Edexcel AS Geography

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Edexcel AS Geography. Unit 1 – Global Challenges. Topic 1 – World at Risk. Global Hazard Patterns. Hazard Risk in Your Local Area. Looking at disaster hotspots shows that some places are at more risk than others - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Edexcel AS Geography

  • Edexcel AS GeographyUnit 1 Global Challenges Topic 1 World at RiskGlobal Hazard Patterns

  • Hazard Risk in Your Local AreaLooking at disaster hotspots shows that some places are at more risk than othersCalifornia and the Philippines suffer from multiple hazards, but you need to think about places closer to homeIn the exam, the examiners may ask you about real or potential hazard risk in your local area.

  • Hazard Risk in Your Local AreaYou need to be able to talk about:Any past events that might have happened in the area you live, e.g. droughts that have occurredAny likely future events that could happen, e.g. Landslides caused by coastal erosionThe impact of these events on people, property and the environment

  • Hazard Risk in Your Local AreaResearching the history of hazard events in your local area could be done by:Researching historic newspapersSearching onlineInterviewing older residents

  • Attiki natural disasters factfile

  • Greece deathsDisaster Date No Killed Extreme temperature 20/7/1987 1000Earthquake 12/8/1953 455 Earthquake 7/9/1999 143 Earthquake 1928 103 Wildfire 24/8/2007 67 Extreme temperature 3/7/1988 56Earthquake 20/6/1978 50 Volcano July 1956 48 Storm March 1987 48 Storm vember 1961 43 Source: "EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database www.em-dat.net - Universit Catholique de Louvain - Brussels - Belgium"

  • Greece affected Disaster Date No Total Affected Earthquake 20/6/1978 600100Earthquake 7/9/1999 115139 Earthquake 24/2/1981 80400 Earthquake 13/9/1986 45300 Earthquake 9/3/1965 30253 Earthquake may 196716583 Earthquake 1/9/1966 15123 Earthquake 13/5/1995 15060 Earthquake 15/6/1995 13900 Earthquake 5/2/1966 11050

    Source: "EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database www.em-dat.net - Universit Catholique de Louvain - Brussels - Belgium"

  • Greece monetary losses Disaster Date Damage (000 US$) Earthquake 7/9/1999 4200000 Wildfire 24/8/2007 1750000 Drought March 1990 1000000 Earthquake 24/2/1981 900000 Earthquake 13/9/1986 745000 Wildfire June 1998 675000 Flood 2/2/2003 600000 Earthquake 13/5/1995 450000 Flood 24/10/1994 437700 Earthquake 15/6/1995 422700

    Source: "EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database www.em-dat.net - Universit Catholique de Louvain - Brussels - Belgium"

  • Attiki natural disasters factfileOur local area has many natural hazards. EarthquakesDroughts FloodsWild firesCause most of the deaths, injuries, damages etc.

    We need to think about the impact of these events on people, property and the environment.Also..Which hazard event is most likely to be repeated? How do you rate the risks of such an event?

  • 1999 earthquakeMagnitude of 6.0 RichterOccurred on September 7, 1999, at 2:56:50 pm local time and lasted approximately 15 seconds in Ano Liosia. The tremor was epicentered approximately 17 km to the northwest of the city center, in a sparsely populated area near Mount Parnitha National Park. This proximity to the Athens Metropolitan Area resulted in widespread structural damage,

  • 143 dead 2,000 injured 50,000 homeless 53,000+ buildings damaged or destroyedNorthern Athenian suburbs of Kifissia, Metamorfosi, Kamatero and Nea Philadelphia worst affected. More than 100 buildings (including three major factories) across those areas collapsed trapping scores of victims under their rubble while dozens more were severely damaged.

  • It was the biggest disaster in almost half a century. This event took Greek seismologists by surprise as it came from a previously unknown fault, originating in an area that was for a long time considered of a particularly low seismicity.

  • Future earthquake risk?Greece has thousands of earthquakes a year (the vast majority extremely mild)The strict building codes are upgraded and reinforced after every major quake and this has given the Greeks a certain quiet confidence in their buildings, which translates into an almost relaxed attitude towards earthquakes.Education pays back - learning how to prepare for earthquakes has been mandatory in all schools for some time.

  • This ensures that younger generations grow up knowing what to do and they then disseminate the information to their parents and into their local community.

