draws out that word, as if the person is actually taking the time to wonder how the person’s ‘pains were eas’d’. Relate Linden Lea is predominantly syllabic in its text setting. It does, however, also contain many examples of word painting.

    Evidence(A03) For example, on ‘lean down low’ the melody always falls…

    Analysis (A04) …which mirrors the way the branches are weighed down with apples.

    Familiar Element 1 Familiar Element 2

    Unfamiliar element 1 Unfamiliar element 2

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  • Texture'–Kn

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  • Harm

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  • Instrumen

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  • BA

    CH—

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    AN

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    CER

    TO N

    o 5

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    VEM

    ENT

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    ME

    LOD

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    Lots

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    emen

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    time)

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    calic

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    s gra

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    giat

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    trill

    s

    TON

    ALI

    TY

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    mai

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    y fo

    r the

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    ce is

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    final

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    maj

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    es o

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    min

    ant

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    ajor

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    dom

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    t of t

    he

    dom

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    t (E

    maj

    or),

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    cate

    d by

    the

    ad

    ditio

    n of

    acc

    iden

    tals.

    HA

    RM

    ON

    Y

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    ony

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    stan

    dard

    cho

    rds o

    f the

    tim

    e

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    mus

    ic is

    dia

    toni

    c (a

    ll th

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    chor

    ds c

    ome

    from

    th

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    y sig

    natu

    re)

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    ect c

    aden

    ces

    anno

    unce

    the

    ends

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    ectio

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    uch

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    rfec

    t cad

    ence

    in B

    min

    or a

    t the

    end

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    he B

    se

    ction

    . Th

    e ha

    rmon

    y us

    es st

    anda

    rd c

    hord

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    he ti

    me

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    nly

    chor

    ds I,

    IV a

    nd V

    , with

    occ

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    nal u

    se o

    f ii a

    nd v

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    harm

    ony

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    nctio

    nal (

    perf

    ect c

    aden

    ces a

    re u

    sed

    to m

    ove

    betw

    een

    clos

    ely

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    ted

    key

    signa

    ture

    s).

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    harm

    ony

    uses

    mai

    nly

    root

    pos

    ition

    and

    firs

    t

    in

    vers

    ion

    chor

    ds.

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    e ar

    e oc

    casio

    nal s

    uspe

    nsio

    ns.

    SON

    OR

    ITY

    /IN

    STR

    UM

    EN

    TS

    This

    piec

    e us

    es a

    solo

    flut

    e an

    d vi

    olin

    , a h

    arps

    icho

    rd, a

    nd a

    strin

    g or

    -ch

    estr

    a (in

    clud

    ing

    viol

    in, v

    iola

    , cel

    lo a

    nd d

    oubl

    e ba

    ss)

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    grou

    p of

    solo

    inst

    rum

    ents

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    lin, fl

    ute

    and

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    rd) a

    re k

    now

    n as

    the

    conc

    ertin

    o.

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    strin

    g or

    ches

    tra

    are

    know

    n as

    the

    ripie

    no.

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    bass

    /cel

    lo a

    nd h

    arps

    icho

    rd so

    meti

    mes

    act

    as t

    he b

    asso

    con

    tuin

    o in

    th

    e pi

    ece.

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    s mea

    ns th

    e ba

    ss in

    stru

    men

    ts p

    lay

    a ba

    ss li

    ne, a

    nd th

    e ha

    rpsic

    hord

    “re

    alis

    es”

    the

    chor

    ds o

    n to

    p (w

    hen

    it is

    not p

    layi

    ng a

    solo

    pa

    rt)

    Bach

    bro

    ke w

    ith tr

    aditi

    on in

    this

    piec

    e by

    mak

    ing

    the

    harp

    sicho

    rd p

    art

    incr

    edib

    ly v

    irtuo

    sic (d

    ifficu

    lt an

    d im

    pres

    sive!

    ), w

    ith lo

    ts o

    f fas

    t sca

    lic

    runs

    and

    trill

    s in

    both

    han

    ds a

    t onc

    e.

    The

    baro

    que

    flute

    is d

    iffer

    ent f

    rom

    the

    mod

    ern

    flute

    , as i

    t was

    mad

    e of

    w

    ood.

