ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION Primary Succession Secondary Succession Primary vs. Secondary Succession

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ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSIONPrimary SuccessionSecondary SuccessionPrimary vs. Secondary Succession

1DefinitionNatural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary The gradual replacement of one plant community by another through natural processes over time

2Primary SuccessionBegins in a place without any soil Bare rockSides of volcanoesPost landslidesFlooded areasStarts with the arrival of living things such as lichens (fungus) that do not need soil to surviveCalled PIONEER SPECIES

3Primary Succession: Sand Dune to Forest

44Primary SuccessionSoil starts to form as lichens and the forces of weather and erosion help break down rocks into smaller piecesWhen lichens die, they decompose, adding small amounts of organic matter to the rock to make soil

5Primary SuccessionSimple plants like mosses and ferns can grow in the new soil

6Primary SuccessionThe simple plants die, adding more organic material

The soil layer thickens, and grasses, wildflowers, and other plants begin to take over

7Primary SuccessionThese plants die, and they add more nutrients to the soilShrubs and trees can now survive

8Primary SuccessionInsects, small birds, and mammals have begin to move inWhat was once bare rock now supports a variety of life

9Secondary succession Begins in an area where soil is already present, (ex. a once cultivated field or after a forest fire.)



12Pond SuccessionPond


Dry land/grasses




1414SuccessionOvertime organic substances build up on the lake bottom, making it shallow and warm.

Eventually the lake will turn into a marsh, and then dry land.

15The Circle of Life in Secondary Succession

16TerminologyPioneer speciesfirst species to begin a succession.Climax community the final stage in a succession.

1717Primary vs. Secondary what are the differences?PrimarySecondary1818Primary vs. SecondaryNo soilBeginning Pioneer speciesEnd Climax communitySoil already existsSeeds have suitable soil conditions.Occurs much fasterEnd Climax community



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