Ecological Gardening: Native Plants and Pollinators Gardening: Native Plants and Pollinators ... ^assemblage of vegetation and wildlife •Oregon has 9 ecoregions ... outgoing from

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    Ecological Gardening: Native Plants and Pollinators

    How gardening with native plants can help SUSTAIN the environment and be a whole lotta fun!

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    Ecological Gardening Presentation Outline:

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    A. Preview of native plants! B. Overview: native, exotic, etc. C. Weeds D. Gardening for native pollinators E. Gardening with native plants

    What are some of our locally native plants?

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    Locally Native Trees

    Conifers:

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) Incense-cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) Grand Fir (Abies grandis)

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    Hardwoods: Oregon White Oak & California Black Oak (Quercus

    garryana & Q. kelloggii) Bigleaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum) Pacific Willow (Salix lasiandra var. lasiandra) Oregon Ash (Fraxinus latifolia) Black Cottonwood (Poplar in East Coast lexicon;

    Populus trichocarpa) Cascara (Rhamnus purshiana) Bitter Cherry (Prunus emarginata var. mollis) Red and White Alder (Alnus rubra & A. rhombifolia) Suksdorfs Hawthorn (Crataegus suksdorfii) Madrone (Arbutus menziesii)

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    Locally Native Shrubs

    Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana var. demissa)

    Tall Oregongrape (Berberis aquifolium aka Mahonia aquifolium in nursery trade)

    Nootka Rose (Rosa nutkana)

    Vine Maple (Acer circinatum)

    Oceanspray (Holodiscus discolor)

    Red-flowering Currant (Ribes sanguineum), etc.

    Scoulers Willow (Salix scouleriana)

    any more! See NPSO booklet.

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    Locally Native Herbaceous Plants

    Forbs

    Graminoids

    Ferns, Horsetails, Clubmosses

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    Herbs, cont.

    The next series of slides shows some of the lesser-known native herbs that have potential for landscaping/gardening use.

    Many are not yet obtainable. Start asking for them!

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    Pacific Houndstongue Cynoglossum grande

    Lupines Many-Leaved Lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus);

    Riverbank Lupine (Lupinus rivularis)

    Checkermallows Rosy Checkermallow

    (Sidalcea malviflora ssp. virgata)

    Cusicks Checkermallow (Sidalcea cusickii)

    Milkweeds Asclepias speciosa

    & A. fascicularis

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    Rosy Plectritis Plectritis congesta

    Blue Gilia Gilia capitata

    Wild Onion Allium amplectens & A. acuminatum

    Oregon Geranium Geranium oreganum

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    Woodland Phacelia Phacelia nemoralis

    Lovage Ligusticum apiifolium

    Fernleaf Lomatium Lomatium dissectum

    Western Waterleaf Hydrophyllum occidentale

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    Blue- or Purple-

    Eyed Grass Sisyrinchium bellum,

    S. idahoense

    Yarrow Achillea millefolium

    California Tea

    Rupertia physodes Clarkia or Farewell-to-Spring

    Clarkia amoena

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    Tall & Oregon Larkspurs Delphinium trolliifolium & oreganum

    Oregon Sunshine Eriophyllum lanatum

    Narrow-leaved

    Milkweed

    Asclepias fascicularis Showy Daisy

    Erigeron speciosus

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    Hookers Catchfly Silene hookeri

    Large-flowered Collomia Collomia grandiflora

    Thermopsis Thermopsis gracilis

    Canada Goldenrod

    Solidago canadensis

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    Douglas Aster

    Symphyotrichum

    subspicatum Blue-eyed Mary Collinsia grandiflora

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    Mad Dog Skullcap Scutellaria lateriflora

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    Pacific and Sessile Trillium Trillium ovatum and T. albidum

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    Bleeding Heart Dicentra formosa

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    Scoulers Corydalis Corydalis scouleri

    B. OVERVIEW

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    OVERVIEW

    What do ecosystem, habitat and ecology mean?

    What is an ecoregion and why does it matter?

    What are examples of habitats and how does it apply to my garden?

    What do native and non-native mean?

    How do I find out what is native?

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    What do ecosystem, habitat and ecology mean?

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    An ecosystem = all living things in a broad, similar vegetation type (e.g., a coniferous forest ecosystem); could be world-wide!