    TEX

    TUR

    E

    The

    text

    ure

    is po

    lyph

    onic

    (mor

    e th

    an o

    ne m

    elod

    y

    ha

    ppen

    ing

    at th

    e sa

    me

    time)

    Th

    ere

    is us

    e of

    imita

    tion

    (whe

    n on

    e pa

    rt i

    mita

    tes

    anot

    her i

    n a

    call

    and

    resp

    onse

    styl

    e)

    The

    mov

    emen

    t beg

    ins i

    n a

    fuga

    l sty

    le. A

    fugu

    e is

    a

    co

    mpl

    icat

    ed p

    iece

    whi

    ch u

    ses l

    ots o

    f im

    itatio

    n

    th

    roug

    hout

    . Thi

    s mov

    emen

    t is n

    ot a

    n ac

    tual

    fugu

    e, b

    ut it

    us

    es fu

    gal t

    echn

    ique

    s, li

    ke th

    e st

    art o

    f the

    ope

    ning

    A

    secti

    on.

    Som

    etim

    es th

    e so

    lo fl

    ute

    and

    viol

    in p

    lay

    the

    sam

    e th

    ing

    in u

    niso

    n

    Whe

    n th

    e flu

    te a

    nd v

    iolin

    com

    e in

    at t

    he st

    art,

    they

    are

    pl

    ayin

    g in

    two

    part

    imita

    tion.

    W

    hen

    the

    harp

    sicho

    rd c

    omes

    in a

    t the

    star

    t, it

    play

    s the

    su

    bjec

    t in

    the

    left

    hand

    , the

    n th

    e an

    swer

    in th

    e rig

    ht.

    The

    harp

    sicho

    rd p

    lays

    in 2

    par

    t cou

    nter

    poin

    t. O

    nce

    all s

    olo

    inst

    rum

    ents

    are

    pla

    ying

    , the

    y ar

    e pl

    ayin

    g in

    4

    part

    cou

    nter

    poin

    t. O

    ccas

    iona

    lly th

    e flu

    te a

    nd v

    iolin

    pla

    y in

    third

    s.

    At th

    e st

    art o

    f the

    B se

    ction

    ther

    e is

    a to

    nic

    peda

    l on

    B

    BA

    CK

    GR

    OU

    ND

    INFO

    RM

    ATI

    ON

    Th

    is pi

    ece

    was

    writt

    en in

    the

    Baro

    que

    era.

    Ba

    ch w

    rote

    a se

    t of s

    ix c

    once

    rtos

    for t

    he M

    argr

    ave

    of

    Bran

    denb

    urg

    as p

    art o

    f a jo

    b ap

    plic

    ation

    .

    This

    is a

    conc

    erto

    gro

    sso.

    A so

    lo c

    once

    rto

    has j

    ust o

    ne

    solo

    ist, b

    ut a

    con

    cert

    o gr

    osso

    has

    a g

    roup

    of s

    oloi

    sts

    (the

    con

    certi

    no)

    This

    is th

    e th

    ird o

    f thr

    ee m

    ovem

    ents

    in th

    e co

    ncer

    to.

    This

    is ch

    ambe

    r mus

    ic, w

    ritten

    for a

    smal

    l gro

    up o

    f mus

    i-ci

    ans r

    athe

    r tha

    n a

    full

    orch

    estr

    a

    RH

    YH

    M, T

    EM

    PO

    an

    d M

    ETR

    E

    The

    met

    re is

    2/4

    . Th

    e pi

    ece

    uses

    lots

    of t

    riple

    ts a

    nd d

    otted

    rhyt

    hms.

    The

    harp

    sicho

    rd p

    art h

    as lo

    ts o

    f fas

    t sem

    iqua

    ver r

    uns.

    The

    first

    mel

    ody

    idea

    (sub

    ject

    ) sta

    rts w

    ith a

    n an

    acru

    sis.

    Beca

    use

    of th

    e la

    rge

    num

    ber o

    f trip

    lets

    , the

    pie

    ce c

    ould

    al

    so b

    e no

    tate

    d in

    6/8

    tim

    e.

    In th

    e ba

    roqu

    e er

    a th

    e do

    tted

    quav

    er-s

    emiq

    uave

    r gr

    oupi

    ng (l

    ike

    in th

    e fir

    st b

    ar) w

    ould

    hav

    e be

    en

    pe

    rfor

    med

    in tr

    iple

    t rhy

    thm

    (with

    the

    dotte

    d qu

    aver

    la

    sting

    2/3

    of a

    bea

    t, an

    d th

    e se

    miq

    uave

    r las

    ting

    1/3

    or

    a be

    at.

