ecosystem final.ppt

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    Ecosystems:

    Fundamental Characteristics

    • Str$ct$re% &  'iving (biotic)

     &  *onliving (abiotic)

    •  +rocess% &  Energy flow

     &  Cycling of matter

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    #,OT,C com!onents

      'iving things (!lants animals bacteria)

    • +rod$cers ( +lants)

    • Cons$mers (Animals)

    • .ecom!osers ( Micro-organisms)

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     Abiotic Com!onents

      Abiotoic /actors incl$de

    • *on living things (air water soil climate

    0)

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    How does an ecosystem work ?

    • +lants $se s$nlight water and n$trients

    from the soil to !rod$ce their own food

    (!rod$cers)

    • The animals feed on the !lants or each

    other (cons$mer)

    • /$ngi and #acteria feed on dead waste

    material and ma1e things brea1 down and

    rot" (decom!osers)

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     A$totro!hs2+rod$cers

    •  A gro$!s of organisms that can $se the energyin s$nlight to convert water and carbon dio3ideinto 4l$cose (food)

    •  A$totro!hs are also called Producers beca$sethey !rod$ce all of the food that heterotro!hs$se

    • Witho$t a$totro!hs there wo$ld be no life on

    this !lanet• E3" +lants and Algae

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     A$totro!hs2+rod$cers

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    5eterotro!hs2Cons$mers

    • Organisms that do not ma1e their own food

    •  Another term for 5eterotro!h is consumer  

    beca$se they cons$me other organisms in orderto live

    • E3" 6abbits .eer M$shrooms

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    TY+ES O/ CO*S7ME6S

     & Primary Consumers & eat a$totro!hs (!rod$cers)

     & Secondary Consumers & eat the !rimary cons$mers

     & Tertiary Consumers & eat the secondary cons$mers

     & Decomposers & bacteria and f$ngi that brea1 downdead organisms and recycle the material bac1 into

    the environment

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    5eterotro!hs2Cons$mers

    • Primary Consumers

    8" 5erbivores & eat O*'Y !lants

    • E3" & Cows Ele!hants 4iraffes

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    5eterotro!hs

    • Secondary Consumers

      2" Carnivores & eat O*'Y meat• E3" & 'ions Tigers Shar1s

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    5eterotro!hs

    • Tertiary Consumers

    9" mnivores & Eat #OT5 !lants and animals

    • E3" & #ears and 5$mans

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    5eterotro!hs

    • Consumers

    :" Decomposers & absorb any dead material and

    brea1 it down into sim!le n$trients or fertili;ers

    • E3" & #acteria and M$shrooms

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    /7*CT,O* O/ A*

    ECOSYSTEM• Energy < Material flow

    • /ood chains

    • /ood webs• /ood !yramids

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    /'OW O/ E*E64Y ,* A*

    ECOSYSTEM

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    Transfer of Energy

    • When a ;ebra eats the grass it does not obtain

    all of the energy the grass has (m$ch of it is not

    eaten)

    • When a lion eats a ;ebra it does not get all of

    the energy from the ;ebra (m$ch of it is lost as

    heat)

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    Tro!hic 'evels

    •  A tro!hic level is the !osition occ$!ied by an organism ina food chain"

    • Tro!hic levels can be analy;ed on an energy !yramid"

    • Producers are fo$nd at the base of the !yramid and

    com!romise the !irst trophic level"• Primary consumers ma1e $! the second trophic

    level"

    • Secondary consumers ma1e $! the third trophic

    level"• /inally tertiary consumers ma1e $! the top trophic

    level"

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    ECO'O4,CA' S7CCESS,O*

    • +rogressive re!lacement of one

    comm$nity by another till the develo!ment

    of stable comm$nity

      TY+ES

    • +rimary

    • Secondary

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    /ood Chains

    • The energy flow from one tro!hic level to the

    other is 1now as a food chain

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    E3am!le of a /ood Chain

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    /ood Webs•

    The interloc1ing !attern of vario$s food chains in an ecosystem"

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    © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers

    Food we# o! a hot sprin$

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    Marine /ood Webs

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    ECO'O4,CA' +Y6AM,.

    • 4ra!hical re!resentation of str$ct$re <

    f$nction of tro!ic levels of an ecosystem

      TY+ES• +yramid of n$mbers

    • +yramid of energy

    • +yramid of biomass

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    Tro!hic 'evels /o$nd on an

    Energy +yramid• The greatest amo$nt of energy is fo$nd at the base of

    the !yramid"

    • The least amo$nt of energy is fo$nd at to! of the

    !yramid"

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    +yramid of n$mbers

    • *$mber of individ$als !er s!ecies

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    #iomass

    • Energy is sometimes considered in terms of

    biomass the mass of all the organisms and

    organic material in an area"

    • There is more biomass at the tro!hic level ofproducers and !ewer at the tro!hic level of

    tertiary consumers" (There are more !lants on

    Earth than there are animals")

    • %io&li!e 'ass&wei$ht

    • %io ( 'ass & )ei$ht o! livin$ thin$s within an

    ecosystem"

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    +yramid of #iomass

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    •Express tropic structure as energy transfer

    •Energy pyramids can never be inverted