    Ecology = the study of those relationships

    Habitat = several meanings, but most often a specific place where certain wildlife species live

    Habitat can be applied as a gardening term, e.g., I created a meadow habitat in my garden.

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    What is an ecoregion and why does it matter?

    A geographical area with unique soils and climate, and because of that, unique assemblage of vegetation and wildlife

    Oregon has 9 ecoregions

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    Each ecoregion has numerous ecosystems within it. For example, conifer forest.

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    Ecoregions are different from this widely used Plant Hardiness Zone Map, based solely on minimum winter temperatures.

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    If you landscape with plants that are native to your ecoregion, you provide those plants a place to continue to exist and you provide sustenance to native wildlife that evolved with those plants. In other words you sustain your ecoregions uniqueness!

    What do native and non-native mean?

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    Lots of synonyms:

    Native = indigenous

    Non-native = exotic, introduced, alien

    Endemic = native to a certain area only

    Every plant is:

    native to somewhere, or

    native to somewhere, then modified through horticulture, or

    so modified that it has no specific geographic origin

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    A plant of a place that has naturally evolved in that place.

    SCALE: native to large area vs. locally native

    FUNCTION: a locally native organism has co-evolved functional roles with partners over many thousands of years (e.g.: Kincaids Lupine/FBB; hummingbirds/flowers, truffles/flying squirrels)

    HABITAT: site-adapted or site-appropriate native

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    Native concepts:

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    Native plant + horticultural manipulation = aesthetically pleasing, convenient, addresses specific need

    -BUT- Can also mean loss of ecological function (e.g., loss of nectar, change of color)

    brought to new areas deliberately (for ornamental use or pasture); some hitchhiked

    have not co-evolved, so lack functional interdependence

    may (usually)offer some benefits

    may tolerate (or even thrive) in new climate/soils

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    What are non-natives? The distinction between native and

    non-native in a few cases is not clear

    Plants moved historically as climate changed; what will happen in the future as climate changes and plant movement now is blocked?

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    Native or non-native in Lane County? Bedstraw or Cleavers, Galium aparine)

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    Native or non-native in Lane County?

    Foxglove

    Digitalis purpurea

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    How can I find out what is native?

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    The Oregon Flora Project online Gallery or downloadable Checklist are the best sources to consult for nativeness to Oregon

    The OFP Atlas is the best source for any native or naturalized species distribution in Oregon

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    OFP occurrence map of: Farewell to Spring (Clarkia amoena ssp. lindleyi)

    For local, Southern Willamette Valley nativity, consult this table:

    Native Plants of the Southern Willamette Valley: a Resource List for Homeowners and Professionals

    This table is on the MG web site (or Salix Associates/Resources) as a download; large; best suited for use electronically

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    Southern Willamette Valley Native Plant Data Table

    Names follow Vascular Plants of Lane County: an Annotated Checklist

    (Simpson et al. 2002), and the Oregon Flora Project (Cook & Sundberg eds. 2011).

    Bold font plants highly recommended.

    Bruce Newhouse: Ver. 2012-09-06 Light Moisture

    Gro

    wth

    Eve

    rgre

    en

    Values

    Pro

    pag

    atio

    n

    Scarce, Occasional, Common, Abundant - by

    Native Habitats

    Latin name Common name SN PS SH D A W Birds Hummers B-fly

    Nectar B-fly Host

    Native Poll.

    Flowers /Fruits

    Leaves Ground Cover

    Tall Grd. Cover

    Fore

    st, U

    plan

    d

    Fore

    st, R

    ipar

    ian

    Fore

    st, W

    etla

    nd

    Fore

    st G

    aps

    & E

    dges

    Sava

    nna,

    Oak

    etc

    .

    Prai

    rie,

    Upl

    and

    Prai

    rie,

    Wet

    land

    Shru

    b U

    plan

    d

    Shru

    b W

    etla

    nd

    Mar

    sh

    Aqu

    atic

    Roc

    ks &

    Cob

    bles

    Rock

    Out

    crop

    s

    Dis

    turb

    ed

    TREES

    Abies grandis Grand Fir PS SH D A A E H S S S S

    Acer macrophyllum Bigleaf Maple SN PS SH D A F B N H P S C A S

    Alnus rhombifolia White Alder PS A F H ? C S

    Alnus rubra Red Alder SN PS A F H ? C O S

    Arbutus menziesii Madrone