    DY

    NA

    MIC

    S Th

    ere

    are

    only

    a fe

    w d

    ynam

    ic

    mar

    king

    s on

    the

    scor

    e, a

    nd th

    ese

    are

    ther

    e m

    ostly

    for b

    alan

    ce re

    a-so

    ns, l

    ike

    havi

    ng th

    e vi

    olin

    pla

    y qu

    iete

    r so

    the

    flute

    can

    be

    hear

    d

    Ther

    e ar

    e no

    dyn

    amic

    mar

    king

    s fo

    r the

    har

    psic

    hord

    , bec

    ause

    the

    harp

    sicho

    rd u

    sed

    in th

    is pi

    ece

    wou

    ld n

    ot h

    ave

    been

    abl

    e va

    ried

    dyna

    mic

    s, it

    stay

    ed a

    t one

    vol

    ume

    KEY

    3

    Gra

    de

    5 G

    rade

    8

    Gra

    de

    STR

    UC

    TUR

    E

    The

    piec

    e is

    in te

    rnar

    y fo

    rm (A

    BA)

    The

    open

    ing

    A se

    ction

    beg

    ins i

    n a

    fuga

    l sty

    le.

    The

    B se

    ction

    is in

    the

    rela

    tive

    min

    or k

    ey, a

    nd c

    on-

    tain

    s a n

    ew th

    eme

    whi

    ch is

    sim

    ilar t

    o th

    e fir

    st

    them

    e in

    the

    A se

    ction

    . The

    re a

    re a

    lso fr

    agm

    ents

    of

    the

    A se

    ction

    them

    e in

    the

    B se

    ction

    .

    A w

    oode

    n ba

    roqu

    e flu

    te

  • Context:Bran

    denb

    urgCo

    ncertoNo.5(m

    ovem

    ent3

    )

    Melody–Articulation–Dynamics–Tempo–Structure–Harm

    ony–Instrumentation–Rhythm-Texture

    Baroqu

    eCo

    ncertoCon

    ventions

    M

    ⇒ Mainlyusescon

    junct(stepwise)movementandanydisjunctleapsareusuallyquitesmallintervals(4thsor5ths)

    ⇒ Scalicru

    nsandse

    quen

    cesa

    reusedregularlytoshowoffthesoloists

    ⇒ Melodiesareoftendecoratedwithornam

    entssu

    chastrillsa

    ndapp

    ogiaturas(gracenotes

    A D

    ⇒ Theharpsicho

    rdonlyhadonepossiblevolumesodynamicswereimpossibleontheinstrument

    ⇒ Terraced

    dyn

    amicsw

    erecommonwheredynamicschangesuddenlywithoutacrescen

    doordiminue

    ndoleadinginto

    them

    ⇒ Dynamicswereusedforpracticalreasons(tom

    akesureeverythingcanbeheard)ratherthantocreateanyemotion

    (expressioninm

    usiccamem

    uchlater)

    T ⇒

    Doesnotuseextremelyfastspeeds–m

    ostBaroquem

    usicshouldbeabletobedan

    cedto

    ⇒ Tempooftennotevenm

    arkedonthescoresoperform

    erswouldassumethespeedfromthem

    usicalstyle

    S

    ⇒ BaroqueconcertosareusuallyinTerna

    ryForm(ABA)withtheBsectionbeingm

    adeupofentirelynewm

    aterial

    ⇒ Fugu

    eisacommonstructure–acomplicatedtypeofcann

    onwherepartsimitateoneanotherinasystemofstrict

    rules

    H

    ⇒ Theto

    nalitywillbestableandonlym

    odulatetocloselyre

    latedkeyssu

    chasthedom

    inan

    t(V)orrelativ

    emajor/m

    inorandthesewillbem

    arkedbyperfectcad

    ences

    ⇒ Harm

    onyiswrittenoutinfigu

    redba

    sswhichtheharpsichordthenre

    alises

    ⇒ Usesm

    ainlyprim

    arychordsI,IVandV(withsomeuseofiiandvi)

    ⇒ Them

    usicisalwaysdiatonicandtheharm

    onyisfu

    nctio

    nal

    I

    ⇒ Noorchestrasaswethinkofthemtoday,insteadm

    ostpieceswerecha

    mbe

    rmusic(forasmallensembleof

    musicians)