  • 1987 extreme temperaturesSummer of 1987 saw a heat wave with temperatures as high as 44 degrees C and low wind speeds1000 people died in Athens from 20-31-July more than double the usual for this periodSmog also accompanied the heat wave so made the stress greater for the peopleElderly and retired people were particularly susceptible

  • 2960 people were administered to 68 Athens hospitals at this periodThe deaths were from heat stroke, heat exhaustion etc

  • 2007 wild fires28 June 2007[1] - 3 September 2007A series of massive forest fires that broke out in several areas. The most destructive and lethal infernos broke out on 23 August, expanded rapidly and raged out of control until 27 August, until they were put out in early September. In total 84 people lost their lives because of the fires, including several fire fighters.8]

  • Some of these firestorms are believed to be the result of arson while others were indeed the result of mere negligence.[5] Hot temperatures, that included three consecutive heat waves of over 40 C, and severe drought rendered the 2007 summer unprecedented in modern Greek history. From the end of June to early September, over 3,000 forest fires were recorded across the nation.

  • A total of 2,700 square kilometers of forest, olive groves and farmland were destroyed in the fires, which was the worst fire season on record in the past 50 years. Many buildings were also destroyed in the blaze. The fire destroyed 1,000 houses and 1,100 other buildings, and damaging hundreds more.Economic losses of US$ 1.75 billion

  • The first major fire of the summer of 2007 was started on 28 June 2007.It is perceived to have been started by either an exploding electrical pylon or by arsonists.Significant parts of the Parnitha National Park were destroyed and in total, the fire burnt area of 153.8 km2 making it one of the worst recorded wildfires in Attica since the Penteli fire of July 1995.

  • The magnitude of the devastation was unforeseen. Environmental studies in Greece report that the Athenian microclimate will significantly change to warmer during the summer season, and flooding is now a very probable danger for the northern suburbs of the city.Mount Parnitha was considered the lungs of Athens; following its considerable burning, both the city and local flora and fauna are expected to feel the consequences.

  • 24 August 2007 - NASA

  • Future risk of fires?Attica is the highest risk zone in GreeceThe high forest fire risk potential is most probably increasing due to increasing temperatures, decreasing precipitation and consequently rising drought potential caused by climate changeIt is mainly due to the development dynamics of Athens conurbation ie further urbanisation.

  • Athenians are moving back to countryside on the edge of the city so residential areas are intermixed in forestlands. Eg. Penteli 50% urbanised from 1940s -1990s (Varela at all, 1999). Tourism has become a new form of land use, and has in some areas replaced traditional economic activities (farming and grazing).Seasonable employee in tourists activities as well as tourists do not develop an attitude of responsibility towards the land they are visiting (Pyne, 1997).

  • Essential viewing.http://www.climrun.eu/elfinder_vfs/185/agu_2011.pdf

  • 1. Lightning 2.4%2. Accidents 3.5%3. Negligence 36.0%4. Intentional(Arsons, rangeland improvement) 29.2%5. Unknown 28.9%

    Causes of Greek fires 1968-1993

  • 1994 Greek floodsFlooding constituted the second most frequent natural disaster in Greece during 19282005 (15 episodes; 23.4% of total) after earthquakes.It led to 78 deaths, 10,990 affected people and 719,518,000 US$ damage and repair costs (World Health Organisation 2005).

  • Nevertheless, the 28 episodes of flooding in Attica Prefecture cost more human lives (182 people) during the last century 8872005) than earthquakes (18 people) while the cost in human lives due to flooding for the whole country during the same period was 220 people

  • The increase in urbanized area led to concomitant decrease in cultivated, forested and shrub areas (was 81.3% in 1945; 31.0% in 1995). Human interference at suburban areas of Attika included land clearance, agricultural abandonment, forest fires, unplanned expansion of urban areas, and rubble-filing for the creation of roads and plots.

  • Led to reduction in the infiltration of waterAnd to increase in erosion, surface runoff and locality-specific vulnerability to flash flooding depending on distance from streams and slope of land at Attica basinSpasmodic, un-coordinated mainly reactive flood-prevention strategy, which does not take under consideration the anticipated increase in intensity and rapidity of rainfalls due to climate changeat Attika basin

  • 300 mm in 24 hours 21-22 October (normally 400mm in year)Low pressure depression arrived9 dead in AthensExtensive damage to some bridges, roads etc

  • Hazard Distribution GeophysicalGeophysical hazards (especially volcanoes, earthquakes and to some extent tsunamis) usually occur near plate boundaries so knowledge of plate tectonics in required.

  • PlatetectonicsThe lithosphere (the Earths crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle) is divided into 7 large and several smaller plates.The plates, which are rigid, float like rafts on the underlying semi-molten mantle (called t