    ⇒ TraditionalBaroqueconcertoswouldfeatureoneortw

    osoloviolin

    s(ratherthanwoodwindsoloists)whichwere

    accompaniedbyastringorchestra(agroupofstringplayers)andcon

    tinuo

    ⇒ Alm

    ostallBaroqueinstrumentalmusicfeaturedtheBassoCon

    tinuo

    whichwasm

    adeupofaBassViol(providingthe

    bass)andHarpsichord(whichplayedalsoplayedthebassaswellasre

    alisingchordsintherighthand)

    ⇒ Thesoloistsweregroupedtogetherintothecon

    certinoandtheaccompanim

    entwerecalledtheripien

    o R

    ⇒ Frequentlyusesdottedrhythm

    sandtripletsasthiswasacommonpatternindan

    cefo

    rms

    ⇒ Re

    peated

    qua

    versorsemiqua

    versintheharpsichord–anessentialfeatureasitcannotsustainlongnotes

    T⇒

    Po

    lyph

    onicwriting(alsocalledcou

    nterpo

    int)wasthem

    aintextureofthebaroqueperiod(lotsofinterw

    eaving

    melodylines)

    ⇒ An

    tipho

    naleffectsarecreatedwhentheripien

    o(stringorchestra)alternateswiththecon

    certino(soloists)

    ⇒ Fugaltexturesareheardwhenpartsim

    itateoneanotherincan

    on

    J.S.B

    achBa

    ckgrou

    nd

    • J.S.Bachwasoneofthegreatestcomposersofthe

    Baroqu

    eperiod

    • Hecomposedthispiecewhileemployedasa‘court

    musicdirector’fortheestateofPrinceLeopold

    • Bach’sbackgroundwasm

    ainlyasacomposerof

    churchm

    usic,butLeopoldwantedse

    cular(non-

    religious)musictobeperform

    edtoinvitedguestsand

    dignitariesinthegrandroomsofhiscastle

    • BachcomposedsixBrandenburgconcertosintotal

    A04

  • ME

    LOD

    Y

    The

    mai

    n th

    emes

    in th

    e pi

    ece

    are

    the

    first

    and

    seco

    nd

    them

    es, p

    lus t

    he si

    x no

    te ri

    sing

    idea

    from

    the

    intr

    oduc

    tion.

    Th

    e fir

    st th

    eme

    (or s

    ubje

    ct) i

    s a ri

    sing,

    scal

    ic th

    eme.

    Th

    e se

    cond

    them

    e (o

    r sub

    ject

    ) fea

    ture

    s a th

    eme

    whi

    ch ri

    ses

    then

    falls

    , inc

    ludi

    ng u

    se o

    f orn

    amen

    ts.

    Ther

    e ar

    e a

    num

    ber o

    f sca

    lic p

    assa

    ges i

    n th

    e pi

    ece,

    incl

    udin

    g th

    e de

    scen

    ding

    chr

    omati

    c sc

    ale

    at th

    e en

    d of

    the

    intr

    oduc

    tion.

    Oth

    er m

    elod

    ic id

    eas i

    nclu

    de a

    rpeg

    gios

    and

    br

    oken

    cho

    rds.

    O

    rnam

    ents

    are

    an

    impo

    rtan

    t par

    t of t

    he m

    elod

    y, in

    clud

    ing

    acci

    acca

    tura

    s and

    mor

    dent

    s in

    them

    e 2,

    and

    trill

    s jus

    t bef

    ore

    the

    reca

    pitu

    latio

    n.

    The

    deve

    lopm

    ent u

    ses i

    deas

    from

    the

    first

    them

    e in

    lots

    of

    diffe

    rent

    key

    s. It

    use

    s seq

    uenc

    es.

    TON

    ALI

    TY

    The

    piec

    e is

    in th

    e ke

    y of

    C m

    inor

    (as m

    entio

    ned

    in th

    e tit

    le o

    f the

    pie

    ce!)

    The

    mus

    ic m

    odul

    ates

    to d

    iffer

    ent k

    eys i

    n th

    e

    de

    velo

    pmen

    t sec

    tion

    The

    first

    subj

    ect i

    s in

    C m

    inor

    . The

    seco

    nd su

    bjec

    t sta

    rts

    in th

    e un

    expe

    cted

    key

    of E

    b m

    inor

    , the

    n m

    oves

    to th

    e ex

    pect

    ed k

    ey o

    f Eb

    maj

    or (t

    he re

    lativ

    e m

    ajor

    of C

    min

    or)

    In th

    e de

    velo

    pmen

    t the

    pie

    ce m

    odul

    ates

    to m

    any

    di

    ffere

    nt k

    eys,

    incl

    udin

    g di

    stan

    t, un

    rela

    ted

    keys

    such

    as

    E m

    inor

    (at t

    he st

    art o

    f the

    dev

    elop

    men

    t)

    In th

    e re

    capi

    tula

    tion

    the

    first

    subj

    ect i

    s bac

    k in

    C m

    inor

    . Th

    e se

    cond

    subj

    ect i

    nitia

    lly p

    lays

    in th

    e un

    expe

    cted

    key

    of

    F m

    inor

    , the

    n m

    oves

    to th

    e ex

    pect

    ed k

    ey o

    f C m

    inor

    (t

    o m

    atch

    the

    key

    of th

    e fir

    st su

    bjec

    t)

    F m

    inor

    is th

    e su

    bdom

    inan

    t of C

    min

    or.

    Perf

    ect c

    aden

    ces c

    onfir

    m ch

    ange

    s of k

    ey th

    roug

    hout

    .

    HA

    RM

    ON

    Y

    The

    harm

    ony

    is m

    ainl

    y di

    aton

    ic, a

    nd m

    ainl

    y us

    es st

    anda

    rd c

    hord

    s of t

    he

    time.

    Th

    ere

    are

    also

    som

    e m

    ore

    diss

    onan

    t, co

    mpl

    icat

    ed c

    hord

    s.

    Ther

    e ar

    e so

    me

    mor

    e co

    mpl

    icat

    ed, c

    hrom

    atic

    chor

    ds u

    sed,

    incl

    udin

    g a

    dim

    inis

    hed

    seve

    nth

    at th

    e st

    art o

    f bar

    2. T

    his i

    s the

    mos

    t dis

    sona

    nt

    chor

    d av

    aila

    ble

    to B

    eeth

    oven

    at t

    he ti

    me.

    Pe

    rfec

    t cad

    ence

    s an

    noun

    ce th

    e en

    ds o

    f sec

    tions

    and

    cha

    nges

    of k

    ey.

    This

    is ca

    lled

    func

    tiona

    l har

    mon

    y. T

    here

    are

    big

    per

    fect

    cad

    ence

    s at t

    he

    end

    of th

    e pi

    ece.

    Th

    ere

    are

    peda

    l not

    es, l

    ike

    the

    dom

    inan

    t ped

    al a

    t the

    end

    of t

    he

    deve

    lopm

    ent s

    ectio

    n (d

    omin

    ant p

    repa

    ratio

    n).

    Ther

    e is

    an in

    terr

    upte

    d ca

    denc

    e in

    the

    intr

    oduc

    tion

    at b

    ar 9

    The

    harm

    ony

    uses

    stan

    dard

    cho

    rds o

    f the

    tim

    e (m

    ainl

    y ch

    ords

    I, IV

    and

    V,

    with

    occ

    asio

    nal u

    se o

    f ii a

    nd v

    i) Th

    e ha

    rmon

    y us

    es m

    ainl

    y ro

    ot p

    ositi

    on a

    nd fi

    rst i

    nver

    sion

    chor

    ds.

    Ther

    e ar

    e do

    min

    ant 7

    th c

    hord

    s at c

    aden

    ces.

    Th

    ere

    are

    occa

    siona

    l sus

    pens

    ions

    (inc

    ludi

    ng 9

    -8 su

    spen

    sions

    ) Th

    ere

    is a

    circ

    le o

    f fifth

    s pro

    gres

    sion

    in b

    ars 2

    44-2

    49.

    Anot

    her c

    hrom

    atic

    chor

    d us

    ed is

    the

    augm

    ente

    d six

    th c

    hord

    , use

    d in

    bar

    30

    .

    SON

    OR

    ITY

    /IN

    STR

    UM

    EN

    TS

    This

    piec

    e is

    writt

    en fo

    r the

    pia

    no.

    Unl

    ike

    a ha

    rpsic

    hord

    , the

    pia

    no c

    an p

    lay

    both

    loud

    an

    d so

    ft.

    Alth

    ough

    it is

    not

    writt

    en in

    the

    scor

    e, B

    eeth

    oven

    w

    ould

    hav

    e us

    e th

    e su

    stai

    n pe

    dal f

    or g

    reat

    er

    ex

    pres

    sion.

    Th

    e pi

    ano

    allo

    wed

    Bee

    thov

    en to

    mak

    e ex

    tens

    ive

    use

    of a

    ll ki

    nds o

    f d

    ynam

    ic p

    ossib

    ilitie

    s. T

    his s

    onat

    a ha

    s lo

    ts o

    f cre

    scen

    dos,

    dim

    inue

    ndos

    and

    lots

    of o

    ther

    dy

    nam

    ic m

    arki

    ngs.

    This

    piec

    e w

    as w

    ritten

    for t

    he fo

    rtep

    iano

    , whi

    ch

    cam

    e be

    fore

    the

    mor

    e m

    oder

    n pi

    anof

    orte

    . It h

    ad a

    sm

    alle

    r ran

    ge a

    nd w

    as n

    ot c

    apab

    le o

    f as m

    uch

    dyna

    mic

    con

    tras

    t as a

    mod

    ern

    pian

    o.

    TEX

    TUR

    E

    The

    text

    ure

    is m

    ainl

    y ho

    mop

    honi

    c

    Ther

    e is

    a m

    onop

    honi

    c se

    ction

    with

    a lo

    ng d

    esce

    ndin

    g sc

    ale

    lead

    ing

    into

    the

    reca

    pitu

    latio

    n Th

    e rig

    ht h

    and

    play

    s in

    octa

    ves h

    alf w

    ay th

    roug

    h th

    e

    intr

    oduc

    tion

    The

    intr

    o is

    hom

    opho

    nic

    with

    all

    the

    note

    s pla

    ying

    toge

    ther

    in

    cho

    rds.

    Thi

    s is k

    now

    n as

    a h

    omop

    honi

    c ch

    orda

    l tex

    ture

    . Th

    ere

    is a

    two

    part

    text

    ure

    with

    mel

    ody

    and

    brok

    en c

    hord

    s in

    the

    seco

    nd (E

    b m

    ajor

    ) ide

    a of

    the

    seco

    nd su

    bjec

    t (ba

    r 93

    )

    BA

    CK

    GR

    OU

    ND

    INFO

    RM

    ATI

    ON

    Th

    is is

    a pi

    ece

    of m

    usic

    from

    the

    clas

    sical

    era

    . Cl

    assic

    al m

    usic

    has

    cle

    ar, c

    atch

    y m

    elod

    ies a

    nd

    ho

    mop

    honi

    c te

    xtur

    es .

    A pi

    ano

    sona

    ta is

    a p

    iece

    for s

    olo

    pian

    o. It

    has

    seve

    ral

    mov

    emen

    ts—

    we

    are

    stud

    ying

    mov

    emen

    t 1.

    Beet

    hove

    n w

    as a

    forw

    ard

    thin

    king

    com

    pose

    r, an

    d th

    is pi

    ece

    show

    s sig

    ns o

    f the

    rom

    antic

    era

    . Th

    is pi

    ece

    was

    com

    pose

    d be

    twee

    n 17

    96 a

    nd 1

    799.

    Rom

    antic

    mus

    ic is

    all

    abou

    t exp

    ress

    ing

    emoti

    ons.

    It

    does

    this

    thro

    ugh

    mor

    e dr

    amati

    c us

    e of

    dyn

    amic

    s,

    use

    of th

    e su

    stai

    n pe

    dal o

    n th

    e pi

    ano,

    mor

    e co

    mpl

    ex,

    chro

    mati

    c ha

    rmon

    y, a

    nd m

    ore

    com

    plex

    , alte

    red

    stru

    ctur

    es (l

    ike

    how

    Bee

    thov

    en a

    lters

    sona

    ta fo

    rm in

    th

    is pi

    ece)

    .

    RH

    YH

    M, T

    EM

    PO

    an

    d M

    ETR

    E

    The

    intr

    oduc

    tion

    is gr

    ave

    (ver

    y slo

    w),

    and

    the

    met

    re is

    4/4

    (c

    omm

    on ti

    me)

    Th

    e m

    ain

    tem

    po fo

    r the

    rest

    of t

    he p

    iece

    is v

    ery

    fast

    .

    The

    mai

    n te

    mpo

    for t

    he p

    iece

    is a

    llegr

    o di

    mol

    to e

    con

    brio

    (v

    ery

    fast

    with

    vig

    our)

    , and

    is w

    ritten

    in 2

    /2 (c

    ut c

    omm

    on

    time,

    also

    kno

    wn

    as a

    lla b

    reve

    ) Th

    ere

    are

    som

    e ve

    ry ra

    pid

    note

    s (sh

    ort n

    ote

    valu

    es)

    Ther

    e ar

    e so

    me

    very

    rapi

    d no

    tes (

    shor

    t not

    e va

    lues

    ),

    in

    clud

    ing

    sept

    uple

    ts a

    nd 1

    /128

    th n

    otes

    in b

    ar 1

    0

    DY

    NA

    MIC

    S Th

    is pi

    ece

    has a

    wid

    e ra

    nge

    of d

    ynam

    ics,

    from

    ve

    ry q

    uiet

    (pp)

    to v

    ery

    loud

    (ff)

    Ther

    e ar

    e cr

    esce

    ndos

    (getti

    ng lo

    uder

    ) and

    de

    cres

    cend

    os (g

    etting

    qui

    eter

    )

    The

    intr

    o us

    es fp

    (for

    tepi

    ano)

    mar

    king

    s,

    m

    eani

    ng lo

    ud th

    en im

    med

    iate

    ly so

    ft).

    It al

    so u

    ses s

    f (sf

    orza

    ndo)

    mar

    king

    s, m

    eani

    ng a

    su

    dden

    loud

    acc

    ent.

    Dyna

    mic

    s mar

    king

    s in

    the

    piec

    e ar

    e us

    ed

    ex

    pres

    sive

    ly, s

    how

    ing

    Beet

    hove

    n an

    ticip

    ating

    ro

    man

    tic e

    ra m

    usic

    STR

    UC

    TUR

    E

    The

    piec

    e is

    in so

    nata

    form

    So

    nata

    form

    con

    sists

    of a

    n in

    trod

    uctio

    n th

    en th

    e m

    ain

    secti

    ons:

    ex

    posi

    tion,

    dev

    elop

    men

    t, an

    d re

    capi

    tula

    tion.

    In

    the

    expo

    sition

    two

    them

    es a

    re in

    trod

    uced

    . In

    the

    deve

    lopm

    ent t

    he

    them

    es a

    re a

    ltere

    d by

    cha

    ngin

    g ke

    y lo

    ts. T

    he re

    capi

    tula

    tion

    is th

    e sa

    me

    as th

    e ex

    positi

    on, b

    ut w

    ith th

    e tw

    o th

    emes

    now

    in th

    e sa

    me

    key.

    Th

    e pi

    ece

    finish

    es w

    ith a

    cod

    a.

    The

    them

    es in

    the

    expo

    sition

    are

    link

    ed b

    y tr

    ansiti

    ons (

    or b

    ridge

    s). T

    here

    is

    a co

    detta

    at t

    he e

    nd o

    f the

    exp

    ositi

    on, t

    hen

    the

    who

    le e

    xpos

    ition

    is

    repe

    ated

    .

    Beet

    hove

    n us

    es so

    me

    tech

    niqu

    es w

    hich

    are

    unu

    sual

    for s

    onat

    a fo

    rm:

    Th

    e se

    cond

    them

    e st

    arts

    in E

    b m

    inor

    inst

    ead

    of th

    e ex

    pect

    ed E

    b m

    ajor

    . It

    mov

    es to

    Eb

    maj

    or a

    t bar

    89.

    The

    deve

    lopm

    ent b

    egin

    s with

    4 b

    ars f

    rom

    the

    intr

    oduc

    tion—

    this

    is ve

    ry

    unus

    ual!

    Whe

    n th

    e de

    velo

    pmen

    t ret

    urns

    to th

    e al

    legr

    o te

    mpo

    it is

    in th

    e

    unre

    late

    d ke

    y of

    E m

    inor

    .

    In th

    e re

    capi

    tula

    tion

    the

    seco

    nd th

    eme

    star

    ts in

    the

    key

    of F

    min

    or in

    stea

    d of

    th

    e ex

    pect

    ed C

    min

    or. I

    t the

    n m

    oves

    to C

    min

    or.

    Th

    e co

    da st

    arts

    with

    4 b

    ars o

    f the

    intr

    oduc

    tion

    agai

    n.

    THEM

    E O

    NE

    The

    first

    subj

    ect t

    hem

    e in

    C m

    inor

    (ton

    ic k

    ey o

    f the

    pi

    ece)

    rise

    s mai

    nly

    scal

    ical

    ly a

    dist

    ance

    of t

    wo

    oc

    tave

    s –

    over

    a to

    nic

    peda

    l in

    the

    bass

    . The

    mus

    ic is

    m

    arke

    d w

    ith st

    acca

    to –

    mea

    ning

    det

    ache

    d (s

    epar

    ate)

    no

    tes.

    A

    seco

    nd m

    elod

    ic id

    ea b

    egin

    s at b

    ar 2

    7 an

    d fe

    atur

    es s

    forz

    ando

    s and

    des

    cend

    ing

    arpe

    ggio

    s.

    A tr

    ansiti

    on b

    ased

    on

    the

    mai

    n th

    eme

    – us

    ing

    sequ

    ence

    s beg

    ins a

    t bar

    35

    and

    mod

    ulat

    es to

    war

    ds

    the

    expe

    cted

    key

    of E

    b m

    ajor

    thro

    ugh

    a do

    min

    ant

    note

    (Bb)

    in th

    e ba

    ss (d

    omin

    ant p

    repa

    ratio

    n)

    THEM

    E TW

    O

    The

    seco

    nd su

    bjec

    t beg

    ins i

    n th

    e un

    expe

    cted

    key

    of E

    b m

    inor

    . The

    th

    eme

    feat

    ures

    a d

    istinc

    tive

    acci

    acca

    tura

    orn

    amen

    t and

    ha

    ndcr

    ossi

    ng te

    chni

    que,

    whe

    re th

    e rig

    ht h

    and

    mov

    es d

    own

    over

    th

    e le

    ft ha

    nd to

    pla

    y fo

    ur st

    acca

    to n

    otes

    , bef

    ore

    retu

    rnin

    g. T

    he

    them

    e co

    ntinu

    es w

    ith a

    step

    wise

    des

    cend

    ing

    phra

    se fe

    atur

    ing

    mor

    dent

    s. A

    new

    them

    e be

    gins

    in b

    ar 8

    9 in

    the

    rela

    tive

    maj

    or k

    ey

    of E

    b. It

    has

    a n

    ew b

    roke

    n ch

    ord

    text

    ure.

    The

    re is

    a c

    resc

    endo

    whi

    le

    the

    hand

    s mov

    e in

    con

    trar

    y m

    otion

    .

    BEE

    THO

    VEN—

    SON

    ATA

    No.

    8

    IN C

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    refle

    cts t

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    rics

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    g th

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    TEM

    PO

    Th

    ere

    is no

    tem

    po m

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    ng o

    n th

    e sc

    ore,

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    ould

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    opria

    te

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    RM

    ON

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    nim

    ent i

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    vide

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    nd b

    ass p

    laye

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    ss v

    iol a

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    e le

    ft ha

    nd o

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    hord

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    ords

    are

    dia

    toni

    c

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    e ar

    e pe

    rfec

    t cad

    ence

    s thr

    ough

    out t

    he p

    iece

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    he

    grou

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    ass e

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    ith a

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    peat

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    ord)

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    ere

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    a co

    uple

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    isson

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    s use

    d fo

    r wor

    d pa

    intin

    g,

    such

    as t

    he w

    ord

    "pai

    ns"

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    her t

    ype

    of d

    isson

    ance

    use

    d is

    a "f

    alse

    rela

    tion"

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    e in

    ba

    r 1 w

    ith th

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    le th

    e rig

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    ly. F

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    ar 3

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    harp

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    RU

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    ern

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    out

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    ce.

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    ure

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    nd b

    ass

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    tion

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    ed b

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    tim

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    CK

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    OU

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    RM

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    the

    Baro

    que

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    aro

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    1692

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    lling

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    ovem

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    cell

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    perf

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    dram

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    YH

    M a

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    ound

    bas

    s use

    s rep

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    d qu

    aver

    rhyt

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    e ar

    e a

    wid

    e va

    riety

    of r

    hyth

    ms,

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    rs a

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    the

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    the

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    MIC

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    ere

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    ynam

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    the

    WO

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    INTI

    NG

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    app

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    ord

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    elism

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    ar 2

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    ajor

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    ord

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    g" (b

    ar 1

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    wan

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    m

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    e ph

    rase

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    ture

    s a d

    isson

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    n

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    GR

    OU

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    bar

    loop

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    ly o

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    s a ri

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